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' ft 

K A N A E A 


1 V 



iipter rV.— Agrtoulture. 

Htubftudmcu; Steele; SoU .- 

Spice Gardens, BeU-'I-puluis. Ciinlumoms, Block Popper, Whito 

Pepper. Willi Pupper, Betdleiif 

Fialtl Togbi ; Amble Area ; Imi^tton t Enmri or Woodssh 

TiUtge; llonurc 1 HoIdiufT*; PiuiJ Stack ... .« 
Cnps; Tti><7. Oilsooflx, Nnrcotic*, Cundununta, Coffee, JRoote, 

Sof^riitna, VcKcttilleB ,,. 

■proit Trees ... 

Dad Seasons 

itapter T.-CapitaL 
Cajiitaltfltg ; Cnrrpocjr ; Kxoliaogo Billa ; OIhsms vho Sftre ', 

Investmente ; Intorcat ; Borron-cm ; Land Mortgitge 
Labour Uortgago ; Wages ; Priww ; Wdgbta 

Chapter VZ.— Itsde and Crafts. 

Cuuiuiunicnticns ; Karij- Bootc B ; P omw ; Roads ; Tulla ; 
BridgM ; TraTellers' BungalowB; Rest-OoiiEea ; Ferrii»; Post 
Offices ; Telesrapb; Light-IIotiMS ... 

Trade ; Trado Ili^tnrj- (b.ii.IuOO, a.H.IOO-SOO. 600-1882) ... 

Trade Ccntrw , Fairs ; Shupkctpcni ; PcddJcrs ; Eiports ; 

Sea Trade; Stcami^rs ; SnitiiTg Ves«eb} POris; Bxforia; 

Craftu ; SnniUlwood Carving ; Metal Work; HooiWor^; Cana 
Work; Earth and Stoiie ; Oil Pnm^ing ; llalnesce ; Calechn ; 
Salt ^ Steam Saw MUb ; Jail Indnstricw 









tpwr vn.- Hiatory. 

Earl; Historr (B.C. OS) , Early Kudaiobiifi (4&0-3M) j t:arly 

Cbalukjos (."ifiO 7e(V); Second Kidaoihas (750-1050); 

RiKhtTuknUut (760- 973) ; Second CbAlukTaa (97S-1192>; 

Uuj Bala- (1192-1216) ;DoTgiri YWaira (1188-1318) 

Vijayanagar Kings (1330-1580) 




Bijipur Kings (lGO0-ltJ7O) ; Sond» CUieto (1556-17G3); 
B«dunr Chicfjs (1260-1763); Tho Englirfi (!G^-IG7S>; 
Shiviji (1665-1675); Mftrith.t* (1720); Hwilar AU 
(1763-1782): Tipu Suttin (1783-179!)) " 

Tbe EDgUsh (1799-1882) 

Chapter Vm.— lAndAdministratioD. 

J£*r]y Sj-«tcm(1250-17ya) 

Bridsh Sj«tom (1793-1882) 

Land TcniircH ; Seuon IWportA 

C3iApt«r IX.~Jiutic«. 
Eiu-lySj8t«m (1802-1816) ; CourtB; Ciril Buito (1870-1881) i 
B«g!ittnttioB ; Polioo ; Crime : Jtiib 

Cluipt«r X. - Sevenae and Finance. 

Balance SheoU; Local Puiidsi Mnnidpalitlee 

Cbapt«r ZI.— Instractioa. 

Sclioob ; Readers and Writ«n; Libtarics 

Cbapt«r ZIL— Health. 
Climntv ; Diseases ; Dispenaarica; Infinn People^ Vkocination ; 
BirtUs and Deaths 

Chapter XIIL— SabDivitioag. 

BoODdaries; Area; Aspect ; Soil ; Climate; Water; Stock; 
Sarrey; Poople 

Chapter XIT.- Places of Int«r««t 





K A N A E A. 

AccoxDrao to the 1S81 census refnrna agncnltiire supported ahont ChaptM _ 
l),000 people or sixtjr-onv per cent of the populatioo. The detaUa Asrioaitan. 





Oder nilMO ... .- 

OlC* miKM ... 

T«UI .. 






>m thd be^innin^ of th« contuiy when DrttUh role ww 
luired Iwu clnsses ^vo boon connected ^n'tfa the Uud, large 
idholdcn and huslKindmon. In some coses the Inrgc Undholden 
MnselTCiA work tho lund. But, as a rule, men who own oi(U«t«» 
^diu^ ttoveral Tillages, let their lands either to )K^rmftneiil ten&nta 
wA mulgenifjSn, or to yearly tenants callt-d chdl^enigiirs, and set 
Wjl a portiuu of their vsluto to bo tillud by hired labour as a 
9Ht of the land is in the hands of BKUunans, who, except the 
. and the Iliibbtu, do not work ia the fields. In cbe lowland 
h' " ■ i of Kiirwir and Ankola the chief landlords arc ShoPTJ a 
_ <a who raruly thcniEielTes cultivate. In Kanita Uonlliihr 

tl Ditalkal tie proprietors OBiuJly li:l. Mm land from year to year^ 
'I aru hard mid exacting landlords taking fruin Ibo viiu'ly tenants 
lenat a» much as half of the whole produce.* Besides Havig and 
i.\... lU-limani) the chief laudholaiaff classes are SjU-aa rat and 
■ rflima na and NaTJiyat Mosalroins. SSinsraU ana 
ipiwycti iL Gov I sorvioo or other literate pureuits and do 

tcullivatv. N iiru larg<! cloth and timber niLTchanta who 

I a good deai uud make rouc;h itiomn*. An on religions groondfl 
t.icruple to lend monoy they invest their savings in land wbiclt 
[let to t-onantfl and spend much capital in improving their estates. 
firvi Sidditpur and Yulhipur the land m stmost entirely in tho 
of Hangs, with a few Konkanis, 8h«uvii(, and Lingiyats. 
kgh they realise large incomes from their properties the 
Wners of Sirsi, especially iu Yelll^>u^, labour under man/ 

I lutorial* upp&od hy M««n. A. R. U*oda«Uttd, C.3., kaj K. S. Cwdy, C.S. 
v. Sw. B«p.l<K of 21*1 1'tbcwiry 1871. 


{Bombay Ontet 

apMr IV. 


diaAdvanbiges. Tboy live in most fovcrish plftcc*. lubonr U acarcd 
and liaB to bo tiighly paid, uml tho oiitlaj of capital la conaideroblej 
Their ganlons yield large profits Lnt Dot oat of pruportioD to tlie i 
IttlKiur wbieh ia bestowed on them. The owners of pirdoiis 
generally Havig or ilaig Br^hmans who bring labour from tho coas^ 
and livi! in tlieir gnnlrns nil tlio year. Thi>y are tli« beat cultivator^ 
in KiUinra and give llit) coutitry its special character. Tliey liatt 
change, and are frugal, sober, aud hardworking. Their jitroiij^lj 
bnitt bouses p^enemlly stand in a epice gardon aurrouuded by 
thicket of brushwood whoso leaves supply cxcvllcnt manare." It 
Mundgod and 8iipa, wliich )>order on Utiitnv^r and Belganm aaij 
bave few of the features of KAnara proper, much of tho land in it 
tbe bauds of Liag&yats, MiisnlmilnH, DcshaHtb and 8hen7 
BriUimaiix. MariUba Ktmbis or Arvn among whuiu are som^ 
families of Dcn&ia. Williin the laul ten years mncli of (v4iian( hs 
been surveyed aud settiod on the Bombay revenue survoy aystoi 
All the anrveyod lands have beou diindod into fiolds or »tirrc 
□nmburs whicb are gronpod into holdings or Uu'itiu. Ajt tito rent 
of Ibcso small plotA of land nrc now fixed lltey can be eaail] 
transferred, and already many of tho larger estates hare beeti 
broken into a number of moderate holdings. 

Of landholders who till with the ir own h ands the chief clasoos ar 
Habbu Brjilinmn):, Tf iiIi^iiiiTrs, TC^iArjuiiks, BltandiiHs. T ' ■' h.iUJ 
Konkfin Kuiil>i»jNjtJurH, Koul^aii MatAthfls, Arers, M -., uni 

Christinas. Of tlui>:e, njililKis, nnmV-rinir nl«iiit 250 aud L-lassed 
Brtihmiinsi, are fi.nnid i'lii<-ily in KArwiir. If.ili'ii/itl^M, tiii mljcring aboul 
48,000, aro found in IJouavaraud Bliatku' lUe upland «. Thof 

are an important class of proprietors, peri..,iu..,.L tenants, and jearlj 
tenants or ficld-workors. Their chief employment is growing rioc 
thongh some of the poor are palin-tappDrs. They are a well-mad 
good-looking people, fond of drink and plcfltnro, their farourit 
amii^ment beiug attending fairs and cock-fightM. Tliey rear fowl 
and take ihom for sale to tho market towns. Their houi>i.-j) aro strong! 
built with roofs of thatch, and in front of all of them is an open well 
swept court with a basil altar. The EomiirpiLiks, who number nboi| 
8700, arc a strong well-mndu raco, fonnd in Kiln v4r, Ankola, at 
Knmta. Befon) the Knglish conquered KAuara tho^Knitiitrpdiks wej 
employed by the clnefn aud large laudlitiil.s as fi|;hting men, xwori 
bearers, and retainers. Those who distinguiahed lbemM0vi.-8 
swonlsmeu gained the title of m«'Afrt'ir or masters which somefamtli^ 
Htill keep as a surname. In the decline nf tho chiefs' power mat 
Komdrpdiks formed themselves into bouds and lired by plunder i 
highway robbery. Tho estAblii^bnient of order under the Knglil 
forced them to take to tillage, but some o( the tild lovo of plane 
still lingers among them. AJoat of them are teiutnts or Tiell 
workers, and in Kumla many are ootlon carriera. Their faronr 
employmeuts are drinking. cock-t!ghting, and attending fmL 
BhaniUris, who number about 9800 and are found almost eutir^ 
on the coast, are bod busbandnwD, preferring to earn their livii 

' R«v. Com. S. P.-« ktt«r Ka, G of 31*t April 1880, 


nlm- tappers, Hqnor osntisctors' i>ervn&ts, and Hliopkee^ors. 
r condittOQ is mid<llinf;; nx a nilo llicy iire freo ln>m iMit. 
chniDiiAlu, nambi'i-iiig nWiit 2000, are founij only in tlte upbtiJit 
cIiMjfiy in yirsi luid Si<l<Upur. Some of tliem aro large Inmi- 
er«, a traeo o£ the tiiDo when Bilgi was nilod by a LiugfWal chief, 
andgodniid Ilaliyal thcro are many Lingiiyat huBbanduiun, who 
class aro hardworking, frugal, and eiober. They do uot 
in <!«wiitial pointy from the LingAyats of the nnighboarmff parts 
»h4rwir. Konkau Kuubis (14,800), Niidore (60U), and Konkan 
ihits (3000) , many of whom aro rar^'itirv or proprietors!, an? found 
ill iiplaDd nnd Jn lowlnod KAnam. AI)Ovi> Ihu S.tliyiidris tbey 
rioD, iiiigurcaof^, niiil r<'£/i. 11)e Nddord are luucb like Duocan 
s, growing vegetables and soiling them in the largo towiiti. 
are well uouriahed and fair, and Hvo in woll-built houses, which 
e tbo SohyiLdris are thatcbod, bnt in the KiUiiiadi ralloy and 
r lowlandHaro ofUm tiled. Their women arc much like Briihman 
en ill thvir «lyl<( ul drttas and omament. Tbey aro hitrd- 
:ing, orderly, ami thrifty. In some plaves they aro landowiien*, 
the bulk of them are pcrmanont touants. Of Arcrs there 
ihoiit 1 7,000. Tlii-y are U)uad mostly among the SahyAdris and 
t formerly miioh given to kumri or hiU tillage ; most of tliem arc 
yearly tenants. They uro poor but gontimlly fr«o from debt, 
r are « tiirapio fnigal pcoino, rery ignorant axcepi in matters 
ected with woodcraft and ajiort. They are fearless in twating 
oreslH for big game, and are adepts at tracking and hunting tho 
I. They aro also much used as carriors and i\>ad-work<?rH. 'J'lii.'ir 
ttJi aro istnrill nnd simplo and thuir worldly goods are few. 
[Je-<t theau Hindu hui>biinilnien,tliore are about 5000 .Mnsidrndn and 
t iJOOO Ohriatian landlorda. In lowland K&nara the Mu.«almAD8 
generally iaxy and often in debt and their lands mortgaged. 
' think it beneatb them to hold ihu ploujih and know nothing 
' ' - : \'. In upland Kuimra, in Munagod and 8upa, some 
ill! their own liGlda, but not so successfully ad Hindus. 
aie oeitbor hardworking nor thrifty, and fipcnd much on 
logUM and other cervmouiea. The Chri.itiauK, with few 
liona.are found along the coast. They are skilful hu&baudmon, 
9 a rule are tenants and fleld>workor», roaring pigs and fowla 
keeping mitcb cattle. Tho men are much gtren to drink and 
ana thriftlitss. Tho women help in tho field wtd work aa 
_^B. Above tho S<»hy)ldri3 are a few Goanese labourers and a 
of CbriiiEian Sidia who are hosbandmen and work in tbe 
pur aaw-mills and aa foreaters. 

hnsbandmen who were formerly serfs or rural bondsmen, 
is abont 320O found in Eitrwiir, Ankuln, Eumta, Iloa&var 
Blintknl, till hiivis attached to icmpW and nro employed aa 
le- Tboir women work in tbe Gelda, perform uonial 

lo - and act as proetitntea. Above the Sahyidris a 

[ir caaie called Kabbers are found at UiuiiwA^i, Mnlge, and 
. Padtis abont 2900, and Dcvdigfl alxtuc I}(!00, are (onant3>at- 
»r liirisl hjkbonror)( who work in rice fields and betel gardens, 
los these Ihero are two early and closely similar tribes, Kare 
Lais about 10,000 and Kot Vakkals aambeiiog about 20O0. 


IBnnliaj Qftietueri 


it«r IT. 


Tlie; are known by thn genenc name of Gandghltis and 
the two mniii divisioua include Gdm Vakknls ant! ll&li 
Vakkaltt. They are ioiinJ in tlio lowlands l>ctweeB Ankc 
Bbatknl, and aUo above tliv (>Hiij^rti). The mon are et rong-, tt 
aobcr, and hardworkiii};. Klost of tliein are daj-lalwiiroTN, 
many work tut yiurly tcniints, the landlords b«iug curcful m 
allow thcin U> reuain more tlian firo years on one plot of gn 
1ml they should claim a tcnaut's rif^ht. Tli« women work in 
Belds ood are Inrgoly employed in lirin^ng head-loads of gr9»t 
firewood from the (orxr^^U iolo towoa and rillagea. Tltcy arg 
sod ill-fcotnrud, wearing no bodice, and with many chains of ' 
baogiug from ihe neck orer the breaste. From an oroamenk 
under the cliia the robe falls betwiim the breasts half hiding 
and is fixed round the waist hnnging in foldit over the legs. 
liair is twistod into a coil which ia worn on the left side of tho 
of Iho head, and above the coil a flower of the h/i'li^i hut 
FandaDOS odorBtis.«imuii, is stuck like a pin. In the bill vil' 
abovo the Suhy^dri^i Knru Vukkids are foand as landowners. 
Vakkals aru labourer!* in spice gardens. Holayars or Mbdr 
few and degraded. They are macJi ^ven to drink and show 
aigns of improving. They are labourers or teaaots-at-wilt. 

All larjfe landholders own bullocks and if ncecssary lend them 
tlieir tenants. Cows of a vi'ry small brctil aro niimerouM, and huffald 
aroHumelimeA kept. Little or no care tn given to cattle-brec " 
In lowland K£nara carts are few and tbe cattle are email and 
The ploiigha are small and tho maiiure is mostly dead leaves wi 
little straw and cowdung. With rich soil, abundant rainfall, 
hardworkiug liusbundmen the ootliirn would bo grcntiu- wor«1 
tillage lea^ rough, tho ploughing less shallow, and (ho manure le 
Bcanty. Alrave the SahyadriB there are more and better cattle, 
owing to the fvvvri^b climate tho poopio arc sluggish and weaV 
The hujubandmcn do ni>t export tho [irudnce of their fields. Dealt 
come to their farms with piack-bullocks and buy the prodncc. Si 
is the centre of the cardiunom and betelnnt inwlc, and field ar 
garden produce and spioes are exported from Uon&var and Komt] 
The caltivating claasea are well-to-do. The prodaro coumant 
a &ir priea and the Govemmeut aesossment la mo<lerate. '!"' 
relatione between the landlords lenunt« and labourers are friendlj 
Below the Suhy&dris the arable land connats partly of sanJ 
plains along Iho N>a-.shore nnd the bank.t of rivera, and parlly] 
narrow valleya among tho hilli-, most of thorn watered by unfailir 
sb^ams. The sandy soil called malalu or tiitutri h geoorally 
and much broken by salt-water oreoka. The soil in tho uf ., 
aiopea of tbo valleys is called h^ita, a Imrd earth made of cnimUt, 
iron clay or bterite, which if not consljmtly worked stiffens ind 
clods and stifles growtli. At the upper ends of the Tallevii a re 
alluTial soil colled iiag-latx with shiuing particles of mica' is ofio 
found. Further down the valhiv, as tlio hills begin to draw bacli 
a black loose salt uiarshy earth called gujini occurs, apparently t 
vegetable origin, nnd near the tnoath of the voUcys is a still richcl 
ECU called (ai7i(. The chief products of the sandy plains are rice 


t^^^ ^^B 


-}ulais, and betel-palms. Aloug llio coast »nd on some oF the 
eks ia a raluable sandj* or aUuvinl etoil kooWD oh jmlan or fliitta. 
often ctivort-d with drift Baud, but when th© saud is i-Ioumil 
\n&m ;R<ld» cxcvllcnl ncu, thu richcet coooa-palms, and fine 
Bwnul, nod uiuii trees Calophylluto loophylhim. 
Lbovc the SalijrfUlriR, exeepl where the uiidcirlviDg iron oiny risra 
Jte surface, the soil ia good. The beat called kai/.iiiti \» a rod 
Jd containiug ^cry amull slonoti. In some places the soil is a 
: moiBtiiro-hxliling utay. tk-sidcs gurdcu limd, rico land or fori 
. dry-croj) land or kiukki arc fonnd. Rico land, an a rulo, yichla 
ij one crop which !a grown either with or without waturing. In 
ae ports mach of the rice land yiolda two rice cropa or a crop of 
and iin aftur-growth of pulsu. Sugarcane ia grown once iu 
: yt-ars, fiim tieKU liciiig yfU*n seen up the Gangivuli vwllny. 
Hupply of water ia the raniu differonci! butweea good and InuI 
rice land. Above the Safay^dris very Httio water ia stored. Tbo 
ponds are few and small, and the rico dopcuda on the rainfall either 
on the field it#clf or on rain wntfr bronglit from the uplands 
by auiall ditchtis. Most of the well-watered valloya thai cross 
tbo forests and many level plots of oxcellcut soil lie waate and 
^m )x'r-cu ve rt.-d from want of buHWudinen and from the sickliueai) 
Hftthe air. 

^■Above the Sahyiidns gardon crop« aro tho etaplo prodncs of the 
^■^ and rico of the eust. The coiuit gardens arc very unlike 
He u»ua] garden tillage in Dhiinv&r or in tho KAnam villages that 
border on DbirwSr, In the inland parta, as a role, garden crops 
are grown only ronnd wells and ponds. But along iho coaat, if 
only nirc and skill are given to it, almost all of the rice land will 
y ■«■ Id garden cropci. Much of tho coast land which itt aH»i:;H.-<<^d an 
en luud had originally nothing either in soil or in poaiiion 
■ially Boited for the growth of gaJrdeo crops. On tho oo«t most 
tJiB garden laud iti given to cocon-pnimn, whoac pnoper cultnro 
uinv muob care and skill. A little inland tho cocoa-jmiro is 
D uiiscd with thu "X^iirt or betel-palm. Further inland in the 
leya at the foot of the t^hyfUlria and on their lower xlopcs are 
rich ptilin and aptce gardens, which are tho special glory of 
knan. Except in Supa in the north, where tlm garaens are poor, 
oot cardamonia or helel vines, with few cocoa or betel palmSj 
with pliintaius as the Ktaple pnMlnce, theiw spioo gardens are 
^roudorfnlly rich end are managed with great skill.' They vary in 
I a fifth of an acre to ten acres, and may l>o roughly 
. to average abont ono acre. Their shape dependa ou tlie 
Uie valley. A9 » rule tlmy are long and usrrow, hid among 
ck with evergreen f<iri.-fttB, in deep shady dell.f wuturtd by 
etwork of mnm-ls. lliey are frnaraed bv high bnnka or by a 
ik belt of foreat timber and brushwood. Within the belt is a 
fence and within the fence a second ring of mangoes, jacks, 
plantains, cocoa-palms, oranges, citrons, pomnloea, apples, 
Garciuia puriiurca, otatnbt Artocarpos lakoocha, a^ (>Uier 



iBov.8urv«r451,HhMir leSQ. Bom. G«v. Kev.Itoc.tnS ol ISW. 




kptn- IT. 

fruit troea. Baudea the fruit treea are ro*o nad jesjuntuo ht 
au(] of Tegctables cocnmlterB and cornered ciimmbers, gourds 
eiiake-tfoiirasr nidiahw, ynnis, clitllies, and brinjaU.' In tho 
of thd gnriloDS uru rons of WtvUpiilmH v,-it1i blutk pepper nnd ' 
viuCH trniiiftd up tbeir Hieus, aitd curiluiioiii biislic^ in 
Ix-twet^n the rows of palms and plantsina. Mi^c of tlio : 
Havif; Br&hmauB some with divided and eome with uadi 
femilics. Tbtfir houitcs arc on raisnl iiitcs ontside of ttie gai 
Th« garden work is parti; don© hj dvhu>r» who have plcd;;^ 
labour, but obictly by gangs of labourer.i from ibo don, lioc 
and Soutb Kjinara coaats who como iu November and go 
June. The Uavig's family do thu house work, look aft«r 
gather cowdung for nuiDun-, nick and noparato thi- bi>lelnt 
th« hu«k, clean boil and cut tnem iu half, clean and dry ou 
■nake bondlea of newly plucked betel leaves, and proparo 
popper. The hired and the pledged labonrers are employe 
dimming and carrying earth to the roots of plaote and tn 
fuU-hiugHa/r^iu or green loavea for maauT«, and in climbing 
palms to gather b«telnuts and betel leaves. 

Id choosing a Hiie for a betel garden the chief points aio 
position, water, and manure. The beat soil is a red M>apy clay, C 
and easily worked. The garden should if possible face eaat,: 
evoning bud ofb^n doea liarm. As tho garduu must have shell 
leaf-mannre, it is important lo secure an outvr bolt of fc 
brushwood. The fcno^, which is five or six feet high, is mn^ 
thorn bitsliuH, tho branches being hold together by split I 
fastened to wooden or bamboo posts aboat six feet high and 
eight feet apart. In some cases the fence is cntiivly of 
poets and is renewed once a year. The feuco surrounds the | 
and hna only ono narrow gato. A ditch three or four feet dc 
three feet bmiul surrounds the fence and serres the doublo _ 
of strenglliening the fence ag»inHt the attacks of animals at 
draining the gftrden dnring the wet montltti. Inside of the cai 
the ground ia dug into a lino of beds about twenty feet wiue 
surronndcd by trenches which run parallel to each other in 
direction of tlio ic-ngrb of thu valley, generally nearly east and 
These trenches act as drainn and in some gardon-i dniitiago is 
all the year round to give an outlet to underground .■'prings. 
which 18 full of underground springs is specially valuable, 
spring water if left stagnant does harm, sud nothing 
unless tlie soil is carefnlly drained. Tho tn-nches are about ^ 
broad.and.acoOrdtDgtothomoiEture of the soil, a foot toa footi 
half deep. Tlio garden must oumnmnd an un^ilir^ supply of < 
The water is commonly brought from springs which abound at 
head of every valley. It is gathered in a small pond or rescrrij 
and from the reservoir is brought by a cliannel which passes al 
the Qppor aide of the garden. Water is also brought in channl 
from the small rivulets of which the country is full. Rich m 


< Tile iiialt«'CoaTil Triolio«uitliC) 4npilna Id KinsrcM b jndfn/ti Ml, 
ecmered cKmmW Cncnmis ■cutMSolu' i* tirt hii. 


1y Sn tlie bed of one of tbese rirnlots and tnro it into a 

I'he bollovr oF tho strcntn-bfd aboru tho ^rdpn bocoiiii>« 

oir, vid a cnnnl itt cut ontmidv of thogiiriicn to Ciirrjr off lh« 

raten. A riv«r>l>e(l (fardeu h coalljr to males as ttie filling of 

uinel is expensive, and as the reserroir and tbe canal mnat be 

enongb to staod tha tominbt of tho rainy smsoo. 

Mobor yo'.mg plantniii Iroes »ro Kct in rows within two fe»t 

1 side of llio dmins imd twelvo feet from eaub oiliur. Th* 

(fanleii sboutd then if possible bo covflPod wiih brauchoii of 

li or I'bjillautboa cmblica ; in any case, some brauches muat 

WQ near oach young plautiiin Inx', nod at tho snmo timo the 

cbanni'l of vaob bv<i iiiu«t bo raii<«d a foot aod a linlf wjtb 

m ibo nvighlKiuriti^ bilR Wlieo the raiuy aeaiton iii oYOr 

h that was heaped in rbe centre is Spread over the bed, and 

d of a mound a cnanne) it) dug and wator is passed along the 

b1 once in fifl«ori diiy^. In wAlvniig thi.' garden the ehiuint-1 i» 

&nd llio water m Nplaished or scooptxl I'l-oui it on Iho mots of 

ees. At tho clo«o of tho second rainy season, between every 

lUntain trera a pit is dug a foot and a half squaro and a foot 

half dncp, nnd, [n)ni tho nurs<.-ry wbero it ha» btwu nii.-md, ft 

betcl-iMlm is lilted with as much earth as possible and planted 

pit. The pit is fillod with frvnb earth, which is trampled in 

C foot, and Uiu spaco filU-d with thu loavos of tho Phyllanthua 

In thift way the nember of betol-palmH h gradually 

d till (ho garden is full. Each aere of well stookcHl garden 

Oto SOUbeict-painiB and about aOO cardamom busbea. When 

rdon is full caru is ncodoti lo h^vu nurs^ricfl with a proper 

ioQ of young trees to take the pUoo of thoso which die or 

>wn down. 

Befel-pairo, M. Sopdri K. Adtlv, Areca catechu. Tho 

from which tho young betcl-paltoa aro brouzbt is managed 

following way. In Fi^bninry when the bctolnuts are fully 

:ey are cut and kept eight dayn in tho house. A bod is dug 

[y place and in it tho nnt« are sot nine inches apart, with 

eyoa uppermcxit, covered with aWnt nn inch of earth. The 

shaded with di? plantain leaves, and iit anrinklod with wator 

day. About the «nd of Hay, before tne rains \3og\n, tho 

on leavea nro removed and tho young spronts show aboro 

d. In throo rooiilh.i more, or after six months in all, tho 

ng8 aro hiilf a foot high and are n-jidy for planting. lu 

lary, that is about a year after (be nut» wore first planted, they 

little manure, and during tbe rest of the dry leea&on they are 

.'d once in four to eight days according* to the soil. About 

cATif Int" ■ ■ ': whi^n tho (iliutts arc about tbr^e years old and 

to four \:, they are set iu places in lines under 

e of fiill-L;i-«iwn plantain trees. foung botel-puluis are 

;od to ho worth 4i./. (3 i.'.) tho hundred ; but they nro seldom 

one garden-owner generally gets what he wants from a, 

or uoighbonr. Tho betel-|)ialm begins to bear frnit tliirt«on 

after its first or ten year« after its second phmting. In Bre 

mon'- it reaches perfection and lives fifty to a hundred year^. 

ft palm dies, another fr>}m the nur,wry is put iu its place. 

Chapter IT\ 




IBombky GUBttw, 



To koop A gnnlon prospcroox, tho noil oug'lil to be nnnr-' ' -r^ 
in two yeiira. The practice among good farmers is lo <1 
g»rdeii io two, one-half being tnsnnred in the first and tliiit 
the other half in th« 8i»x)nd and fourth yoars. Miinuring 
three yeara ix nlno common. In mnanring ft gardrn retl cXay 
ix dug froRi tlio ^de of tho garden and tliTOwa along tho roidl 
the beds between the lines of betel-palms, to a height of eight 
inches to two feet. Round tba root of each pialra lialf a Ini^^c 
of mannre is ho»pcd and xmail branches are laid over the munuro 
koop it cool. (Jsrdamomit and penper are alwa/s supplied with It 
nwuld mixed with red soil, ami lietol-palma and plantniua 
aometimes manored with oowdung mixed with loATee. The cost ' 
tlieao operations for «bc1i aero of garden is oilimot«d at 
(Rk. 14) for earthwork, £1 1(X«. {Us. Ih) for nuinnro, and 
(Ha. IS) for branches, or a total of £4 l(ht. (Ra. 15), thai is 
(Rs. 221) A y^^f >' ^^^ garden is manured once in two years. 

Tho botvl-piilm giroa little tronblevxcept nt two seasons, when 1 
nataare spmuting and when tho nutii are riiK^ning. ^Vhen the 
KT^ sprouting tbey are often attacked by a blight callod hit 
by anddeu changea of rain and sunshine. To prevent the blljl 
spreading, ttie broad librous abeath of a ripe betel-palm loaf is 
over each bunch by a class of men called Ifasselrus, who are 
1". (8 a».) for every fifty troi>« or IC*. (Rs. 8) au acre. Whoa 
covering ia neglected the blight fi-c^iiiontly ruitm tho whole 
Bctel-pidm.t which aro too tall and slender to bear a mau'a 
havii their bunches of nutH left uncovci'od. The bunches of tbcse I 
yield five to a hundred nnla, while two hundred nut«aru 
the averngo produce of a covered bunch, and in some co4 
bunches fivo hundred nnts couio to muturity. Each troe uat 
yields two largo or three small bnm-heii. Thu betolaut harveatl 
during November, December, and January. 

In November when thu nntu begin to ripen, much care is roqaii 
in watching and gathering them as tho nut loses greatly in vuut 
it i» cut at the wrong time. Tho bunches should be cnt before tl 
are ripe, for tho ripe nut is u»od only for seed and by tho lox 
classea The lJa.«ftelruii who cover the bunches arc idHO i3niplo;j 
to cut the nuts. They are very clever at thuir work. In climbl 
a betel-palm a Hastsolru fixes a ropo of plantain fibre round 
ankle« and under the solos of his feet and sets his feet firm I 
either side of the stem. Ho climbs hand over hand drawing up 
feet togctJier with a jerk. When ho ri-ftchpathc top of tho palm] 
secure* liimself by takiug n round turn with a ropo which he car 
in hia baud. One end of this rope a tied to tho middle of a shj 
board on which the man seats himself and cuts off the nearly 
nut«, drawing up whatever ho wants from an attendant below by^ 
line fixed to his girdle. When he has done, be nntjes his 
fftstuns it round nia neck, and sways the treo backwards ai 
forwards till he swings it close enough to enable him to ihro^ 
himaolf on another tree to which he again makes ^t his 
In tliin way ho pnsses over the whole garden without oomm] 
to the ground. Tho fruit o£ trees that are too IaU and slender 



art R man's wcif^Iit ta gnthensd by hooking the hoad and drajnipD^ 
a neighbouring Irt.-O. Tho firet cI»m nut is C^Ied ckilcni; that 
ired a little later iii called l/i-Ua ; aud the last, which has enlirely 
ed before it is gatberod and is used only by the lowpBt cJassea, 
lied gUu. The gutheriug of tbo nnlH cohCs 8«. (Rs.-i) un acre. 
in tliri*u (lay^ aft^r tht^y have been harreiited, the kemeU ore 
ated from the huakfl and cut in hall The kernels are generally 
the women of tho honso and sometimra by the mcu. If the 
u done by outside Inbour it co«(a about 8«. (Rs. 4) tho ncro. 
morning the kernels are boiled for about an hour till the 
f the nut disappears. To give a colour to tho first nnls they 
i^ilvd in a mixture of nerlu Eugenia jainboUna and kaul 
ngtouia racerooiui biu-k and TmtUi IVruiiiialia U>nionto«« hxiVM 
proportion of two parts of tho dye to one part of water. The 
of the nnta of tho first boilinif is never rich and they never 
a high price. For tho i^ocond boiling two part« of tho water 
the fint Ixjiling ore added to utiti jurt of fresh wator. Aft«r 
boiled the nuts are dried on ecreona and are ready for tho 
t. The yuurly outturn of pri-]>an-d bvtvluuts from a first 
garden is estimated at as much aa 4^ pounds a tree, aud fix>ut 
urst gardens at 2^ pounds a true. The avemgo is estimated 
ut 3J pounils a tree or about 10 cwt. (2 khandM) an acre, 
three -quartera of this quantity is of oocond cla«s nuts. 
_ tho crop is ready agents come round to tho gardens and buy 
lUtA, Thoy arc paid at tiw rate of 2& (Bo. 1) on evory Ha-ndi 
The price of beleluuts is very variable. At protunt (1&82) 
£24 the ton (Rs.t}l) the A:/ictn(fi of twenty iN(i»«}.' Betelnuts 
ut inland in largo qunatities. From hotel nuts and also 
he atem-t of old b&toKpalnui a catucUn or Term iaponica is 
ed which is lar^gely uaed in dyeing as it yielda a fast brown 

nmoms, YclaJeki, Alpina cardamomnm, are commoc in the 

Jful hill ganiona tliat occupy the wc«tern valleys of North 

Ira immediately above the Saoyfldris. Except that thoy must 

L plenty of water, thu growing of curdncooms givos little trouble. 

new garden cardamoms are grown &xnn aeed and in an old 

from cuttings. The seed is sown in October after the out«r 

been removed. It must be candully sheltered from the 

takes three monthti to sprout. When the s(H>d1ingHaro a 

. they are tnuiitplantcd, and a year and a half laier they are 

shady places among the betel -palms and begin to bear when 

[are llirt'c years old. Tho seed pods are gathered as they ripen 

Iptember and October and are dned four days on a lunt which 

g the day is hung in the sun on four sticks and at night is 

I into the uoaso. The pods ar^ then fit for wale. When the 

orop hiks boon picked the plant is taken out of the ground, 

in wood and roots are cleared away, and it is again- planted 

9b hole. The year after it has boon moved tlie plant yields 

lit, but in the following year it again bears. After the plant 


I iMtebat moMOiw an 24 MU=I (br, 4S Aen-lmm. 30 mamm 1 UuumU. 

iCtapter IV. 
IplM ti&rdtout. 

Blad Ptpp*r. 

WKUt Pepptr. 



has bepn moved tlie old stem dies and ft oeir at^m Epringa from ths 
rout. Th« acre yield of cardnmom pods isCfflimntvil nt Ivrouly-'iL-li: 
|K>andB(l man) in liret oUss giirdena, nt twi-nly-oiii! poundn (!' 
a man) in eecond clasa gardena, and at nevcu poands (Itli of a 
iu lliird cIrss gnrdoiu. The selUtig prico is about 7«. the pound 


B)ack Pepper, Kart menatni, Pipor ni|ifniiii. Wbeo the betel-j 
arc thirteen years old, the garden is planted either with the 
pepper vino or tho belol-lvuf v\av witicli climbs the Bk'tn '*f 
botel-palm. The jieppi-r i:* of three varieties, kari mutijui^ 
and araina muriiijn, which do i»ot differ in qaaUty bat in \ 
tho thnw, the kari matisam ia the beet boartir, each vino yielding) 
XDUob as threo poands (5 ^horr) n yoar, but it is not uwy to grovj 
it thrives only in hiujdali or stony red monld. Samhar and w 
mnrtiga crow well in the light-coloured soil known as arama mu« 
bat tambar yields only about Jths of a pound (1 »hrr) and 
tnwrtign 1 jnouudH (inhem). In August four outliugs of tho pc 
Tine, i-afh about two foet three inches long, are wade for every Iji 
palm. One end of each cutting is set five or six inches deep 
tlio other ond is tied to the stem of the palm. I'he vine waataj 
farther oaro except tying its branches once a year in May. It 
in six orsereD yearit ana lives alwat twvnty-fivo, bo that one 
palm ootJasts three or four sets of vines. The pepper is 
with tbehiOpof Inddcrs in March and April. One miiu ci>i-' 
and cure moi-o than three pounds (S ther») a day. It ia pi. 
the berries are full-growu but not ripo. Tho pods are piled 
heap in the hooso and kept for three days, Ttioy are then 
with tlio foot, and when the berry ia separated fnim all other^ 
it is fit for sale. The average yearly yield of each pepper i 
about 1^^ poands, and tho acre outlum isal)out 280 \h*. (lOm^ 
a first class garden, 14U lbs. (5 mans) in a second class garden^! 
S6 lbs. (2 mans) in a third class garden. Tho soiling price is a^ 
8^(f. a pound (Ks.-t the man). 

A little wliite popper ia made by allowing the pods to ripen, 
five or six days tno pods are spread in tho sun to dry. 
dry they are steeped in cold wattr and wlutn thoroughly soaked 
are rubbed Iwtwuen the palmsof the hands till tho husk or «kin [ 
off. They are iigaiu wnahwl in fresh water and Isid in the Opes 
sight and day for three or four days till tho sun and the dew bll 
thoin whito. Tlioy are then roady foi- usi! and are nturfd in 
earthen veitflcU whose months are stopped nnth plantain or 
palm leaves. White pepper is twice as dear as black pepper, 
IS in little dcmaod, as it is used only as a modicino. 

Besides in gardens the pepper vino growa wild in pepper for 
or menatw kann. To keep a pepper forest in onler tne bnuichul 
tho yinfls must once a year be tied to the trees, and the treee mf 
bo stripped of all climbing planta especially the Pothos sc^nde 
and the Acro«tichum scauuena. Kvory third year all the buslj 
in tho forest should be cut down ; and every fifth year the 
branches of tfao trees shoold be lopped as tho viuo cling* 
round straight sleudi;r jitenu. Where thu treua are too far ap 

or B catting should be planted ; and if no popper vine is. 

sliout or two shoald bo sot in the earUi ncttr thu foang trco, 

llins cared for tU*; peppur vino livent alxHit Icn ;edtrs. Whoa 

riiie die« a young slioot must bo trained to take its plaoe. 

three kinda of pepper grow wild id the forest, care muat be 

to vxtimitic (hi.' Iv&t of thu shoot to nisko Muix^ that it la of tho 

bid. All kinds of trix':* iire reckoned equallv lit for i<up)>ortiu^ 

bper vine ; bat whore the woods are too toin the bonduhata 

.inonly planted bc<»use it oaeily takes root. Fniit trees are 

uited ill ra.«! they should attract moukoyif. Viuos tlirivo best 

SB of middle size and about four and a half feet apart. Tlia 

yf largQ trees is useful, but the stems are nob suited for the 

To prevont thu havoc which it« fall mifrht cause, whon u 

ree ia seon to wilbiT, ito branches are cut, and a circle round 

ttom of the stem in stripped of bark. Under this treatment 

e slowly decays, and, as it is relieved of the weight of ita 

m, it rots without falliuf; in a mass. Except thix rotten 

DO mannrfi is used. Probably from the want of tillage and 

re popper raised in foreate is inferior to pepper grown in 

pa. A wild pepper Tine, though much larger, mldum yields 

tlian half what a garden vine yields. A. man in one day 

a tho produce of iweuty trees or rather more than twelve 

a ; and at tho same time ties the bntuchcs which is all tho 

reqnifed. Ue cliiiib.t the trees with the help of a bamboo 

, some of which are sixty feet long. 

BeteMcaf Tine, M. Pan, K. Viiyadele, Piper bctol, is widely 
in plautjitions in valloys cloi<« to tho main range both below 
t>ve tho SahyAdris. When grown ia gardens the bctol-viuo 
best on mangoe troos. The shoots as they grow are fastened 
stem of the Ircvs with cords mado from iho sjiathe^ or Icaf- 
» of the betel-palm. When the plant is two years old shoots 
ch far from their props are pronett. After the third year 
light leaves can oo piokud for salo or fur use. 8hoota 
ider far from thoir props are planted and trained ou now 
To avoid injuring tho vinos the men who pick thu leaves 
bu tn-us with the help of ladders. A full-grown betel-vine 
to 20O leaves every fortnight. An acre of spice garden 
&00 betel-palms is roughly estimated to yield yearly 
betel leaves worth aboDt £S (Bx. 20) and costing 
. 8) lo grow. The leaves ore gonenlly eaten with bctolout 
s largely exported. 

agh a fully stocked spioe garden yields a handsome profit, to 
t rcqnires a largo outlay of cnpital and labour. The first 
is from the plantains which begin to yield after the third 
Cardamoms and betel-vines begin to yield after three 
and nepper-vines after six years, but about tbirtcen years pass 
the Wftol.palms aro in full beiiring. After this an acre of 
Mel and »pico garden land ih o^tlimated to yield Z25 to £35 
0>Rs.350) a year, and this return will go on so long as care is 
o plant new trees as thoold trow become worn out. Estimates 
cost and profits of a fietel-palm and of a betel-palm and spice 
> show that in a botol-palm garden tho yuurly acre coat ia. 


lifKn Oanlcoi 


[BomlMj Ouettwr. 



nbout JES &t. (Ra. 83} imA tho n^turn £12 (Rr.I20), thst ts a 
profit of i3 I-ic. (K«. 37).' In a Iiotel aud spiM gardeu the yearij 
ftCTO c<wt is estimated at £.10 Ha. (lU. 104) and the yield at J121 ltl». 
(Its. 215), that is a net profit of £11 2«. (Rm.IU).* 

n>ia Took. The chief firld tooln are the shovel or pdnla, the half-pirlc 

Itntar, thv pickaxe or piktu, the billhook or hUa, the fiiekle ho 
or IniJue/oiti, the rake mrrow or halli, tho clod cniahor nr al 
the ploQgb nangar or negalu, anil the sowing i]ri)lt>ox ' 
Othor apptiancoa are the water channel or kolunlji, tin 
troiigh-»lutped baakot or «u/>, the rice mortar or ran, the grasa 
or mura in which rice U carried, and the wooden blndgcon or b 
tiie shovel or pdcda is eillier rounded or tuiii&rft-aDiH'd. It- is 
in turning loooie »oil in Hoe fields and gardens, is of local 
ntid coats about Is. Qd. (12 of.). The half-pick or !i-it«r, 
id either edged or pointed, is nttod in opening bard ooilsj 
gonornlly of local mako and coats about !«. {Sat.). The pi 
QTjnkii*, with an edge at one end aud a point nt the other, is 
in opening hard stony gronad ; it is generally of Bombay i 
and costs about 2s. (Uo.l). Tho billhook or At/a is of two kindi|^ 
lighter wore curved aud pointed hook osed in cutting gr:i' 
heavier lo»:t cnrx'od and more rounded hook used in spl: 
cutting wood Aud breaking cocoanuts and costiug about is. (Q 
Tho sickle or kuduyolu has a thin much curved bindv, t-hdj 
cdgo lioing funiitiht-d with a row of sharp tevtb like tlte 
saw; it isof local muke and coats 6i{. to 9(J. (4-6a«.). The 
barrow, kalki, is of wood, with n ms-fcot long handle and i 
feet broad head with a row of about twelve wooden tcotl 
drawn either by oxen or by a man and is used in raking 
earbce litter before tho field is ploughed ; it is of locnl make an| 
2«. to 4j. {Ito.l -K««.2). 'ITj© elod cmshor or iilny is a pla 
Feet long and a foot and a quarter broad, with a |>olo aod 
ycAe drawn by a pair of bullocks driven by a man who atai 
the middle of the board. The crusher is passed over sproutiagl 
to break the clods and ([uickon tho growth of the young plants } f 
of local muku and ooats about 4#, (fCs. 2). The plough called tU 
or nfgalv htm a pole of porciipiue that is cocoa-pulm wood about 

■ Th* iMklb an ; Th» ymriy *<en> tntura <* £IS (Ra. ISO) tho valne (if two 
or 19S0 *Wn of fBjMhV M anoiiH*a the «A«r. Tli« fwly acracoat I* £4 I Dr. ( 
M liit*fmt on % capital of £W (Ra.COO) *|itst in making th* ^rilan, £4 10<. in 
ia Uir** yoani nr £1 lOf. (Ra. IC) ycwly In nuunuing an acn of ganlon odd« ii 
yMn, I6«. lRa.8) for oorttiag tb* bnaehw o( iiata to prwrcat Uidit doniig 
mOatooD, 8*. {V*. *] tor ({slliariiij tbe crop. fit. |R«.4) for leiiinitiag the bntka 
lh« kcni*l* aiut uullinf; tho Lfmrli id baU. *: (R*. 2^ for boiling and oolonrin. 
nuta, *». [Ht. 21 ta brokm at 2*. (Re. 1) tho Uaa.ll. and 6t. ffta. 3) for oonttBgeJi 
auking a total of £6 St. (lU. 83) and loanag a pro^t of £3 lit. {Kb. 371. 

■ Tlio details art : Th« J*^^ ac(« rvtnrn ia £13 tR«- ISO) for 1920 tiiert of rajMl 
one ininn tl» *f^tr ; £1 IOkl (R>. T3) (or thr««.fouith* ut a man of cardanio<u« mb] 
(R«. lOO) ■ mill 1 and £2 IRa. SO) for Z40 Al'«r*<if pvpner at Sd. (11 anan) ■ thfr, md 
■ total ol £11 10*. (fU.215). Ttio roarly aora coat ia, boudM JTS 6*. (Ka-UJ 
dcUiUd ia th« footnote fcT a bctnLpahn gardao, S<. <I(a.4| fttr gatbnring and dfgj 
oaidamonu, ifk. |Rt. /■) for IrBinius J>ep(wr *inM, Ai. (Ra. 4) for (iniiuAg and hoi 
oanlanwaia, IOl (lis. &) for nUMring and drying popper, and 9f. (K«- 8>l 
«MitiD«aict«a, iwUuns a toUl M £10 8>. (R*. 104). acd (caring a pcoftt of £lt 




feet loog, au iron nluiro eighteen iiich«B long, nnd a hftodlo of cheap 
timber sloping forward for two and » h»\i feet and theu hack for a 
foot and a half. It is worked bj one man and is drawn by a pair 
of bullocks or biiffnioes. It is nsed in Hco fields to turn the soil 
and make it rvudy for the scod. Hnrd »oil in oponed with the 
half-jjick or katar before the plough is u»ed. lu louse iuindy soil 
thi' plough passes about a foot and is bard soil about eix inches 
below thv surfuou. Thv plough is of local niakc and costs (>s. to 10a. 
(Rs. IJ.Ks. C). The sowing drill-box or kurit/o is used in sowing 
fiood and costs 4)<f. to &d, (3>4 a.). 

Othur applinnecs am the water channel or liotanbi, made of a half 
palmym palm st«m hollowed five or sis inches. It is unod to lead 
:- to cHue iiEiids aud gardeii-i. For drawing wattr, tho Kfaidlow 
_t swung throogh the water by two men, the lover and bucket 
lift or \/ata, and the leather-bag or kapaii are nsed. ' Grain is 
winnowed in shallow trongh-shupod baskets called wnfw, and Hco is 
husked in a hollow pieca of wood or stone called viin about six 
inches across and six inches deep, and poanded by two round pestles 
fivft or six f«et long whose ends are armed with iron rings. »Vhen 
the nee is husked it in laid in grass and the grass is bound with 
witips into a ball or inura of abont ninety-six pounds (16 kudact). 
The ball in shaped by beating it with a wooden bludgt^ou called 
kudli aboat two feet throe inches long. Ornin is ground into flour 
between two flat circular millstones, and cnrry powder is ponnded 
with a posdo and mortar. Coco«nut huisks am n^mOTpd by knocking 
them againHt a pointed post called nhulu about three feet high and 
(wo inches broad, firmly nsed in the ground. 

Ak the wholo of the district has not been sorreyed details of the 
area of the different clas.<K<a of soil are not aToitable. The area 
nnder tillage is estimated at about S30,000 acres or 12'0 per cent 
of the whole acreage. Most of th(t nuurable waste is forest clad hill 

Itice and garden crops are watered br runnels brought from 
sln-iims or riven. On the weet coast ia tne dry season, dnms o£ 
earth, stones, and tree branches are thrown across stranms and the 
lands near are watered, the dam being removed at the close of tbe 
^ ea«on or left lo b« swept away by the floods. Some places are 
r .-d by canals from large ponds or X-flKs and small ponds or ImUtt. 
\\ !!• w the terel of the water >» below the field, if not very deep, it 
is -i-ooped up by a baxket hung on rojieB and swung through tbe 
water by two men, 11 wivter has to be raised from a grwucr dt^pth 
thu loTpr and bucket lift or yata is worked either by one or two 
men, and, if tbe depth is still greater, it is drawn by the leather.bag 
or kap-ili worked ny a pair of buliocka. When biiiught to the 
anrfact.' the wiitor is geuerally carried to the crop along the hollowed 
trunk of n mlm-trce. The 1881 returns showed 7647 ponds and 
24,680 wells, 593 with and 2i,087 without steps. In Honivar 
Eamla and Bhatkal the wells are fifty to sixty foot and in other 
parts of the eooAl fifteen to thirty feet deep. Above the SabyAdris 




Ifiuobay GaMttcer, 


the depth varies from thirty to sixty feet. Id Baud; boU % mo 
well t«n to twenty Ivet docp with gt«ps cost« aboot £30 (Bs. 3U0]| 
and without «t<.'p9 «boat £20 (Ks. 200) ; in iron-olay or cnimhl 
trap n well Cbirty to sixty foet deop costs about £6o (R^f. tOiO) 
Bt«ps and aboat £50 (lU. 500} withoat stem ; and io tlic loain] 
along the Sahylldlria a woll ooets about £70 (Bs. 700} with atef 
sbout £60 (Ks. 500} without sttepa. 

In the uplands until lately one of the moet maricod for 
tillage was the growing of crops on burnt unploughi^d hill do 
manured with wood a«he». I'hiit hill tillage, which was k 
known as IcHMri, was chiefly carried on br Koukan Aio and Mai 
or Aro Kunbis and forest and hill tribefl. yo to ISi.S thoro wa 
little reatnctipn and l])u poopio olvarcd any porlioD of ihu forost 
Ihey choso. In 1848 orders were issued ftirbidding hill clearii 
witJiin uiufl milea of the sea and throe niilesof large rivers, reHer 
certain trees, and redacing tho area undor jiNmrt, Thitso 6 
clearings woro of two kin ds rcwyftirand sarhir kumri, Yar\iil>i r kut 
wae when the holder of the land had it worked by his t«uauts 
pai4 a cash aasessmeut of about £«. (Ite.l) an acre. §arkd r hi 
was when tJie actual htubandman paid for the land he clea 
From 1848 the Madras GoTominont continued their efforts to roi 
the amount of clearing tillage and in 1860_ clearings of all kii 
wcro forbidd.en. After the transfer of ihe district to Bombay (If 
this rule was relaxed and clciiring wkk ulIow«d to a limitod oi 
Sinco 1862 ountinuoua oSorta liave been made to put a atop to] 
form of tillage, and the area has fallen from 778S acrea in 1 86 
to 844 acrea in 187fi.79.' 

During* November December and January tbo patch of hilU 
to be used for tillage is cleared of brushwood and the bnuichwi 
the large ti<eea axe l oppod and pullnrded. The loppings aro lefij 
March or April, when tlio sun nml the easterly winds havo ^ 
Hicrn a8 dry aa tindor. When lighlod tho timber and braaM 
bum fiercely, baking tho soil three to aix inches bdow tbo snrl 
The crop sown is geaetally ni^i^ sometimes pulse or gourds, 
occasionally sesamuni. In most places the soil is left untout 
and the seed is sown in tho wood ashaa after the first fall of i 
Wheo the plautH t>egin to sprout, a fence of fallen trees or a wat 
hedge is raised round the cK-jiring. Little skill or capital i.t vrta 
but constnut watching and constant weeding aro required, 
crop is reaped in tho south of tho district in October and Novc 
and in the north in November and Dfc«mbcr, Tho produce is '' 
to bo at least double what can be raised undor the ordinary ml 
of tillage. In the second yi>ar the clearing yields a small crop 
in Sapa a still amuller crop is sometimes reaped in the thiru j 
After this the oloariog is deserted itntil tbo brushwood has ; 
high enough to tempt the people again to burn it. 

Garden crops are always manured. Cowduag is need wbc 
can behad, and leaf maaoro when oowdung tails. In rioo lands 

^Htnoto hv i<ir Rtcluud T<unpl«, o.c;ai. X C.I.8., Oovoniw «f BoBtWy, 
f rwm K report by III. W. FUut, CoUeclor ol Kiun, 91 1^ 90th August 1 

' is hiirnt. In ganlcns it is heaped round Iho trees, often 
witli earth or itaiid, imd left to decay. Salt was formerly 
led for cocoft-palms ; ordinary salt ia now too dear, bat the 
lalt-cartb aoa the motl of tidal swampa are still a valued 
for palm gsndcns and rice lund. 

etj part of Haiga tfac cattlo art: kept in the houeo at night, 
re a daily eapply of freab litter which varic-n ut dtfTcroni 
of the year. The Utter and dung are carefully kept, tbo 
d lenf litter being stored in i><:]i«rut« hoiips, It iacalcolated 

the rainy crop ftn aero ol rioe lund rtt^jnireit twenty to forty 
Iweigbts of raaonre altogether wortli '2s. to tt. (Kc. !• 

for (ho cold weather crop of rice or pulse the same field 
have t«n to twenty hundredweights costing Is. 6d. to 2*. 

a*. - Kit. H). In November, Itocember, Jununry, and 
y the litter ia dry graca which forms a manure known aa 
\a-gobra. In March, April, and May dry leaves of every kind, 
irickly loavce and the Iujivm of the Anaeanlium occidi'ntnU-, 
, ua litter nnd form a manure called dreghina-yohra. During 

remaining months (Jonu to November) mostly of wet 
', fresih treo leaveit aro used aa litter and make a dung 
udi-gobra. This tresb treo-leaf manure is the most esteemed. 
lehos nro stored in a ecpamtu pit, nnd are ascd fur special 
a, Afl wood ia plentiful cowdtuig ia seldom ntied for fuel, and 
ire is tftkoa that none of it is lost, women and boys following 
te while at pasture and picking the droppings. 

rorago pair of bullocks in soft soil yielding one crop can 
three acre» ; in aoft aoil yielding two crops two acrus ; in 
i yielding one crop two and a halt acrsa; and in hai-d soil 
; two crops, one and a half acres, 

o the introduction of the snrvey tlie greater part of the land 
ided into eataten varying from a fifth of an acre to 1600 ac res 
raging aboot 500 acres. Under ttiu survov, ratca liavu ho^o 
)iy Gxed on small plots of lands and aa these can be easily 
T«d many changes have taken place. It seems that many 
large estates have long boon groups of modcrute-sined 


fc halt of the ploogli cattle are buffaloes and half oxen. 
tfauy futt4-n on the green hill grass during the rainii and ore 
h hay and straw in the dry season, cattio do not thrive in 
Many ai-e brought from above tin- Hahyidris, chiefly from 
irBednur in nortli-weat Maisnr, But these are suuill and 
rhw field stock in fiovemmeut or khiihn villagee, aocoriliTig 
881-&2 retorBF, included 1-5,800 ploughs, 4274 carts, lOS.Oa i 
I, 111,354 cows, G3,773 buffaloes, 874 horses, 675G sheep 
ita, and 1 23 as8«s. 

IS revenue aorvey ia not completed, no rotnma are available 
r the area occwpied by the dilTerent crops. Arranged in the 
t importance, the chiiif crops are rice, bhaita or neilu, Oryiu 
cjoootuiuts, /unju, Cooos nucifom; betelnnts, oJVAe, Areea 
; 1>L[L0k pepper, kare nwna*K, i*ipor nigrum ; cardamoms. 

Chapter IT. 





iBoml»T OiiMtMr, 

Chapter IV. 




yelUiUfi, AlpiaacardMnoDUiiD; pUntains, &>l*, UnfEaBapientoio; r^ 
Kluuhiue oorocaoa; great miltvt, Ivh ;a/a, Sorghum rnl^re ; «A4W 
or sAyame, Panicam milikro; juigi-ily-seod, tw'/" ;,■ " "■' i " 
mcticum i tunnvrio, anhiKa, Curcuina louga; sweet 
^iut#ti or ntla kumbatu, Batatas panicuUta; hemp, ^<i.)^<. ur 
Cannabis sativa ; and caelor. &«•<], vndl>t or huralu, Kk-iniH eom 
The chivf pulses or akkadi an-, Mack gram, ikji/m, Phaaviitus ni'ltatiu; 
Bnx-cu {^nm, hr-Mru, PhaKe<:>)uB mango; borae gma, huUidJIta, 
JkAichos unitlorus; Uengalgram, lai/Zir, Cicpranetinamj wbiu>{pan, 
atuaandi, Dolklios catjaDg ; mad peas, batuni, Pijiuni eaLJTnm. 

The Btaplo pro<iac« of the district ia rioe, likaita or ntHu, Oyi* 
aativu, wliich ou some lauda ia grotra as a lato or cold we.r 

well aa an early or rain crop. liice is f^wo all over the (i 

the earliest crops boing near Kilrwdr ; ttiu rc»t of tlio lowluud cc«et 
liarre»t is a little Ut«r, then come tho upland cTopa, and Wl u( all 
the eastern crops. Tbe coast rice lands are dindcd into ^asui, iaUk, 
kar. inajaia, betia, and mailci banna Utfa. Gazni Inuds are in ifao 
salt trade close along the oonst i tho/ yield only one rrnp in tb* 
Toar. Baitu lands are the good rico-pluts in the tower vu' 
being watered by email streams yield everv year two cr-. _ 
or one of rice and one of palsc. Tho lirst or rain crop is called 
JfdrtUca because it is nnpou in tho month of Kdrtik (Nqto"'-*- 
Decembcr), and the second or dr; seoAon crop is called «ri< 
Kinareae and vaingun in Mar&thi or Konkani, ooLh words lut-oui 
harvest, for or Haiga rice lands aru liic low Gelils along the ri^ 
and aalt wat«r inleta which are flooded during tlie height of 
rains so that- the rico cannot bo planted till tbe water falls. Mh. 
and betia are on higher ground ; majalu yields two crope, 
rice watered from rivnleta and tho other uf vegetables or dry i^. 
betia land has small reservoirs wbiclt supply water for 
weeks aft<-r the rains aru over. Xakki banna bftUi are still 
tAadH nilhout rivulets or reservoirs, entirely dependent on the runi 
and apt to lose tbe crop if the later rains fail. 

AboT6 the Sahvadris most rioe plots lie in the ralleys on fdri 
eastern flank of too Sahy4dris. Fiota this tbo rico lands > 
east a little beyond the boundary of the low woodlands »n fnr i^ mr 
heavy rain reaches which supplies many small reservoirs with vntba 
enough to last till January or Pebroary. 

All rice fields are tn the form of terraces, surrounded by Kinall 
banks to pond tbe waterwhen the fields are flooded. The:>e t; 
vary from an acre to a patch of an eightieth of an acre occordi: 
the steepness of the gronad. Cocoa>paInis are sometimes { 
rice lauas, their thick matted roots forming a valuable 9\>i 
the embankments. Bice is grown in three ways, dry seed or 
rice kurig/' bhaUOjimTttfibod seed or mole bhatla, and planted see^ 
or nala Ihatta. The dry seed system, which re<|uireB less 
and exposure and yields a smaller outturn, is commonevt aboretl 
Sahy^is. Tho sprouted seed ^stem is commonest beloir 
Sahylidris, except in the best double crop or baitn land and in 
marsh or kar land where seed cannot he sown. In these li 
the planting syeteia is followed with a moch larger oattum, bat 




with mncli tnurc InlMiir and cxposnrc. Especially for tlio sprotited 
8oed ami plwitinj^ systoiti-' biiffMoes nro Jiolier than bullocks Irom 
thoir ^renter power "i ataading wet anil cold. 

Uudi>r Ibo dry seed or liurige hhatia syatem the seed is sowu as 
tODU aa the ftxoanA h&e been ploughed nud is diunp enough for the 
*B in sprout. For this the Kbowcra o( April nnd Miiy iinHice. 
anil C(>TitiTiu(Hl fulls of the aoath' lui^nsooii, lh»ii);h 
.'hen tbo planta have coined size and stren^lh, are ununited 
'or the sowing- aesson. After the need has been sows by the drill or 
karigt'i the rice fii.'l<] is tnunarvd with oowdung and smoothed with 
tbo crusher or harada. Fur three or four we^^ks the rain wator ia 
1 (omn offiw il fulls. After the first we«k the field is wei'ded 
JiB hoe or kuntf, which kills the weeds without Iiarmin^ the 
t>[>i-iiuliug iioed. At the end of thu second week when iho pluntsare 
lonr inches high, the field is workcfl by tho wi-ciHiig hoe or nirit 
Jbuii/d. Abont tho end of the tbirfl wc<?k the fioKl U njfutn wixxhtd 
by dm^ffing orer il n branch of prickly bamboos ^tened under 
a board on which tho driver stands. When Ibo rice is six inches 
high tho dam openings nro shut nnd the field is flooded. At tho end 
of the ihinl iiionlh llic fmld ih dminud fur funne dayH nnd Uie wer^dit 
are removed. In the fifth month it ix again weeded and in the 
sevcDcfa month the crop is reaped. The eara intended for seed are 
at once thrashed and uricti for seven dnys in the sun. 1'ho rest are 
pil»d iu limps for eight dnys and tluitcliud to keep ont the ntin. 
The gr&iu is tben eilbi-r beiUen out with a stick or trodden by oxen 
and for three days is dried in the sun. It in stowed in straw bagSj 
and kept in the house till it can be boiled and husked. 

In the sproiile'l seed or pioIc hhotia system ploughing does not 

bi-^iii till tho soil is soaked. In the intervals between the rwponlod 

'^inga the field is kept flooded, nnd just before each ploughing 

it two inches of the water is drained off. Before the last 

:ng tliv field is manured with cowdnng, or failing cowdung 

t bii.ih leitvt's, which ii( n very inferior manure. When Iho 

liing ia over the mud is jtnioothed with a jilauk drawu by 

gxen. It is afterwards harrowed by a hirgo rake drawn by a pair 

of buffniws or oxen whiclt turns up the weeds which have been 

looacned by the plough, and opens the soil for the seed. To preparo 

the seed the straw sai-kclotli or matting bag in which it U kopl, ia 

Bleeped in water for abont eighteen hourit. The grain is then btid 

' ■ pUei! where within three or fonr days it sprouts. 

. .fill lifter the beginning of the rains the water ia 

1 oti ilie field and the sprouted seoil i*. sown brwulcasl. On 

il day when iho seedlings begin lo Khow, Ihey are halt-flooded 

with wafer and every day as they grow the (|uanlily of water is 

"■■■■- >"».'d, and tho fUdd is kept nooded until the crop is ripo. 

amonlhafterit is ttown and again a little later the field ia 

I by the hand. 

he rich double crop or haiU land the ItdHik or November 

mostly, and the ffii^pt or cold-weatber harvONt i* entirely, oown 

urouled KiHfd. To prepare baitu or rich double crop riee land 

■ second n-np, during October and November, the held which 

Chapter IT. 
AifTieoltar*. I 

5)>r««irrrf Jtta.1 

IBomtoy OueUow, 

lapt«r IV. 



all tbe time ia kept Hooded, is flrst drained oil by a smalt wooded 
rake-like tool called Mruh. It is tlioQ maanred with oowdnii}; iiiid 
plougbud and amoatliiMl with thu ox-rake. The hmhI is sown vM\y 
m Deoeinber. On the ninth day a liltlo wat*r ia given, and, m 
the plants grow, the quantity of water is gradually increased. Tho 
rain water Beneralljr lasts till the end of the 6ral month. Then with 
tbo help of tho lever and bucket-lift or yala the field u wsterud from 
a roMcrvoir or wotl or more often from a dammod-up stream. 

For the planting out or rtala hkaUa 8ystem the seeds are first 
thickly »own in nurBeries, from which, after about a month, when 
the ram& have well net in and the field is flooded, tho seedlings are 
planted out. Tho seedlings are bronght in baskets to the field, and, 
in liandfnU of eight or nine, are set along lines drawn by the large 
rake and thrust by the labonrera some inches into the mnd. Tha 
field is kept flooded and is weeded twice with the band. 

There arc twoiity-threo leading kinds of rice : pandia lai^ and 
euiull, A'oyn, motalgo, beiko, aj^, mnniaiffi, d'iban»ali, jirgesali, 
kotamtarfali, jktlni, ttorti, kaio mwdgo, balari, ehitgo, paiual, 
rhintamanitaii, khargaiiaki, Ivmpti kukun kesart, jedu kukuM 
h-.itari, urulgana, amb^mori, somtal, and chapral. In onlinary ymrs 
tho poorer rice is sold at twwity-threc to twealy-seveu pouuaa tie 
ntpoo (-Rs.S to Bs.3^ the man of forty nhrrii) and the better kindsat 
fifteen to twenty pounds the rupee (K«. i to Hs. 51 the man of fortj 
ahura). Bice is u»ed by all claaara except Knnbis who live near Ae 
forests and eat ni(;i. The lower classes use thu binck or cht.-ApeT 
rice and tlio rich the fine kindii, chieily the varietiea known as 
maskali, jonal, and Icumiapuri, wliicli come from Sonth K^nara. 
Rice in bnsk is sent in small quantities to the Malabiir dibtnctn 
mostly from tho ports of KArwAr, Kumta, Tadri, mid Hiiiiiirar. 
Some hinded proprietors export on their own account, but most of 
the export butiineHs is in the hands of Vitut and Koukani trader*. 
Including the assessment it is roughly estimated that an acn c4 
good rice coats about £2 (Ra. 20) to grow and leaves a prtifit of about 
£7 10*. (Rs. 7^), aud an acre of fair rice coste about £1 10». (Ba. 1&) 
and leaves a pro6t of £2 10s. (Rs.25). 

lidgi or Naehni, Eleosinc corocana, i« widely grown in the hill 
EoniHt country and is generally eaten by tho poorer claases. 

' Italian millet, mi-nai, Panicnm italicnm, is grown to a small 
extent, both in the hill tmcfs and in the open counti^. 

Indian com, mfkkf jala or musuhi jola, Zca mayi^, is not regnlmrlp 
grown. Small quantities are raised in gardens for private use. 

The seed of some bamboos is used as a grain, espeoially igt 
tinxM of drought and scarcity. 

The Pulses, akkadi, grown in North Kduara are black gram, vddit^ 
Phaseolus mdiatus, and green gism, hetaru, Pfaasoolns nmngo, wbidi 
are raised as a second cn>p in most part« of tho district ; and small 
quantities of pigeon pea, (oijari or tuvari, Cnjiuina iudicus ; Ht-ngal 
gran", kadU, Cicer arietinuni ; Syrian ieuiil, mtwirr, Erviiiu li-iis; 
and peas, batani, Pisnm sativum, which are grown in HaJiyiU and 
Unndgod and in villages bordering on DhAr'^'"- The acid dew 




limb catbers at iiiglit ou the leaves of lleoga] gram is esteemed 
ft Dseiul tonic, and ia some parts <tf tbo oaiiiitry t.n gAtbortol by 
spK»ding clotbs over tho field ut nigbt anil wringing out tlio juicu 
to tbe moniiog. 

Of Jingellr'Seed, tolle yallu, Sesatnam indicutn, throo vtric-tien 
are gmwn ; btle or white, kare or black, and hinitani or ibirk-n^d. 
Oil-seed is not exported. The oil of all three kiada is generally 
mixed and is in ooinmoD utv bolb for cooking and for anointing tbe 
body. Oil-eakeit nm given to ciltlc a.i fodder, capeciully to milch 
cows and carnage bulloclce. Of tbe caator plant, nudla or harlu, 
Kicinus communts, two varieties chiti or spotted a&d dodda harlu 
or largo are grown to a rory email extent. From tbe targe or 
dodda spcdcH medicinal castor-oil in made ; the opolted seed yields 
K t^TKaler quantity of nil which in commDuly U8«d o» Ump-oiL Tbe 
oil is extracted either by boiling or in a mill. 

Of Bye-ytetding plants, eafflower, or bastard saffron, kunibti, 
Carthamus tii>ctoriu8, whose flowers are need as a red dye, is widely 
grown iu gard«ii.H and iu partA of the tahloland. Terintnalia chobula 
or a^Iemtira yields myrobaians wbicb ar<^ largi^ly rxgx^rltMl; »&ig« 
gida. Acaoia concinna, has a bark which is used for dyeing ; and 
gfnalii jnaru, Tenninaltu coriaooa, has a dye-yielding bark. A very 
small qnantiiy of myrobalauH »ru uxed locally. Thiiy and other 
Ince, used in dyeing and tt^nning, go to Bombay, Bclliiri, and 


Bemp, yanje or AAon^', Cannabia saliva, is grown sparingly in 
gardens for the «afc© of the narcotic called bhait^ which is extracted 
from its leaves, stalks, and tloworv. 

Of Spices and Condimenttt, besides pepper vines, betel vines, 
and cardamoms of which detailiT have be«n given, ginger, alia or 
thwtti, Zinzibor officinale, and chillies, meniiHina ^ui, C'amieum 
(rutesoeus, are mnch grown both below and above the Saby&dria. 

Between 16^5 and I860 in several gardens in Yotldpur and 8upa 
an attempt was made to grow cofToo, k-iyhi or hundu, Cuffee antbicA, 
bnt itscultivatiou wasunprofiiablOjitndha^ been abandoned. A few 

Slants ani still grown iu five or six gardens in the north of the 
istrict near Supo. 
Of Bolboos Roota the sweet potatoe, hella gmojiu or nela kumbaia, 
Batatas paniculata, and the yam, ke^genaaa, Dioscorea sativa, are 
ividi.tty grown in gardens ; the yam sometimes r«adwa an enormous 

Sugarcane, kahbu, Saoebarnm ofRcinanim, is largely grown both 
above and below the Sahyddris. It is of three kinds, raaat or 
spott^td, karc or block, and bile or white. Dan kahbu growK about 
two ino)ies thick and .six to sevon feet long, and yields more jnice 
than either of the other kinds. A'aro kahhu grows about mn inch 
(hick and four to five feet long, and ft'Ie kabhu about half an inch 
thick and three and a half to fonr and a half feet long. The kare 
katrfju, wbo«e molaases are reckoned the beet, is moat grown on tbe 
Roast, on river and stream -banks, near ponds, and iu other places 
where water is available. 







(Bombay OaMtMr. 

[Ifaftpler IV. 



In Rowing sufrnrcatic tlie f^i-onnd w well dug, laid opon to Uui 
SOD for surernl dnj-n, nnd covrrod two or thrpo feet de^) with Imres 
and Ijrusbwood which when dry aro net od &re. To the nuod- 
rufhc-K old owdung mixed with gra&a is added, «nH (Jh* pround in 
again turned and laid opi>n to (he sun for two or > -b 

COwdangOihesandU'aveHnrcsgaiD a];plird, nttd I . . W 

turned nn<l divided lunglhwiim in|i> ImkU two or thrco foot apart. 
Euch bc-d luks n Ireuch a foot and a half wide and about half a fool 
deep for the water to run thronghout the entire length. Thu trcndiot 
are join<'d aillie endi), so that water let into oiiu of thu trcndm 
RTadtiallv fiuds its wur into iho rest »nd waters the whole garden. 
Except in soine parts whoro it in an early as Jaiiuaiy or rebruarr, 
the KeiLsiiu for pbntiug ^ugaixaiie i& April or May. As soon as ths 
beds are ready, ihe cuttings which for some dnyt;, or evon for weeks, 
haw been kept in a cool shady place dippod in oowduug wnlcr, are 
litid in tho l)«d8 about five inebos ajwrl and n-atered. After it is 
planted the field i» «VHt«red every niomiug by means of a pslm-ston 
dianiel. In about fifteen days the caue begins to spront and the 
watering is daily repeated- When tho p)ant» arc abimt a foot 
high, cowdung manure is adtltid and the ground i» cleared nf weeds 
and rank vegetation. This procvsai IR continued every month and 
tho beds ai-c rai^od na the plaot« grow. When (ho canea are threfl 
fMt high e-ach U Lied up with its own leaves. This prooo^, which 
prevents the canes from breaking, is repeated till they reach Ihftif 
full height. .Sugiircano is ready for cutting eleven or twelve raootls 
aft«r ]>Ianting. 

Almost all hnshaadroen grow aotne little sogarcane and tnaka 
molasses. When the cano is out, the roots, leaves, and dirt an 
carefully rxiniovod, and the juice is squeezed in a sugarcane- mill. 
Tho mill oonjiMtA of three eylindora moved by n pi'rpi^tjiul nerow. 
Tho force is applied to the centre cylinder by two caji'Hiau ttara 
which are worked by hand and require nix to ten tatru ui eitlier 
end. The juice is boiled in iron, brass, copper, or earthen vcAsels. 
Limo is added during the process to harden and thicken tha 
liquid. The thickened liquid is either stored in pots or oust into 
cubical masses by means of wooden moulds. The total cost o( 
raising an acre of sugnroano and of making the juico into ni(>l:if.Be3 
is estimated at about £22 (Re. S20).> Tho outturn of forty 
of tnolaK«ed is cotimatod to bo worth almut £20 (Rs. 200), ai 
value of eight thonaand bundles of sugarcane leaves about i,'-i 4s. 
(K». 32) more, leaving a net profit of £1 -I*. (Itii. 12) tho acre. Tliiil 
cOflt of tilliigo is CMcnIatm oo hired wages. If, a» is generally 
the case, the landowner hima>1f works, ho reaps .a profit averaging 
£i to £4 I0«. <Rs.40'Iis.4:>) the acre. 

East Indian arrowroot, ktivitfoddt!, Cnrcoma nngristifolia, growB 
wild, and is altio cultivated in different parts of the district. 

■Thod«tansu«:£!t(Rs.9D}foirModainMi JE3 tlto.(B«. SSirMproMrbg&roaii^ i^ 
IOmIU. rotor piMitiiui JMIO*. (Ra.4lt)lorwM«ri*Kt lOf. (K«. Sltornunarc; lOw. 
(lU. .I) /or wMding 1 !«■. (Bi.8)(or r«aiiitw mA hadginiii <i (Ra. 10) for cutting; { 
<3 <«. (IU.32) tor parcuuig; 10.. (tU G) Tot baUag; £3 (U».90) tor tufllt »najft 
tfU. a>l fur OBotiugtiiciu, givuig * total ot £3S (Iti. 28V). ' 


Of Vegetables, tlie c^-plant or .brimal, hadane kdi, Solauum 
n ; tlio water-melon, LalangnJi frni, CiicurbiUi cctrtiUuM ; and 
.iiiiipkins, gourds, nnd tiicunbors nrv much grown. Bendy, 
bend'^ kiii, Hi\nM;iin o»cuieiilu», one of tliu most ]Kipular itnd whole* 
some of vnfre tables, in growD cliielly oil the coast. 'I'lie stslk Tields 
a long silf; and pliant fibre which is locally Dscd for cordage and 

Cnooa-p»)m!>, lengu, Cocoti nncifem, ere widely grovrn, cspeciBlly 
along the coa^L The oocoa-paJm is the most valuable of Indiiui 
fruit trees. The milk of the yoaog nat is a pleasant and wholesome 
drink. The kcmol of the ripe nut is larguly H«;d in nativo cookery 
timi yields vxcdllont oil. Tho fibres of the hunk furnish tlio coir 
which is ^> much valued for oordnge. Prom the young llowcring 
etalks a favourite liquor is dniwn. 'Ihe stem yields the porcupine 
wood of oommoroe, and the leaves aro plaited iiito mats and other 
■rticl(M!i ■ 

I^anlainK, lidle, Mam snpieutam, of uiany kinds are grown in 
gardens, those ou the c^»u*t Imving the best flavour. The plantain 
J; ^'niwn not only for its fruit but for its leaves, which Cindus, 
('H|!.'i:ia11y Briihinaus, use im dinner dishes. Its stem yields a fine 

white silky fibre of eonsiderablu length and strength, but it is not 
used. Tlio JBckfniii, hahtu, Artocarpua integrifolia, grows so 
plentifully that iu the hot «ea9oa it ia given to cattle as fodder. The 
inango, nuivt, Afiiiigifeitt indica; tho tamarind, hunatc, I'amarindus 
indicus; and the jnuilKiol, ucnr/i or^'atn/tu, Syv.ygiiim jainbolamtm, 
are common all over tlto cnuntnr, both iu gardeus and groves, 
sTid frrow to n largo size. Thei-e are many kinds of mango, but 
Liier snrt;< nro found only in the Portngaeso territory and its 

: , iiiourliiK>d, and in soiuo Knropoaa gardens. Tho commonest 
local mangoes are pieha wdvu, a stringy mango; muge v\avu, a 
''-'"- mango; kadtt or appa mdvu, a wild mango used only in 
■'g pickles; and jiriji; mdvu, a small but unicn prized mango. 
iiri'.its fiom the rhoicesD tioa mongoeit, /amandiH, alpltonte, and 
Mensnraf, are grown by large propnetora. 

Of tho Oningo family the pomelo, chakkalu, Citrns decumana, 

crowK be:«t on the coast ; the orange, kittale, Citrns anrantiuni, 

flourishes only above the Sahy&dria; tlte lemon, shi nimhi, Citrua 

limetta, prospers everywhere growing wild in the hills and forests, 

(iBpocially in Snpa. rumcgranates, Jalimbi, Pnniea granntum, and 

<i«jura, FicuH canco, are grown to a small extent both K-low 

,.i>ove the Sabyidris; they Honrish best in the drier parts of 

the lableluad. Tho imstard -apple, fildphal, Anona ^unaniosa, and 

BwtMit-«op or bullock's bciirt, nimphal, Annua reticukia, logvther 

n iiiL the sonr-Bop tree, Anona murtcata, are grown in a few gardens, 

' fy On tho coast. The rose-apple, jan^t, Eugenia jamlxxra, ia 

ton in gardens, bnt tho fruit ia insipid. The papay, pappai, 

L\iriL^ piijviya, n native of ItrnxJI, is common in gardens. It has 

tho jiropei-ty of makiJig meat hung on its branches tender. The 

Chapter IV 




FnU Trm, 

> DetaiLi or* gtrcn in VoL XV, Put I. p. S& 

I Bombay I 



Chapter IT. 


cacomber tree, bimbali, ATOrrhoa liilicnl), is small with oblong f'-"!^ 
growing on tbe truuk and breacbea. 'Vhe ludtan alainD<l, hi- 
Tenniuulia catappa, is found boUi in gardena aud forests. 
Belgaam waloot, akroflu, Aleotria trilgba, grows frwly above 
Saby^ris. Tho caKhcwnut, gem m4ru, Anacardiuin oocidontat 
a nAtivo of Brazil, in nuw common in (roa and on the Kdnnra c>j«»L, 
whero it is cM>iutidered a valuable article of food. A good gam ia 
obtained b; cutting the bark. 

Thoogh North KfLnara bns occasionally snEFerod hvm a failnre of 
crops Ifap only rooordod or rvmumborod ncarcity vrhicb 
to fumino wa« in tlio year A.ix 1806 or tbe Knhai/a £<■>. 
Tbi:* fitinine appeam to havo been very severe. Hen were lurvt-d lu 
feed on roots and on rice husks, and abont 3O0O persona we said to 
have diiMl of want. The local scarcity was originally caused by an 
influx of poopio from Ratn^ri and tho Deouao. Il nivt increased 
by the want of roadii, by the depredations of robbers, and by a mio 
forbidding tho export of grain Uvm Dh&rw&r. The distress laslttd 
for about tiftL^en mouths from January 1805 to Mari-b lSU<i. To 
roIioTO tho di^tros» an order woa iMned forbiddsug tho export of 
ricv and directing tho purcluum of ric« by the local nflicers and its 
re-sale at moderato prices. The land aBsassmeut was remitted, and 
advances were made to ooltivatora for a^icullural porposes. This 
famine and the scarcities witb which sincu then tlio distriri has 
occasionally been visited »(M:m U> luiru beou duo to short raiiifnll. 
la lS65-d6 parte of the Niz&m's country, DhirwAr, Uclgautn, nntl 
Kinara tofforcd from the extremely high prico of grain which waa 
due partly to abort rainfall, and partly to too transfer of a large ai-ea 
of land from grain crops to cotton. In Supa (bo distress was nt-vore 
enough to call for special relief measures. Tbe pressure was gmatly 
rolioTod by tbo seeding of tho large bamboo over fifteen to twenty 
miles on either side of tho Haliji(l-Tvlldpur read. Tboosands of 
scarcity-pinched people from the Kani^tikk cuoie to gatlier tbe 
bamboo seed. They tired in large camps and were aocouimnied by 
their own Vilni shopkeepers. Tbe shoplceepera bartered taeir w«r«a 
for tho bamboo seed at the rate of abont forty pounds the rupee and 
Bent the seed to tho inland markets whero gr^iD wns doarest.* 
Though there was no genumi failure of crop in Kinara, the offocts 
of tho gr«it famine of 1876 and 1877 in the Deocan, Bombay 
Kam^ta^, btaisur, and Madras were folt for abont three years in 
Kilnara. During ibis famine K^nara reliered about 10,000 famine- 
stricken people and SOOO cattle from the Bomlray Kamittak, Thisse 
people found employment in HaliyAl, YelUpnr. and Sii^i in deepeuiog 
ponds, in repaii-ing roads, and in other public works. Tbe cattle 
were allowed to grase in tbe reserved forest. I'ho^o who were 
nnablo to work were fed at relief kitchens in Ualiy&l, Mundgod, 
Tellipur, and Sirsi. In 1876-77 tbe rainfall was plentiful in Jun« 
and July but failed almost entirely in the snoceeding months, so 
tliut. except on the coast where the rice crop wne good, creps failed 

■ Cdoad EthfTidgo'i Reiwtt on tiM PuaiaM ot tbo Bombof Prttodtan-, 186S. 
* ColOMl W. FajFtan, Cgtusrvjitor of Forwte S-V. 

s«nie &xl<^nt, and mn<.-h di>:tresH was felt (or want of water. Tho 
lie bealtli was injnred bj the inRus of famine-striclcen people 
am ihe Bombay karn£tsk to the onbealthy clitoate of tlie Ktloara 
forests nnd many diod of cholera and fovLT. Tb« mpee price of the 
Kecond sort of rice roao from twe»ty-«iglit pouiidi^ in 1 875-76 to 
twenty-two in 1870-77. Instead of large exports of cotton und 
gmin,thero were grain imports of about 18,000 tons (72,000 khan^ts) 
to K^wdr and of lK,7oO tons (75,000 ArAafufu) to KumtA. The 
finntiral condition of the people waa fair, for thouf^b tb« poorer 
huabaudnien aofTered to some extent, those on the coaitt who were 
bettor off and whose cropa were good, made large pro&ta from.tha 
cnbancod pricos. In 1877-78 ruin fnilod in Jnly and August and 
*r»j» (.'xcessivoly heavy in Ootobor. I'ublio henltb waa bad. Tho 
rnpoe prioo of l)io second 8ort of rice rose from twentv-two pounda 
' 7ii-77 to eigbteon in 1877-78. The export trade which had 
-t ceas<^d in 1876-77, revived. In 1878-79, the year of the 
bonvio«t reconled minfall (132'89 inches), ihc crops wore good, hut 
public hculth BulTiTed severely from excessive moiftturo. Though 
the wages of labour showed no change, the effect of the famine was 
still felt in tho price of food grains which, except naehni Elousino 
corocana, were even duanr than in 1877-78. The ropo« prteo of 
rice rose from eighteen pounds in 1877-78 to seventeen in 1878-79. 
la 1879-80 the price fell to twenty pounds. 

[ The crops in some villages are occasionally injured by blights, and 
' thv mvBgCM of rats, insects, and worms. Bnt within tho experience 
of ibo pRisenl geitemtion these Io«so« have never nffi!c(ed tbogenerat 
bfu^'est. In some lowlands near HverH heavy rainfall and a stormy 
sea sometimes cause floods wbieh greatly damage the crops, fu 
1831 und Hgaintn IS'tS, owing to tempestuous weather, tbo Ilonitvai 
St lands wore lloodeil with aalt water and tho crops destroyed. 



(Bombar Otttttsw. 



[Cliapter T. Ths I87S poruraa relurna ^'how, besides wiJ1-to-do tii)Ml)Midai«ii 

git^ and profeRsioual men, 5218 poriwns ia ponitions jmplymg tho 

poaseeBioa of capital. Of these .ttx wcn;banker», tea mouey-rhangera 
or shopkeepers, and 510!) mercbHota and traders, incladinff persona 
drawing incomes from hmiso and ehop rente, from fnndi-il properly, 
KharO), uiinuitios, ftud the liku. Undor ctipitalist^ and tmdcrs 
llio 187& License Tax pukpcrs sliow 4066 persons.* Amon^ thnsa 
asMStiod on yearly incomiw of mora lliau £10, 1717 had from 
£10 to £15, 790 fmm £15 to £25, 592 from 125 to £35, ^23 from 
£35 to £50, £04 from £50 to £75, l-il from £75 t^ £100, 122 
from JtliW to £125, 24 from £125 to £150, 42 from £I5U to 
£200, 51 from £200 to liiOO. 27 fr^m £300 to £400. from £400 to 
£&00, 10 from £500 to £750, 3 from £750 to £1000, and 3 orer 

nrrcncr. Till the l»ginnin|cr of the present ccntnry the currency of the 

district consisted of Chalukya and Ikkeri ranOiaa or pngodas and 
SultAni that is Tipu's, and BabfUiuri that i» Hiiidnr's h«n* OF 
pagodiut. Tlieae were all sold coins worth about 8*. (Kb. 4). Tho 
Chalukya vardha, ao called because it waa stamped with a rar-lha 
or wild boar, watt struck by tho Chalukya kin^ (715<l<td5), and 
the Ikkeri cardJia, bearing the impress of king Krishnti, was stntck 
first at Ikkeri aud afterwards at Bednur in West Mai^iir l»y the 
Bednnr chiefs who ruled from about 1560 lo 17G3. The rardha 
changed itH name to hun under the Mosalmfin rolera of Maiaur and 
waa callotl by Haidur {l7i37-17S2) the BsbtLdnri hun and by Tipn 
(1782-1799)the Sultini hun. ITic varahn i»nolongercuni>nt, UU 
it is still sometimes used aa a weight by goMsmitns. •Surut and 
Madras rupees, which passed for a <)uartor of a pagoda, were current 
nndor.tlio Maistir goTernmont, as also was the silver hn»a, the same 
as the Malabnr jthalam, worth nbonl niie and a qnarter anna. Of 
copper coins, there wore Tipn's ana-duiUlit bejirini» the imprr' 
as elephant, worth fonrtM^n for a haaa, tho ahatH-ilwiilH «r i 
worth two dite-dviidtie. and tbe katu worth half an uHe-duddtt, 

1 ^MD in»t«ri*li Mpplieil br Mr. R. R. Ciady. C.H. 

' Tbil 1ST9 lUulU nn f^ftix becHtiM inooniM vndar £00 <R*. 50Oj »r« ni>« fnu 
hum Uw Lioanse Tax. 





The rOTCnno was collected in roaay rarieties of coidk.' Tb« 
lin[Krrutl rujioe is now the tdninlaril in nil dtitlint^. 

Th«ro are nu banka in Kitiutra. Tho kr^wt inonL-ylondorB art- 
callt^d a^'tKkdra. As a rule they do not open deposit occounltt. Hat 
msn; koep numinff acoooats with bosbandmen, receiving tJie 
surplus prodacu luid udraaciiig snob stttns m may from time to time 
b(i rtfioireA 

None of the local merclianta or traders carry on iniinmnce 
bnaincsa. Id tho beginning (October) mid ngain towards the end 
(May) of the ^tiling itvAson, cotton cnrgoos from Kanita and E&rwfir 
are insured in Bointnaj againHt sen risks. 

TTundu or cxclinngc bills are of two kinds, pavablo at night Bxeluiige] 
dnmhani, and payable within a xpccifiQd time utudaii. Both kinds 
of billa fire either «A(ibii'o9 that is payable to ordor, or na'fj^o^ that 
IB payable only to the dniwee. fiionuuge bills are not< much used 
in Snpa, YelWpur or Siddilptir. Thev are gcueralty gTnut«d at a 
discount of one op two per cent ana are sometimes iosued at par. 
The leadiiig traders in Knmta and KirwAr grant bills payable ia 
Bombay, Hnbli, Gadag and Sinti. Botvlnuli<, peppor, cardnmoin», 
and otber merchandiiw brought from the bill m.tlricts to Kumta, 
are generally paid tor in casb, while cotton and other merchandige 
from Belganm and Dhjirwir are mostly ]>aid for by bills. At 
Kiimtn n few native firms can withont di&oalty cash a bill for 
about XlfiOO (R8.1&,O0O). 

Tli» classM wlio M70 iuo (lovornmeut semmta, pleeclera, money- CImm* who 

lenders, and traders, chiefly Shenvia, Sarasrots, SfUashtkArs, 

' -ishk&rs, Christians, Deshitsths, Chitpilvuns, Viini^, and Rnnjigs. 

o agricultural classes, Havigs, Hnbbea, Joiwhis, Konkanis, 

Itaudgalus, and Niidont, are gcnemlly in a position to save. Except 

Kav&vats, who are prosperous and well-to-do traders and landholders, 

few MuBHim&as save. Most Christian pnlm-jniou druwum and 

'" ilari liquor- farmers on tho coast and gome above the Saliy^dria 

money and inveat it iu garden or rice land. Cultivatoi's aa a 

roki ore in want of money, and almoRt all borrow. In tho rural 

parts, (ixcept moneylondeni and sbopkfcjx^rs, few are ablo to 

save. The sea&ring cla-ises, Khi^rri», Bhuia, Ilarkantars, Mogers, 

Gibit«, Ambigs, and Ddldi Muimlin^a are fairly off, though 

poorly clad and badly housed. Aa a class tbcy aro less thrifty 

and les.'; pmdent t)ian enltivators. Even tlio most prusporous seldom 

Mkve nioro than cuongh to build u decent house or buy u stock of 

(ishing tackle, and boats, fifteen yeara ago, during (ho 

.iiial prosperity rauaed by the American war (1863-1865), 

«oDie of tho Mog<;ra became cottoo d«alcre and comniission agents. 

A few hold on as petty Nhopkeopcrs, but moat have failed and 

been forced U> fall bock on their original occupation of Gsbing and 


Sa^-inga are rarely invested in Government securities. In Iho lav 
year 18S2 the amount paid as intoresb to holders of Government 

B 816-1 

' Buciwiaii'ii TnToU, tj. 309. 

(Bombay Ouetteer, 

Chapter 7. 




paper was £58 (Ra, 580). Th« GoTcrnmcnt Savings Bank is 
mostly uaed by Ooremmont aeirnnU anti pleaders. In ISSS-SU Ui» 
deponts amoanted to X3190 (Ra. 31,900). Sbarea in juint stock 
0(>iDp»ni«8 are almost aoknowQ. 

Littio or no capital ih invested id Uio purobaao of building sit«B. 
Except at Anknla, Kucnta, Sinti, niid Haliy&l, baildiog Biti:-3 are not 
in demand. During the few yt«rs of abnormal prosperity vbieh 
oudi-d in 1865 building sites fetched high prices in Kumta, and at 
Kilrwjir,wbfD it vrae mode tbe head-Quarturs of the districtin 1862-63, 
laud wiM mncb in dumaMd. Tbo value of laud at K^m&r again roM 
(1869- 1874), when it was boped tbat it would be made tbe terminus 
of a railway to llnbli, and many S&rasvats, Sbenvis, Gujais, PArsis, 
Mnnlm&ns, and Native Christians, and oven some Bombay Kuropcsa 
firms, l>oughl building nitrs at considurable prices and spent largo 
Buma in buUdingahops, warufaoitses, and dwellings. Since ibe schemo 
for a K^rwdr-Uubh rwlwar haa been given up, building sites in 
K&rwdr hnvD fallen to a fifth or a tenth of their former vulod. 
A plot forty feotaquare, which in 1867 fotcbed £10 to £4S(Ra. 100- 
K». kJO) lit not now (1882) worth more than £2 to £& (H».20- 
Rs. 50). On the other hand, in Haliy&l, Ankola, Kumta, and Sirsi, 

f rices have risen, appareully owing to a general increase in wealth, 
n Halival an acre of building land which Ju 1867 cost £10 to £20 
(Rn. 100-R*. 2O0) now (1882) fetches £20 to £M) (R«.200.Ka. 400), 
and in Ankola, Kumtu, and Sirsi, what in 1867 would have ooit 
£16 to £30 (Ra. I&O- Bs. 300) now (1882) coats £20 to £40 
(Rs.20O-Ks.40O), nu incruiso in fifteen years of 100 per cent in 
HaliyfU and of about 33 per cent in Aukola, Knmta, and Sirsi. 

Ijftnd investroentA are popular with Gftudgalus, Hiibbu», Joishiv, 
Ling^yats, llavigs, Shonvis, V&nia, Konkanis, and Christians. When 
applications ara made for assessed waste numbers, tbe right of 
occupancy is somotimcs sold by public auction ; but somotimos, ia 
CODE ido rat ion nf the expeuditure iieres.'tary to clear it, aniblv wast« is 
given on m»y termit. The price of ttuch lands is geuenilly not less (bail 
one year's assessment, but in outlying parts or where the bringing 
nnder tillage is specially costly, laud is given free of charge. The 
possession of tbe land carries with it tbe ownership of all but the 
reserved tnx'4.' The aero rato of assessment varien from 6d. to l§. 3d; 
(4-lO(i«.) for kuaki liaki:at or dry crop land, from 3<(. to 12«. 
(Rs.l}-Rs.6) for farri dhanmatH or ricu land, and from 12s. to 
£1 8s. (Kn. 6- Rs. I -i) for liiijayut or garden laud. The cost of bringing 
an acre of dry waste under tillage iii estimated to vary from Ui tȣ20 
(R8.MI-Rb.200) in stony or brushwood covered lands, and from £2 
10«. to £10 (Rfi.25-Rs. 100) in lands without stones or brnnhwood. 
Near largo towns the price of an acre of rioe land is estimated to vary 
from £20 to £40 (R8.20O-B«i.4O0), and in the outlying parti; from 
£10 to £20 (Rs-100-Ra.200). The aero valno of dry-crop laud 
)-ielding raqi and other coarse gnio varie« from £1 10«. to £& 

■ A Iwt of tb« mcrvwl traca u gtveu in ToL XV, Put I. pf M- 




In tho ooaot Hab^riHKnis of Kirvir, Ankola, Kumte, and 
HanArar, in addition to the dry waste lands, are many salt •wnmpa 
'- -ynijji wbi<.-}i cannot bo reclaimed without a Urge ODll&y on 

' and earth bank«. Owing to thn cost itnd risk of reclaiming' 
thcstf salt marshes, OoTerumont, since 1878, have granted them on 
lane on specially ^Toarable terms.' Under these leoseti the assess- 
oieot i« paid according to a gmduatc-d scale, the fall rates l*eing 
u aberanco till a period lias posHod long cnotigh for the bolder to 
baild the neoeRsary protective works ana free the land from salt. 

* , even in the larger towns, houses are seldom built as 

Traders in good circnmstances. Government servants, 

pltAfitint, and large landholders, baild substantial hooeea for their 

owet nse. Kxcept in a fttvr instances at Kiirwdr, Kumta, and Sirsi, 

bofisofl are seldom let to tenants. 

Perstmal ornaments are a favourite form of investment among all 
elaaaes. The poorest Balvakki Vakkal or llolnjar woman has u gold 
1^ gilt noeo-ring or nafA, a lucky nocklaoo or wantjiaJrutra of glass 
^I'l i^ill beads, a pair of gold or gilt earrings, a hw/ud or ear-stud, 

nnd gloiis braci^lots, and gold or gilt finger rings. Men vre«r 

i> -■•iigte and sometimes a donble gold or gilt ring in the lobe of 

the right ear and sometimes in both ears. The silver waistbelt 

'axnry of the well-to-do, as is also the string of false putlis or 

'.iiui gilt-bratM coins worn by women as a necklace, the gold 
Wr umam«nt called t;t<aad worn by women, aud the gold finger rings 
*om by men. ll^b class Hindu women, KushiiHtbiilisor S^rasvats, 
Sbenvis, IlaTigB, SasashtkAre, Birdeshk&rs, and Gujnritt Vinis, are 
-"— tnelv fond of jewels and wear a \»rge variet? of ornaments, 
lower class Hiodn women, as the B&lvakki or Qltio Kara 

'-.0 Atte Vakkala, the Nidors, and the Slukrie, wear necklaces 

: A and three or font ponnds weight of laoqucred and glass 

bead)). The wL-alth and respectability of n family of any of these 

tvtt'-K may be known by the number of necklaces the women wear. 

liients worn bv the welUto-do of the lower orders are of 

- , . 1 and silver, orihmans, Gnjars, Vinis, SonArs, KaUvants 

or dancing-girls, as well as Christians aud Uusalm&ns, add pearls 
tad prvctoDs stouos. Most young children are decorated with 
knkleta, bracelets, and waist-girdles, either of gold, silver, or brass 

'ing to the means of the parents, and are allowed to play 
ihu house generally naked. Tho License Tax retiimit for 

jtve a totul of 361 licensed goldHniitliii, and the total number 
- ^ Liianiiths according to tlie census of 187i! was 2220. 

Ac ElArwAr, Earota, and Ilon&var, a few V&ni merchants and 
baduTs own locally built pkatem&ri«, tnachvdo, aadpadata. Besides 

Chapter V.i 



p nim an Bisd tor the grant of rMbmatloa 1mm*. Btdb appllMtiM U du^xaod 

■!• mcrita. Id lesoh. ia iIm vi1l>g« of AmdalU w Aiilrab. iunrqr 

rn ini! ol 4]|Mt«aatMl 183 <■( UlUacTM ww* giron to ana BU Sunbhog 

iibbog oD coadHicn of JMfuw oiH-<i^tk of tbu roll aa w itnent (or 

-e ycus. ona-tonrtli ol IM fan MMMincnt lor Um Muoiid tkn« jmn 

^bail U.i tbo third Utno ytsn, tlu«e.fonrUi» (or th« (ourth thrw nan, ud 

I (nil aucwiincBt from 1893-M. Tbc puj-iMBU for local (niid« an tkNagboat 

I un Ui« (ull 3SaMMn«Bt. 

CBmnbaj Ouettesr, 

Chapter T. 





tliCHO trading bonis, Duniben of smalt craft aro o\niDd bj* thfl soft- 
foj-ius classes, Khiirvin, Harkantara, MogorSj aud Gilliit^, )iy Ddldi 
Mnrattn&uH, aud bv BhaDd&ris or |}«ilm-jaico drawvrs. These boats 
are soncrally used in Bshing and m carrying groin up tlio rivore and 
crocKK. About twelve jxtr cent in considcrMl a foir ralo of ioieretC 
OD oapital iDV€«Uxl in suippiug. The Average cost of a new voaad 
is about £8 (Ks.80) the ton. 

Id Kdnaro iiu cla-tx' haa a monopol; of monoyloniling. A)l who 
havo nvonvy Idnd it at interests SbeQTJs, S^msvats, Uarign, Hiibbug, 
Jmshis, Gujars, Y^nis, BUtiaif, Baniigs, Maaalm^s, Native 
Chriiitiana, wtll-to-do husbundinoii, <tvcn Hliandaria and KaUvanta 
or dancing- girts ntlvatico iHOiiey on b<<uda and Komctimos on pc^rsonal 
security. In rttnU parts large landlii:>lder9 called lamindtin or 
khatediirt, ciiiofly lla\-igs, Sbonvia, Ha b bus, JoiHbitt, NAdors, 
BiisiuditkfLrs, llalvakki Vukkals, niid Koukanis, aro the chief toobot- 
luitdflrs and grain-dLiilcrM, mid tlioy »omctiinc« take payment in grain. 
No class of moneylinidora doaUi solely with townspeople and well- 
to-do hiiHbaudmon. The district has no banking e^tidilishmcnt and 
Uioro are no inoneylcndots of tho MArwdr V4ni casU-., 'ITie nioitl 
inijK^rtanL moneylenders aro BrtLbmans, GujarH, Bbutiit8, Uaviga, 
V4ni8, and LingiLyats. All iit-vdy hnsbanduioo and villagers look 
to their lHn<I|iinl» for loans. These loans arc mostly raisod to 
moot spociul charges such as wedding expenses and 8oinu4iin08 to 
buy seed and tielu stock. As a rule a husbandman cannot mao a 
loan without mort^iging land, and in some cases movable property is 
also mortgngc-d. The yearly interest nsually charged is from six to 
twelve per cent without possession, and from ihrco to six per cent 
wiUi posaeasion, Itisnsnalfor edacatod creditors to kwip their 
accounts in bookfl called khdtan. Those who are unable to road and 
write keep no written account** of tnuisactioas and have to rely on 
tfaoir bonds. As a last reaouroe, resort '& always had to the civil 
cotirta for the recovery of debts. Imprisonment for debt is 
uncommon. Complaints are made that bonds havo been forged or 
passed without considenitioii, or that iiart payments )iave not been 
credited, bat tliotw cumplaints are seldom proved. Moneylenders 
do not nsunlly employ r wrilt-r or acconntaiit. ^Vhen they do tho 
writer or jfHtNfiufa has the duties of an acoounlnnl. His paydopends 
on his roaster's circumsiunces and ranges from £7 10«. to £10 
(R».76-K».10O) a year. Sometimes abMV4fi(0ctober-November) 
or on tho occasion of a marriage ho guttt a gift in addition to 
his pay. As his employer's agont, a dork enjoys comptu-alive 
iodcpendcnco and is paid £9*) to £-10 (Ks.iJOO-Ita.-HlO) a year. I1ic 
only district traders who Uavo agents are the Gujar^ and Cutoh 
traders at Knmta and Kdrwir. 

Tho yearly rat© of interest on ^ood socnrity varies from nix to 
twelvi- pi'r <H«nt; without security it risiM to twenty-four per c«nt. 
In suiftll dealings, when an urticio is given in pawn, the rale la 
twelve percent ; in middling tranwictions nine jier cent is miaally 
charged, bnt in cases of extreme need it rises to eighteen per 
cent ; in the few hirgo dealings, with a mortgage on land, or on boose 
or movable properiy twelve per cent is usually charged. Louit with 




'■'-:i on cmps are not common, an1c«8 in chsm of regular 

-ii(p.i wlion the asaaX retu i'h charged. In rcgulur mortga^m, 

tgttfiictl property is made over to the raortgagoo, ho iiHimlly 

[>r™lHfe iiistrodof interest. If thopropopty muiaiaK with 

- , twclvu ]>or cent is Ihu H«int chnrgv, tlionf^li at timea 

Minntl autiii^LimtiK it ta ftft low M ttix. I't-tty advances 

wiLbout iateroat are nccasionally made by a laadholdor to hJH tenant. 

Tn other caaes, aooording to thoir ability to pay, poor hintbauduiun 

tiuiTovring on pofHonikl ttucunty arc chlirgod twelve to twenty per 

wnt or I'.voh higUor- In KArwAr when tho landlord providea hU 

tenant with eM-d, ii i« retuniod mxm ftfl«r harvest with fifty per 

cent over the quantity lent. On money invested in bnying huiises 

and landit a net gain of six to twelve per cent ia doomed a fair 

rwtnm. Liignor and other con tractora, who»o instalments ano over' 

■Im,' nnd uiarchaulA in timoK o( prottaiDg need, when a bill or s 

.d has Co be met, l>orrow money for short porioda at monthly 

nwi averB^ag ono to throe per cent. 

Kxcopl H^vakki Vakkals, Nddors, and a fow oiher woll-to-do 

classes, most buHbaudmon, G&m Yakkala, IXalepdika, Kunbi 

^' ' U,h^ Kumiirpiliksj Gaundis, Gli&dis, and othura, aro forced to 

TV ^niiu. Tliese grain adriuices are repaid in November- 

' :■ whrtn the crops are reaped. Except in Kiirwdr many land- 

IvancB grain to thoir poorer tonanlx for seed or for food 

mg inlerettl. Wlien tho liiudlonl domauds interest, if 

;i» bw^n made on condition of itt< being nipaid in kind, 

ail uxtm fourth, or somottmcfi au extra half, i» re'inirod. Tf tho 

H--"i->y valno of the grain hna to bo repaid it ia regulated by tlie prico 

' grain when ndvancod. Thu conditions of an advance made 

'Ti-dcalcr arc till' iiaoio as those mudvhy a landlord when 

lift iiitoroMt, When a tenant is too poor to bny live stock, 

are siipplii'd by the landlord on condition of being paid 

I .e hundredweights of rice for a buffalo and two to tliree 

liiirj'lredweightA for a bullock. If tbo ndvanoo is lookod on as a loan 

I., }(..■ repaid with iiitorcst, twolve per cent is chargod. Whoii cash 

li;ui ((> bo Iwrrowed for wedding or other expenses, the lenders, if 

- 'raderfl generally charge aix to twolvo per cent intorost if 

4 pledged, or twnlv« to oighteon poroi»tt on personal or 

' ily. Such tninxHOtionH are entered in the lendont' 

if tliey arn of oonaiderahto amount, or if tlmy aro 

itnH ut ieai than £5 (Its. 50) they are noted on loose slip« 

. . , (per called ptdii* or yads, Tho porsonal crudit of most poor 

hn^bandmen exionds to JtIO (IU.100). 

" the po<irer huBbandmen reap aluirTeai snRiciont to moot 
.:« and )>ay their creditors, and few own carta and piwk 
i-ka wherewith to cam carriiit;!? wago or havo other means of 
liood. Still tho poorest liu.tbnndineD, though often in doht, 
< „'o to support lliemselvea without leaving the district In search 
-': , Military service is seldom songht oxocpt among 
> \iA and Native Chrislinns and a fow ooact Mar&tli&a, 

HAkUtlai'L'i, nnd Komllrpitikg. When the harvest neaaon is over a 
^^^Iper of tho poorer cbaa of busboDdmea find employment in 

Ouipter T. 



I Bombay OuctMer, 

Chapter V. 


pal>lic, local fond, Eor«St, mnaicipal, aad otber works, in making 
and repairing rmdu and bridges, broukin^ metal, and gathering 
myrobaUns. Eom&rpliik», HalopAiks, and HidiH iUho work in the rica 
betel and ipioo gardens of Sirai, Siddllpur, YelUptir, 8upl^ and 
Kamtu, the snpply (A tield bbour having been lately iocreatt^d by 
the reittrictions placed on wood-ash or kumri cnltiration. Till lately 
the cotton nresses at R&rwdir and Knnita gave omployincnt to many 
a poor {amily- ^"^^ ''"^ demand Cor lal>our at theso pressM haa of 
lato grooUy fallen. The Kirvi&r press works for only a short p^iod 
in tlio year. 

The diEtrict yields grain enongb for itj; populiitiun. But (he better 
kinds of rioo, onch aa itdbanwili mathati and kai/gn, which un.> used 
by thu higher classes of llr&hroans, well-to-do Mnsalm^n*, and 
Native Christians, come from South K&nara and Maisnr. The stapto 
food of the lower classes la coarse rice and ragi. Oommou rice is 
also brought from Soath KAnsrs to a small extent, Dnring the 
rainy season the imports by sea owse and tlie price of grnin rises, 
At the same time some millet or jear! comes from Dh&rw&r into the 
parts of the district above the Saby&dri hills. The {acilities for 
inland traffic are good, Excellent roads join the chief towns and 
villages, and tho rivers, with which the country i^ inlersoctod, are 
navigable by boatA of half a Ion to ten tons burden. Except during 
and after tho 1876.77 famine, of late years there baa seldom been 
any considerablerigeintbepricoof grain, and as local foilure of cain 
is almoMt iiiiknowii, the poorest, though burdened with dubt, rarely 
BuRer serious privation. 

Though aa a rule a husbandman has current dealings wilb only one 
creditor, cUHOS in which a borrower is indebted to several creditors are 
not rare. In such cases the oreditore do not arraogo to share the 
debtor's property ; each tries to be before Uie other in their efforts 
to get what they can oat of him. Instances are rare in which money- 
Icndors, gaining nothing by imprisoniog a debtor, cease to nrea^ 
their claims and write off the sum as a bad debt. Croditors seldom 
imprison a debtor except with tho object of forcing him to pay. lo 
bad cases, when the amonnt of the debt is small and the debtor is 
unable to pay, creditors sometimes remit the interest wholly or in part. 
Sometimes when n landholder is nnablo to meet his engagements 
the creditor buys his land for a small sum. Complaints that tho 
debt<»- has been charged a larger amount than he has received arc 
said to be rare. In all civil ciiirls mua,<airee are said to be taken to 
ensure the service of summonses on tho corroct party, and debtors 
seldom aswrt that they are ignorant that a suit has been brought 
against them. So long as the moneylender is certain that tho 
debtor is in good circumstances, ho rests eatisfied with what he can 
anin horn him under fear that the decrcv will be put in execution. 
But when tho debtor is badly off the creditor always insisltf on 
reci-iviug soiuo property tn mortgage. Creditors are said aeldon 
to buy the property of tho judgraont-debtor at court auction sales. 
It is diEBoult to say whether property sold iu executiou of a decree 
does or does not fetch its proper value. Tlie property itsoU is 
not Bold, only the jadgment-debtor's right and iutercat iu tho 
property. If it is uterwards foond that the debtor has no right 




to thd property tbe buyer has bought nothing. If, as a incmlier of a 
joint familr, the debtor ia entitled only to a sbare of tie property, 
tbe buyer hu to suo for a division and in tbuuiidmay find thv tibart) 
worth bat Uttit;. Ur ugniti the jii(l(fm(;nt>tir(Ktitor m»y find that 
the projwrty is mortgaged nearly or quite to ita full moe. For 
tlieae reaaona the price paid for property sold in execation of 
decrees is often nominal, bnt trickery in those aalea is almost oovcr 
complained of. On tbv whole, though monoylenders are somctimea 
ezBctiug, tho borrower* ara generally aatisfiod with their Uinas. 
Agrarian crime is ouknown. 

Land is transferre'd in ono of foar ways : Land given up by its 
ludder or xold by Guvommcnt on account of the holder's failure to 
|»y hill rent is taken or Ixtught by othora ; land is sold under tho 
oruera of the civil court ; land is Ininsftfrrt-d by voluntaiy siilo or 
mortgage ; land on the coast is Homelimes given in ponnnnent 
tease called mH/y-^wt and also on naJ^ or vulgt. Within the laat 
(ew yi-nrx, c«pvcially in Kilrwiir and Ankola, more land has been 
sold than formerly on u£Ouunt of holders failing to pay the 
enhani^d aasessmeatd recently introduced. A conHiilurublo (guantity 
of land is yearly sold under the orders of the civil courts. After the 
uttroduirtion iif the sitn'vy, numbers of occupancies were Bold in 
f :< '^f d&cre«a and tlte salu price of the land was made over to 

jij (Creditors. But where thelandn were heldon a int(/</fnt or 

?rrn>aneni loaeo tho tenants' rights were not affected by these sales. 
n.n«fi;rfl bv Voluntary sale are nnoommon. Moneylenders and 
landholders, Shcnvis, Havigs, Hubbus, Tinis, SisashtkArs, 
'>iti\icTskdrs, Nav&iyat MnaalmAng, and Christians, advance monuy 
un laud morl>ra^ea. In some caees the mortgaged land is made 
rtgfl^c ; in others it is kept by tae mortgager. The 
. is (utlhril hfutg^ddi and the latter tondav. In either 
'taae ail tiiiuge arran^mento, tho payment of tho Govumment 
' tm(?«sment, and tbe disposing of the cropa, ta\\ on the party in 
•'sion of the land. Of tho two varietifie of mortgage 
i.--*.wuctury or hfioysfifU mortpagca are tho commoner. In Buch 
cases tbe mortgagee in vested with tho moIo possession of tlie land 
for a definite period. At tho close of the specifiod time on payment 
of tho mortgage, he should make over tho land to the mortgagor. 
In aoine casus it is agreed that n portion of tho profits should go to 
niGtt the interest and the rest be uuductc«l from the capital. When 
'ipulation is made the mortgagee is bound to rcleaso the land 
." ■... close of the period epeciited in tbe agreement without receiving 
Quy furtJicr payment. 

L.iud is nover mortgagod without a rej^ilnr writing in which 

thv sum for which the est«to is mortgaged, tho pi^riod for 

I it M mortiniged, tbe rate of interest, and other conditions, are 

d in dotau. In the case of mortgages with pos6«ssion tho 

r intereet varict, bttt it is seldom more than ton or twelve per 

: yeau-. If the luorlgageo has planted trees he is paid at a 

i> fixed rate equal to the expense he has iDcurred. Both 

' -: and mortgagees let part of their lands to touanta mostly 

^ >> or yearly leases. The tenant givt:« a writing obliging 

C3iapt«r r.| 


Cluster 7. 

IBomlMr Oaietteer. 




bim^f to payac^rtaiD rent for tlic yoAV, and iiiKome ca.-9C9 reciiivM 
a CMunterpart leeae called yeduTttnitdi or liivoKi dtU. At tlie vUnta 
of ttie season a yearly tenant is liable to be ejected. Long atandinx 
debts nro soniotimos rocovcrvd bjr inslalmuQtH, land btnn<^ held 
iu niortgago as itcoiiritv for thv ))aymvi>t of tho inbtnlmonta. 
In such caaes no regara is paid Co mt«a of int<^rest. A corlain 
arbitrary amoant is fixed as mtereet on the capital for a certain 
titnu nud tliu eutu formi>d by the addition of tho ciipital and the 
inturottt is ilividud into equal or progrosaivo y<nir)y instaliuunta 
payable within a certain number of jiiam. Failure to pay entaiU 
much hardship on the debtor, as tlie mortgages which in such cases 
am generally simple are rory strict. 

The mortgage of land is no new practice in Kllnaro. In 1316 
Mr. Blane wrote to tlie Madras Board of Uevonuo thuL a great 
number of uftlntes were held on mortgage, the yearly profits 
being taken as interest on the debt and for tho gradual cfischarge 
of the principal. In some cases Cbo mortgi^u was for a turm of 
years, and tbo Inudx woro made over to the morlfpigee for a tiine 
which wascftleiilnlod to bo nufBcient to pay off the amount borrowed. 
In some tlie mortgager continued in possession of his own land, 
but with power to the creditor to foreclose the mortgage at a stated 
time if the debt was not paid. In othom tlio owner held hia 
owu land as tenant ondor tho mortgagee, or, by a still further 
complication, as sub>reuter under the mortgagee's tenant. Siuoe 
184q tho rise in the price of grain and garden produoO) tho opening 
of gomnniniootinuii, and other lot-al irn prove ni en t-i Iiavo (winded to 
lessen the nuinl>er of sales, mortgages, and other CraDsfera of land. 

Workmen and husbandmen sometimes raise money by mortgaging 
their labour for a term of years.' The rate at which the 

< Th« (ultowiiiu An tnuwlations «f fear bood* excc<it«<I in Bird : 
(I) Iluclut &tid Cbnrdo, Kin* of -Shivojiik, living in AmiMkU liasilet in ShfrTur 
villauc tit Korar MAjaii b RinI, in lavitnr d Nilrnnppa Ilc]^* trm td Vir«|>pa 
llt^«, rvMilenl of DoTitar, lnulit<lixl in ifao aIkiw Tlllag«, Tliia lUy ve h&vw 
Irarrowwl frum you th« mb oI £12 (H#. 130) which ir« rMnirv to mMt tbn ripriiM* 
of ChaT<U'Hnuniue. TIid ratu of inUrcvt agr««d for is (b. 12p*r cant "•« 

t« B«. 15 a y«M. A* vc nrc anoblc fi piiy oe tho prioDipal UKt iU ml- il> 

wQlicrreniidcvjon MaL^bourct until tbsdobt it pwd. You will «u|ii>l> .-jini n-iUi 
food M»d nimtiDt, and in addition bia moolUy pay wiU bo Itii.2 Yoa will dcdnol 
tUe intenift from bia pay and the balanoa «iU fo to pay olT the uTinaiiml. Tbu 
*ocaDni «riU be luailu up nt the end af er«ry yoar. tVfaen tbe whole aiiiimiit is 
oloand ynu will ^ve tuKk this docutnnnt duty codoiacd and alao diooliArge L'hirda 
tram vour Mfrios. Exocntcd tho 12th ot May 1882 

WitnwMa, Signed 


(3) IrStTSnuna, aad Ibuap)a, M)ni of Damiili, living in NihnhalK in Sini, in 
tAnmr of SbtnAv Ilogde, lou u! Vaukappa Htgde, whu tivM in th« aims village. 
W« have thii day borrowed frum you ftK.S0O for Uie marri*^ of oon of na, 
Tlauua, TVolve pur cent inteioat ku* be«o aettled for thi* ainonnt and wa 
bavat^r<Md to at-idvb}'(bu coDilitiana mentioned heranndcr for tlie paymoot "( thi* 
■kbl' Timoia will acrru at vour plaoe, and tha aunt el Ra Z6 wuich y<>it liaro 

Coniatd to par him a* hia hire lor AGO daya eraiy year will go to pay uff tlie 
terMtt aa well aa the ptiodpaL Till the whola debt la ckarDd Tinuna wiU 
aarva at your place and la caaa of liia alxwnce ths TMt el na will atrro and tfaul 
w* will pay off the whole amount due to yon, 1( any of o* dactuio to act up to tha 
outtditioni agreed, wo hold ontaulvo* fully i«aponBibl« to oaake ftooA vrarj aort of loan 
yM laay incur by our (ailiuv, in a«Mitian to the paymvut ot hitaratt, Aocordtnglfr 




■ 1 > .er*9 sorrice ut vnliipd ilepciuls on bio ncctl, hi* credit, sod his 

! of work. To pay » bond ot £10 {Its. H)0) by liibour, tlie 

-"■prtice of a luau of fair workiujf power would be valued 

-. 8) with or 8s, {R*. I) without foo<l ami clolhinp. IIo 

i ttitiM lake FfHir yi'itnt and two moutlin witli fuo<l and two 

- . -- auil uiie mi>utti without food to repay a loan of £10 (Kh. 100). 

The monthly Hemco of aa expert worktnaa would be valued at 8*. 

" !) a month with and IS8.(Rs.6) without food and clothing. 

: hiifibiindinoii and workmen g«n«ndly inortgngo tlioir labour 

tandlordfl on whoso lands tliey live, but they not uncommonly 

'■■ th^eir Berric«8 to ino&ied men of their own or of other vilbigea. 

1 1 the debtor takes his meals at the creditor's honso be is 

ic<l to fjivo his whole tJmo to bi« maator's work. When bo 

his fnod at hiit own house ho in allowed thrco bonrn in tlie 

'■i>j when he may work for any one he pleases. Tho moneylender 

kiB no right to the services of tho bondsman's wife and (children, nor 

ho oadertake to feed him, houee him , or pay any charge for htm, 

< an e^russ stipulation in made iu the bond. In exceptional 

Ifibaut Mo 

lor vliatorer tine tbe priadpal ronaiM uapud, we we b«iii»d to pajr Um istemt. 
At tliF Old ot vteqr yoar the aMonnt wiU M nude «p wid rMcipt Uk«a Enwa >-ou 
hiUu Boiouiit pud and nn Hillcantiiiueloactapta thooonditioai dstaijod abArn. 
Wk«a |]ia «bol« unounl M iiiiO thia dovumcut sill bo Uk«n hack Irton you dolj 
BiantMl tb« S4tb ol &by ISHl. 

WitDraMv, Sigasd 


It] Strn. Djnva, aad Uonfipat aoM of Ha)>l«« Biia, lirins io talor in Sirei, in 

" -idtebava Hcgd?, ^oa of Krishoa Hogdu, living; in Ohippigc in SinL W« 

'i:* iaybonDnrd f(om yoo Ba. ©0 ri!i|tiiR>ii for tin uiartugn of oup oJ ua Dyiva. 

U(. ^„ not la a poaitioa to pay back tlii< auiouiit to j<m, but in ila placa 

(fitc to tb* talloiring eandttiant ; Ono of «■ thrcA will properly (ervc at yuui- pW'o 

*"' ■' '!'. of Ba.18, the aalary agreed, will go towuda tho piymcnt of tba 

■ ■ >unt aud tbi* nrvio: will coDtinac till Uio whole amcuuit la paid. Thaa 

ril will Im taken back from joa doly inidane<3. If without any 

iOtn Uin inrrico u dcnlvil aoy day contrary to tho cnndittona of thlH 

ajptt* t>> pay you in one tunp ribi tho amount tliat may rcntaia 

nil that (lay, tigMit with iiitoTMt al Sfi per cent which will bo eakslstod 

antonnt thpn dutt. Thb bwd wilt thoa bo tabon back dnly endMied. A* 

r.u pTomiMyl to pay off the dobt by M-rriiH', tbn ronponaihUity ol Mi*ir«tiaa you 

ffMa wilK ail throe of n», ahnald *e by actiDK vuitcary to the cooilitinna oif thia 

ritBcnt break our fnitli with yon. Tliii buad u cxHi^iitod with oar tuU OMiMat 
dav ihc 3»d of Juao 1S81. 

U'iiDuuc*. Slgnad . 


^iiauua bin Malla Ualayar, liviog in naMilgB ia Ih* Kalnni village of Kamr ia 

. /.....lit oj Karnalibatto ton of .Sbanka'bfaatta, aUo liriag in Uinpiyc On 

x'O iHirmwcJ Iruca you Ra. 10(1 for luy tnnrriagc. I am nnablo to pay 

in ■ laapaiim a* 1 tuva aoothor auiaUiice. t hare therefore ajfreMl 

:>aiHHia tn |u>y aff tbia amonat by anTioo. My oiniitbly pay wul bo 

ilyou will lira ffYv iim «vtirT y^at a bluiket, a waiaUsloth bva j-anla long. 

uf time jaidAung, and fur tb«iiw ol my wife a rolwand Iwobodicoa. 

ill work at yoar plauo. Mr pay will tto lowarda tba doariag of tbo 

''>rc th« dobt i« olearod we koop away (roui your aarvlco and wttond 

. WD vill Diulergo Ibe pnniahmeot awanlod to u« by the Sirkur for 

nVitl<! by the coaiditiaa* of tlu« cooitracl, and attor die puDiabment ta 

' I Utioor at your place «nd thof dmr off tba itobt. Alau wa will not 

I .iiitnuy to tho OMiditiooa nxaitiun^l abovo. Tbta Mrrioo bund ia 

r. iriui my plvamnand WMHnt, Ibiiday tbo lltb of Octolwr 1861. 

.«aa^ Ej«gn«d 

- ,3««I- ■ 


(Bombfty Ofttetteer, 


Chapter V. 

\hoae Moctgagc. 


cases whcm tbe bondxmiin in very D«€cly, tbe creditor nuppliea bis 
onliiiiiry wuuU. Theuaiit<er baa no power to transfer bis right over 
tltb )H)nd9inBii, except with tbe bondsman's oonseot. If theubouror 
refuaes to aervd his mastur durinif the term of fats esffogomoiit, the 
master has no legnl redress. The civil ooart« do not belp tha 
master iu eotoroing bis iiilumrt^r's serrioea even in cases of written 
boudx. lAbonr is Holdom plod^od exo^ b; men of the lower claese*, 
Holarars, Mh&^, Mokris, Dhivar^, Parvare, CbchalviidiM, Agor», 
Dheds, HntsT&afs, Kengdrx, Kiisals, Kur^rs, Bnttals, BelieTs, and 
Hatgtlni, who an? forcod to borrow to moot m»rriiige expenses. About 
twenty labour bonds were broaght for registration in tbe Sirei end 
Sidd&pur sub-divisioas in tbe year 1880. 

Labour is pledged chieHy for boiuebold work and for work in 
rico fiolds. In spide gardens poor Ilavig womon, in rctom for 
food and clothing, fterve in the nous^olds of Hnvigx, doing bonse 
work and helping lo water the gnrdvii. Men of the dcgmded castes 
who pledge thf^ir labour geuerally live iu the gardens of their 
protectors or on the ontiikirts of towns or villages m small bamboo 
nod pcdm-li-»f hul«. 

In 1800, the yearly wa^s of hired male eerriuits wlio were 
gvncmtly engaged by the yoar woro £2 H«. (Rs. 24), besides 
three meala a day and once a year a blankiit and a handkerchief. 
The women, who were hired by the day, wore paid about throo 
poundH (1^ thrrt) of rough rict^nndabout l^tj. (I auRA)aday inca.sli.' 
The money wage of both skilled and uuakiUed labonr has risen 
considotabiy during the fifty-eight years ending 1881. From 1824 
to 1859 the monthly wages of a palauqnin<bearer or hamdl wvra 
IU. 8d. (Ka. &|), and of an ordinary unskilled lalxiuror from 
6s. 3J. to 7». tW. (R8.3i-R8.3i). Tho monthly wages of a 
carpontL'r or skilltMl labourer wied during thu muno thirty-six years 
from II*. 3d- lo l.ja. (Ra.&J-Rs.7i). Uuring the next fouryeam 
(1860-1863) thu monthly wages of a hamdl or palanquin-bearer 
remained at Ibt. (R<i. 7jt), und of au ordinary onskilled labourer at 
1 1»L 3*f. (Bs. 5S) ; but carpputor's wages nearly doubltfd varying from 
£1 28. 6d. to £1 10s. (R&llj.R«. 1!>). Uimug tbe last sixteen 
years (181>4-1880), both skilled and unskilled labourers have bevo 
paid by tho day, the ekillod labourer getting one shilling lo two 
abillings and the hamdl or piiliui<juin-bc4in'r 6d. to 9d. file ordinary 
unskilled lulmurcr's wages have varied cousidorubly during ihetse 
sixteen years. For tho iinst two years he wa« paid 6rf. (♦ aru.) a day. 
during the next seven ycar« his wages rose to Gld. (H atu,), from 
1873 to 1873 they were between i\d. and 9d. (8 ant. and 6a?»i».),diirii« 
tho next two yosrs they varied from 4}^. to lid. (3-8 ans.), and 
Erom JS78 to 1880 thoy were between 3\d, and ^l. (3J-0 «>ur.). 

At present (1882), the ordinary day wages of unskilled workmen 
are, for men Hd.boOd. (3-6ajw.), tor women Sd. to 4{d. (2.3aiM.l^ 

■ BaohanAii^ Uy»af, TTI. SST. K&aani wdffhia «n4 mManrca diCbr M wid«1]r in 
Moh rab-diviMon, crai In miuiy ol tbe patty itirlilaitf, ttiit Bnj^uh •qairxleaU of 
«A«r«, MtiiH, aod JAomU* mu olferod nith muvli UcutNtiua. At t£« b«tt 1fa«; we not 
mon 1 liaa •pproxUnaWj «anvot. 



indlor otuIdrenl}<I. to Sd. {1-2 aua.). Twenty yean ago tlw mtM 

wore 3(f. (2an4.) fora niAD,2j<f. (H ana.) for a woman, atid 1^. 

r ft b<>5 or girl. The workmen umployod in tjie K&rKir 

^3«a are paid, l^d.toG^d. (I)-*| ana.] furftitiMi, 4^*1 to SJA 

(d-2tanN.)fora womafi.Si/. (2aiu.)fof aboy,aDd i^d. {]^am.) for 

"tf^-l. Tho monthly vra^s of a masoti rary h^m £2 8«. iW, (R«. 241) 

•"wir b> £1 lOo. (Rs. 15) in Kamta acil Strei ; tliOM of 

B i^rpeiitar from £2 8a 9d. (Rs.2-(3) in Kirwtir lo £1 ]?«. 6(i. 

(Re.ltf}) in Sirfli and £1 lOs. (Rs. Ifi) in Kamtu; and those 

ef a blacltsmitli from £2 8». 9d. (Re. 24j) iq K&rw^ to £2 &r. 

(B«. 2Si) io Sirsi itiia £1 10«. (Ba. 15) in Euuta. All day-workera 

uo iK>inc!im4!c< &n<I Geld Iiibmirontarogonorallj paid in grain. Wages 

ira paid daily, we«kly, furUiighlly, or monthly nocording to 


' " 'ate years the position of day-labourera baa been improTod hy 

.' maud for liibgnr in thu public workii and fore&t departmoate 

nui by the sprettd of trilago. No (tpt'cial olaases of day-labourors 

f^y^ money. SaTings art) gon«rally s[>ont in buying clothes or in 

;t ornaments Tor women and children. A largo number of 

-iTHjiien spend part of their income on liquor, Mlulrs, Dhed», and 

Chdabli&n bcingexcftMiivcly fom) of drink. The service of women 

Uildren la specially required ia Uiu tielda during four seasons 

year, for weeding and transplanting in Jane and July, for 

Wrntiog in October and Novemtwr, for wat+hiiig in November 

tci? DwcmbtT, nnd for rit^-huflkiug Iwtwotn January and March. 

:ier time^ they uro employed on th« roads ana other public 

- - . D.S. lu Bpito of the increase in the supply which has {oUowed 

llic restrictions oowood-aeb or itiimrf tillage, the local demand for 

•nskilli^] laboar is in cxct-an of tho sapply. It is met by ontsidera 

frtmi Ooa, BatDligiri, Houth KfinarO, ana Malabtlr. 

rty price detnilf, with the exception of the nU'x for 1828 and 

'.' rira avtulable for the fifty-nine yearsending 1882. During 

-oine years the mpt-o prico of rice of toe second sort, 

m tiio staple gmin of the district, varied from fourteen posnda 

1 to tixty-fonr poonds in 18-1-2 and averaged forty pounds. 

Hie whole fifty-nine years may bo diTidod into bcvcu perioda. In 

015 Sret period of eighteon jciira (1624-18-H), in which fignrea for 

lid 1S32 are not availublo, the prtoas arerngod fifty poundit, 

"'-t. being (ifty>eight pounds in 1829 and 1830 and tho 

L '.y-two in 1826. The second period of three years (1842- 

i?4-i,i wiih an average price of sixty-two pounds the rupoc^ was a 

Sma of very cheap groin, sixty-four pounds in IH42 being the 

lowest and fifty-nine pounds in 1818 theoighcst. Tho third period 

nf twnlro yt-am (1840-1853), with an average of fifty-one pounds 

Q of moderate prices, the highest being forty pounds in 18&6 

.':: lowest sixty ponnds in 1851 and 1852. Prices rose high 

fourth pcnod of scrcii yonra (1857-18SS) with thirty-three 

iwniids the lowest in 1857 and 1858 and twenty-five the highest la 

iS$S and an average of thirty pounds. In tho fifth neriod of six 

'1864-1869) with an averse of seventeen pounds, there was 

Lber riwj with twenty -two pounds the lowest in 1868 and 

Chapter T. 


Cbaptor V. 

IBontey OuaUMT, 



{ourtoon lltohiglieRl ill 18*U. In the eixtli period ot eight yo»r» 
(1870-1877) with an average of twonty-aix pounds, prices were 
lower than in the fifth period, bnl they were RtUl high with thir^ 
pounds the lowest in 1875 »nd twwity-two pounda the highest in 
1877. During ihe aevoolJi period «( five years (1878-1882) prieOH 
reinninud high, tho uveraj^c being twenty pounds; in tho tirst two 
years they n>so from eighteen pounds in 1878 to seventeen in 
187y ; thev ihen fell to twenty pfjunds in 1880 and to twenty-four in 
1881 aud'1883. Thv detoiU are : 

A'dMTO Omln Pritf, tSt4't88I. 












































Rk<b bmI am... 


u t: 




















u n 


... w 

















SI » 


... at 




S) « 











BtM.tuI Sort 




M 40 

«0 M 










i> II 

11 n 

arnii Pume. 

§ i 

It le 





m » 

tteTsxTii rtaioB. 

Wel^ta. Though conviclionH for using false weighhi and meiuinres ars 

unknown, weiglitJt luid mcquinrcs are perhaps less uniform in EAnan 
than in any part of tho Bombay Prosidoncy. Eaeh sub-diviitiou »nd 
many petty aivi»oiiB have their own weights and nicaauros. 

ProciwHS «tone« and pearls are not sold by weight ^in Kinara.. 
Sin»ll pcftrlK are aold by the laddi or airing of twenty-fiTo to- 
l&O. Large pearU and other precious stones aro ftold singly. 
Gold and BJlver a re aold by small weights which vary in different 
plnees. Two sets of weights are oommon. Ono table i», six grains of 
rice <mc gunji or abnu seed, six tfiinjig one annn, and sixteen annaa 
one Ma. rhw other table is, six gminH of i-ice one giu\ji or abrns soud, 
twenty -eight Qtnji^ one vartnk, and SJ vartulm one loia. In sotne 
places a slight variation occurs in the first set of weights and a 



t'»tn!uti, which is equal in weight io tvo guttjix, is sometime)! added 
<} tiible. Qoa goUleiniths nite w«igbM of their own whi(.-h arc 
ir tg tboBO in use in the Kuiikan. Thi'se are, six jfraioa of rico 
;unji, eight ginjig oa© bwmi», and twelve nuMUM one /o/i.' The 
^ (^Derail; ropresented by the standard rii|>ce which woigha 
jurtju less than the real tola ot ninety-aix ^unjit. Twenty 

ouch toUiii in K&rwtir and twenty-four in other pW-cs m&ke one tlur. 

The weight a in nse for copper, bra^, tin, lead, iron, and »t«el 

in Ktlrwtir Ktimta and Haliyd), twenty lohit one iher, two 
or forty (<i/«> oil© raital or RngliHli pound, twenty-eight 

In Honitvixr Ycllrip^ir 

'■• ono man, and twenty marwone khandi, 
;j la, the tablo is twenty-fonr fotils one tker, six slteT» ono 

J r, two pa»ch-ahen ono ithaHa, fonr dliatld» one tnan, and 

twtmty »Mit» onu /cAand*. Tn Hiddttptir a uiinilar tabic is current, 
bat the pdnch-tlur h omitted and the dhaiUt is only twolresAer*. 
In Sirsi the corresponding weighta are, twenty-four iolat one 
tker, 24^ ahara one adoiefier, two ad'iishera one piUwrh'tlter, two 
piln^A-ii)i^« one dltada, four tlAot'o'ir ono mtiu, and twenty mans one 
' T -^Xty division of Bhatka) tho wci>;htH aro twenty- 

i J , 1 1 1 shers and foor toUi* one dhada, four dhadaa 
one sMM, and twenty mn'w ono khandi ; in Mundgod twenty tolas 
one a^t^r, 12^ ghen ono dhaJaf fonr (Ua(Ia« ono man, eight matw 
Ono hrm, and 2) Amw ono Maiult; and in Snpa twenty toldt 
one «/><T, 6^ xJUtji ono pi'mch-ffier and S pdncWAorA one dhada. Coffee 
and cotton, spices and condiments, butter and clarified buttwr, sugar 
' isaes, sandalwood and ebony, hide« and homa, dotoB and 
, boef and mutton, aud lietiilniitH are alM) in each Bub-di7ision 

:>ctty division »oId according to the weights UKcd in tho sale of 
- _ ie«B precious metala. Gunpowder and shot are sold by Iho pound 
of forty toidv. At the gnb-di visional hoad-qnartera ciiarooa) and 
ftTE'-.vood are weighed and sold by English pounds, quarters or maw, 
hiuiiinKlweightM, and tons. In otlier plaoi-si lirowood is sold by the 
heud or cart load. 

Two kinds of capacity measnres are in nse in K^ara, one for 

grain, the other for liquids. Tho grain measnroa are, for K^rwKr 

n-'l Ankola, thirty-two Iclm ono dtva, six <itv^ one kndav, twenty 

' m one khandi, and twenty khandit one kumli; for Kumta 

.t:.'l HonArar, nine toltif one tohje, two tolget one arrat, two arvals 

nu,i aidde, two siddes on© s/ier, throo ghors one kudav, fourteen 

kmiov-' ono miidi, twonty kmlavt ono kltandi, and foity-two mudis 

ooo k"rji-} for Haliyal ninety -six (o/«* ono slier, two ekerg one padi, 

two padU ono chiil^, mxteen cAtJfot ono tfakial, two vaklcaU one 

f'r-t', and ten hums one khandi; for Yellipar ninety->iz tolas ono 

. , two «Aflr« one pdv, two pam one ehitUi, two chUtat on© Jboff^a, 

' twenty Jtolpxu one khandi; for Sirsi ninety-six b)f^« ono sA«r, 

. tktrra odd kolga, twonty la4gda ono iAawJi, and twonty khandi* 



• OoliUmitha' wco^ta ar« HoeraJty amAtl roitnd, aquara, or 4|ght-«oniorad pieco* 
r.1 •-it:-''T>iii e* of bnun or hBll-nDtal. 

>vu mhI Kunt* 100 mmtii of imliiuk«d ho« m« coauddDdoqniJ to forty' 

(Bombay OftKtt««T, 



ono ^>rr« or big Ichandi; for Sidd^ur thirt;-six tstd» one siJdf, 
two siiltUt one kolga, and twenty kol^aa one chitni-kkandi ; for 
the petty division of Bhfttkal twoaty-oight tolas one ndtle, four 
giddee ono Ad4»«, two AanM oat) lcol(fa, &vo kol^dt ono kabhi, and four 
katshis one mNtlt or itAniKfjrn; and for the petty dirisioti of Mnndgod 
140 toldv one jmv, two pdvn one chitte, tliirty-two ehiltn* ono 
atu^tf, two amf^M one hem, Had four Am-m one Hand*. .Ligui^ I 
meaanreH are the samo (or milk, oil, p»lm-jai(^ aod aamrcaDe-jatoa 
The ^ablo cnrrout in Kiirwir ia four tolda one nat^njr, eight fuwtdnga 
QUO «A«r, tooMerit one dhada, and fonr dAodtw one man ; tMt in Aitkola 
18 thirty-three Utlaa one ffu£dd, four siddw (ma ckembu, and sixty* 
seven aiddes ono A4n£ ; that in Kiunta is twosty-fonr (elds one sker, 
mx shert ono j>iinc)i^her,ttQd two pdnch^ium one dhadn; in Honirar 
thirty •six. lolii* one <h«r, foarsAer8onep(£ncA-jtA£r,eigIit ixincA-vAn^ 
ono irnan, and two matw one hddu ; in HaJiyill, twenty toids one irler, 
three «^« one chembu, and «ixt«ea cAom^iw one man ; in Telli^]ar, 
forty iM« ono rattal, threo rattais ono cA«»ibu, and stxtoeo ehembua 
one man ; in Sirsti tweuty-fonr totde one «A«r, twelre ehera one il^kuii, 
foar<iAa^(i< one man, and twenty mana one khandi; in StddApur 
tJiore ia bnt one measure of twonty.four told$ called a «A«-; in BhatJcal 
twenty-eight totds ono aidde, four »idd«a one Aoho, and ton hunts 
ODB man; and in Uaodgod twenty tolds ooe «A«rj 12| «A«r« one 
(ttttio, (mu- dhatle* one man, eU^ht man* one Aeni or najKt, and 2| 
A«ru« or no^oa one khandi. In Supa the same gmin and liquid 
measures are current as in Haliyill. 

Cotton and wooll«n cloth, eilk» and brooadea, and tape are sold by 
the yard. Wiibtcloths, women's robes, and women's bodioe cloths aro 
sold singly or iu paira. Bambooe, cowdung cakee, betel leave*, matted 
ooooa leavee or sdpa, hewn atonos, sngucanea, frmt, and ^sh, and 
bncka and tilos aru sold by nnmbor. Grass and hay are sold by the 
hundred bundles or palU. Firewood, except at Rub-divisional head- 
qoarters, is sold by the head or cart load. Bamboo matting is 
measured by the surface and sold by tho cubit Boogh hewn stonofl, 
granite robbJe and sand gravel and earth arc sold by the braasof 100 
oubio feet. Ckiir rope ia sold by the bundle of lOI) cubit lengtha. 
Timber is measured according to the following tabto, IJ iocbes 
one vUca, twenty vUvd* one vda, fire vdsas one quarter, and four 

? Barters one AAant^t. Lime is sold by capacity nwasures of twenty 
udavt ono khandi^ and twenty khaiidi* one hirnb. 







Its Maboard of seventy'six miles, its large ratimries and navieablo OutptV 
•^--r-i and bacl:wHtor», andtliefasiDvssof (iOin« of italiill-posseiinave TnAb. 

'■ Ujiiivt of HiTtllfd ^p)vcmHHTit attracted a considerable trade to ., i n 
%&ja« comL Th« ch'ivt livM-s of tie district, the KAlinadi »«lyRoiit 
1 is navigable for twenty miles as fsi as Kadrn, tiiu Uaiiijiivali 
for lit't'-<«n tniks as far a^ Gundlulla, Uw Tadri for lifteen miles aa 
fitr lis UiipinpntDa, and thu Si^iirttvatt for oeventeen miles as f ar aa 
ipjia, which have all large cRtaaiies and ports ni.-aT tlieir 
■Tive much facility for loland traffic Uy small boats of one 
us. Besides along tlie rivt-rs, from very early times, the 
laiii iron erf the iiikiufdistricttt, and tlie local pepper beteluut 
r aQ<I saixlnlwo'xl prQlmbly came in headdoads and on bullock 
-ss back down ihe Anshi. tiiL> Kaiga, the Aibotl, the Dcviniani, 
' 'iTsappa. and other Salnidri paiwca. No traoo or tradition 
iiu ofcarty Hiudu roads or hitl-passes. Durina the aooond 
if die eightocnti) c<aitur>- Uaidar paved some of tno hill-naasM 
iaterite and granite and cleared some foot-paths througli tlte 
:s. Trac«->3 of tliese foot-patlui, which arv known aa.U«idU''s 
., n^iuHiii war th wBinfpainl Km irn hills, and at Kadv 

MiUiiJi. When, after the fall of Seringfiptam (1799) 

■ ame into the poAtiession of tlio Eii<;lish, there wert^ no 

Toails except foot-paths counectinj' tln^ chirf towns. The hill- 

- wi r.- riijyjud and iiiiuiacttcalttu, those chiefly usc-d buinc tlie 

') u.-^i^ the Kaiga, tlie i^bail, the Devimani, and the, 

" inca the English comiaeet c(»nmmiicattouii have been greatly 

>vcd. New high roculs have bttcn built and hill-passes opened 

u;^' the di-'itrict witli the Bombay KamStak, the Nutim'a . 

Liioiiit. Hellari, and Maimir. There are oey^teen chief p&saoa, 

two in KirwAr. tlie Oopshitta and Kaiga ; two in Houivar, Hogevadi 

anij Crtiridil-katta', six in Supa, Tinai, Kuveslti, Dtgi^, Kundal, 

Dliokarpo, and AnsM ; two in YclUpur, Ganeshgndi and Arbail ; 

* noriTi^ Uw Britiah npcnttiona b mpport «( tb* PmIiw* in 1603, tix 19-MUiiil«i« 
-y atom* uti provtriona von nioxai] Irnm Ooa tn Hllivti t""" ihc TisM 
!b«pMawMopi)M(UiiJr«pai»«>l. Duknaf WdHagtiwia W*p«t-:h« India. 
^ nw. 8«ll«a proriKioM, aUrtt kap, and rice werowwi Ukon (rom 
> MM loT Uiu tivow Uiitit itt ttonS Kinan. Ditto, 6SI-S8. Troop* ttwm 
^ - - -at movod to UbUj-U by the Arfeail gtm ia Jwww? ia03> Ditt^ S4% 


tBomlny Oatetteerr 



ChapUr TI. 


Four ill Sinii, Vadi. Ocviiiiani, Nilkimt), aixl Doilaiiiani ; and one in 
8iil<)it|>tir, (.ii-ntttppu. Of thvav «!venteen wmtivf t)w tlirE^ mowt 
iiiipoi-Utnt uro tlif^ Arbail in Yclt&por, the Deviniani in 8ii-si, and 
the tiersappa iii SiddiSpur,' 

Of the two Kiirwdr passes the Qops h itU Uea twelve mi\<m 
nortli-cflift of Kiirwiir, and Jouvt l^adni witli SodAshivgad. The 
Kaim pft«Sj nlxiul tw«ntr tiiil«8 ea»t of KArxAr, in crossed by 
tEoEirwiir-Yelldpur rood and ia not yet wholly paA-tahlv liy carts. 
Of the two Uoiiirai- hill-pflsses, the Hogevadi, twenty-two ttouth- 
ewti of Iloniivai'. aud tla- Gundil-kattA, tift^.'vii miles tu)nth-«ast 
of Hoiiilvnr, an: thu nonthmast Snliyiitlri pasMtt with liullock- 
treclca loiuliiig into Mai.tur ; they are seldom used. Of the aix 
Supa passes the Tlnai, thirty miles north-west of Supa and twonty- 
one miles loug; the Kuv csh J, fiftpiMi inilc« nortii-west of Supa 
and thirtftci) ii))K-» loii^ ; the~T>ifm, seventeen mili» wc:A of Supa 
and eight<!en miles long ; theKandal, twenty-two mites soutti- 
weet of fiupa and seven miles long ; and the Dhokarp s, twenty-five 
miles nortli of Kdrwar uud sLx niiles long, arc in the west of 
Supa, and all niwl thu Kiidra-Bcl^um imd by t h); A nnhi pas& 
Thc«ti are buU^ck -tracks, all leading into Portuguese ton-itory, 
and are chieMy U3e<l for the import of cheap salt and salted food 
from Oos into Supa and other adjoiuing British districts above the 
Sahy&dris. Tho Anshi, nV-out twiMity-live miles t<outli-wc«il of Supa, 
is cro«(.-<i(Hl In' the K^lra-IIelgaum mad. Of the two Yellipur hill- 
pasac9 the U anea bgudi hill-pass which lies nine mites west of YcIlA- 
pur ia croesetf by the YclIiipur-K(ulrK roa<l. Tin- Arbail lies twelve 
iwUes 80hUi of \elUpur, and over it njii-s the mcuillwl and bridgi»d 
K&rw&'-Dhiirwtir rgad from eighteen to twenty-four fi>et broad. 
Of tlie four Sirsi partes, the Vadipaas, about twenty-four miles west 
of Sirsi, has a road thirU'-iwo uUw long from Sirsi to HiUur, not 
practicable for carta, llic l^fyjni*"* 1'*^ twenty-one niile-f south of 
Sirsi ftiiil novt;iiteen cast of Kumta, and i.^ crossed by tlio nietalle«l 
and bmlgoil Kumta-Dhirwilr road which lh eighteen to twenty-four 
foet brood. 'ITie NUkund hill-pass, about sixteen miles west of Sirsi. 
has a cart-road up to the foot of the pass from Kumta to AniadalH 
on the DhArwJir-Kumta rood. The l>odumam bill-paA-'i, alxiut thirty 
miles West of Simi, hott a bullock-track eighteen miles long from 
Bilgi to Mankibail, where it joins the Nilknnd road. The Gersap£a 
hilt-paaa in SiddSpur lies about fifteen miles soutti-wcT^ of Sidd&pur, 
and IS croKsvd by a metalled road from the poH of tiersappa to 
_TalgHpi>a in Mai-iur. 

Tliere are f our man linea of roads , beginning from the noriJt, the 
KAdra-lkk iuun road by Supa antl the Anshi pass, li(ty-two milea 
long; the Kitrvfiir-Dhiir wfa r oad by YellApur and the Arbail pass, 
7*1 miles long ; the ICumU -Pbtirw ir road by Sirsi and the Deviinani 
pass. 78| miles long ; amTtlie AnkoTa-Bclki cou.>tt road, aboutscventy- 
tbn>c mdefi long. The Kinlra-Ri^^lgau m road by Supa, HaliyAI, and 
the Anslii pass, tifty-two miiC9 loug, leads into liolgauni at SKetoni 
It ia mummed ot trap-gravelled, partially Uidged, and during the 

?: TM >iholtheBoliai-i»»wtttogit^uiidCTPtooMofI''t<'rcrt. 




^ir 'ioiuioD ia pAsmhlo hv cart.v During the rains when the numoroii<i 
lies of the KiUuia^u overflow Uieir Iwmks, communication is kept 

• iry bamboo and wowl fcwt-bri'It^s. Thi; rttad passes 

ifiil roroist hikI liill .■sc'uDory. Bmiilo.s H dUtricl liunua- 
A anil a tniveDiirH' hungalnw at Supa, it has a uuiulier 
■rdluirmshaUia at convenient diatjuice.-i. ' The KArwir - 
1 hy Ycllrtpur ami tht Arl>ai! [ut-ii, I'+J mili's long 
^ t') twi?nty-fi»nr f<.-ct hroad, moets tlm IJhArsviii- frontier 

^pt ':op. lie road is 'bri<lg«d and motallt.-d throu;,'hout witli 

F" .itcandpieiM. About S127.830(Rs. 12.78,300) wci-c«pent 

[ _■ tlio first cij!ht«en miltut fivin Kiirwiir and in widening 

k II.'. leM. It« veiirly n^])(.ira-«))*tal)Out £;i;JO0 (Ka 83,000). It haa 
I Gvr> travcUera' buii^lous, lie^uning from Karw&r one c^acli at 
Sankiial, Arbail, Yetlipur. and Kirvatti. Thi* Kumta- 
roa>i by Sirsi luid the U«vJmiuii pft»«, with a length of 
iiTefl and a brt^adlh of twenty to twenty. four feet, meets the 
fir frontier at Ver^atti or ICrgati. Except for the first four 
ai»i] a half from Kumla, the road it mvtAllud Ihroii^hout 
^anit4- and t>chist. It is aUo bridged except at Devgi thre« 
from Kuiiita. whi-ro the Ta'Iri is oroaaed by ferry boot^i. It 
i-^* bimgalows, beginning from Kunita one each 
, Deviniani. Sampkand. Sirsi, Kkainbi, Palla, and 
>I Tiie outlay in making the T0a<l in not recorded ; iu voarly 

r : louut to alx.ut £3400 (Ks. 34,000). The Anko la-B^ lki ro*d 

cart-road seventy-three miles long. It liasTIveThivollers' 
.■■>is, Ix-ginninj; from the north one each at Ankola, Ciokain, 
II. Uou&var, and Munli-divnr. In adiiition to these trunk>roada 
Tich lines have been niatle of wliidi the following may bo 
' he KtiTEita-DhirwAr road has Iwen join«d by t-it^ht branch 
ill rom the Dhiirwiir fRnitier, at Mumigod, by the 

M ; r road twonty-five miles long; at Palla. by the 

d and metalled Palla- Bank^pur road of two miles made at n 
r ''73 (Ra. 750); at Ekambi, by the bridged and -metalled 
V ~:im»«gi rtwd of six miles ; at Sirsi by three roads, the 

' I niiii^udli'^l Sirsi-Biiniiviisi i-oait of fourteen miles wiUi a 

hni!<;atnw at lianaviai, iho Sirsi-Yellilpur local fond fair 
!i.:r bridg^'d nor metalled of thirty miles, and the 
il fund road temporarily bridged and unmetalled 
ity-lhreie uiiiivf with ft trav.dieri" bungalow at Sid<l(iimr luid at 
.. i.itni; at Sampkand, by tfie ^^amnkaiid-Kumta ruml through the 
Nilkund pass, unmetalled, partially bridges! un>l pailially passabla 
'- ■"• *" ■' irty-one milivf with a travtllerM' bungalow at Santcal; 
' by the .4c)ii.-4t-melalled Katgal-l'ppiiipattau road, a 
3ud conneeting the main line with IfitpinpattAn, the 
nHgable point on the Tadri river. 

iwir- Dtuii-wilr road isjoini^d by seven branch linos : Beain- 

.1 the Dhdrwiir fi-ontier, it is joined at YellSpur by four 

U roatU, the onmetalled and temporarily bridged Yellnpur- 

cart-road of about twenty-nine mile^ with an iron bridge 

rundi built at a «o»t of about tToOO (lU 75,000); the 
'^i bridged eart-njad of about fifty-four miles, which. 
. of about X84^0 (Ra, 3,45,000), was abandoned m « 
■ eis— « 

Chapt«r V] 

ChAptor TI. 


IBombay G«tett«or, 


Provincial road and han lnx'» coiiiiiIetH (1882) at a c<wt or abont 
£ I (iOO (Rs. IC.OOO) niul is nuuniMned from local Cunds ; the YulIApur- 
Barloilli fair >veather rood by Qaues}iKU>li of eighteen miles ; 
and tlie WlllipUT-naliyAl toiiiporariljr briili^d fair wvatlicr road of 
thirty miles with tlinjt- inn-snniv bridgiv* bnill at a cost of about 
XeOOO (Rf. CO.OOO) ; at ll('l.!.iil. two miles south of SnnksAI, bv the 
Hebbul'Siiiiikfttta unmctalled and brid;itd road of about eighteen 
luiles leaiiiui!; to the mouth of tlit; Tadri ; nt A{:p;ur, about i.-i|;ht iiiiIm 
west of Hcbbul, by the Ag-sur-Sir.ii temporarily bridged and trap- 
gravflk-<l or murumsd rood, about forty-three miles long and 
passable forcarta thirtv-tJirec miles frtun Sirsi to tlio steep top of 
the Vatli pass ; and at Balligiili, aNutt m milc-t vreat of Agsur, by tito 
unmctallcd Apiiir-Aiikola road, of two milea. 'Uk: Kadra-Btdgaani 
roflil is (iii't by four branch j-oada and four passes : Begiuuinc (torn 
thi- DhArwAr frontier, at JIaliyal by three road*, the Ealghttgi- 
HaliyfU fair weatht-r road of fourteuti inile» ; the Huliy^i-DliArwllr 
bridged and umrtetaltod road of fonr milea; and the Ualiyil* 
Belgaum bridged and unmctalled i-oad of nine miles to Lingammat 
bttift at a cost of about £51W (Rs. 51.*»0) ; and at Supa by tlio 
partially bridgwl fair weather tonyrd row! of about twoniv-four 
mile.t. Tbu four hill-passvH connected with tJie Kaiira-Bi-lgaum 
(■oad are, the Kuveshi of thirteen niikvs. the Digi of eightefn. the 
Kuiidul of (wven, and thi- Dliokari'a uf six. All of tlicm ait buUuck 
track.t joining ibe Kadra-Uelgaum road with Ooa K'rritory. 

Besides these branch voadx, there are live lines unconnected with 
any of the trunk roads. The Gi.n-sappa-'i'algappa road of about 
tweiity-iive niilcit leads by the well-kiiown Kixikani fnlU to Tulgapna 
on the Maisur frontier. The road is nnnietnlh-d but bridged mostly 
with temporarj- wootltn bndgeo. It has a travellers' bungalow ^ 
Ko<lkuni. The road wm< built in 1654 at n cost of about £76o0 
(Ks. 7S,'iO0). Both the Siddapur-MnUnr road of five inilea bridged 
but not metalled, and the Bauav&'u-SliuBur fair weather road of four 
miles, lead into Maisur. Tliv Konay-Kwlibdg bridged and metalled 
road of two miV-s, is an extension of tlie K^m-ilr-Dbfirwdr road ; 
and the Uwxiii-Tinai fair-weather road by Jagalbet^ of four miles, 

joins the Supa-Hatiydl i-oad with tlie Titini liitl-pa^ 

Of tliirt^-eu toll-ltars eight are on Provincial and five are on I»cal 
Fund Toaib. Of the "'ight Provincial toll-bars tlireo are on th* 
K&i'w<ir~Dluirw&' road l>v the Arlioil, oiio each at Ainadidli, 
SunkslU, and Yellapur ; turc« on the Kuuita-Dhiirwlir road by tho 
Devimani paiw, on« each nt Ekambi, Nilikeni, and Kamanguli ; one 
on the Oorsappa-Talgappa niad by theGersappa pass at MnK-ma»e ; 
and one on the Dbarv>-d.F-Tinai{.'hili roatl by Supa and Haliyil at 
Tinai. Of the live local fund toU-))ar^ two are on the Sanksal- 
Kumta road, one each at Gundballa and Bargi ; one on the Sirsi- 
Kumta road by the Nilkund !«.■<« at Santgal ; and two on the Sid- 
dipur-Kodkant road, one each at Sidf)&i)ur and Killr-r. Hie toll 
revenue amounted to about £51^0 (R». f>l,800) in 1&83 against 
£5250 (R«. S2,500) in 1881, that is a fall of about £70, th« 
Provincial receipts in 1882 boint; £ 1850 (Ea. 48.500) acwnst £4815 
(Ea. 48,1S0) in 1881. and the lot'iil fund reoeipfei to £330 (Ri 3300) 
ftl^nst £43fi (Rs. 4350). 




'T ten brirlffifl built over 

•_' ao the Kdrwiir-Dhirwir roa<J by the .irlja 
I seven &paiLs of thiitv foot cbcIl It wiw 
.i at iicost ufiaiHO (Ku.SO.ttNi). 

k.i aiiH rivera, the Hatiilimadi vroocl 

Totvl by the .irluiil pass, bait lateritu 

built in 1 87+ from 

ITio Ani:^'uiidi 


' ' i liriil^^ on Ihi- KiiTiiUi-lJbiirwitr roail has granite piers and 

ULr--t.' Hpaus of a)>out thirty-tJiree feet eadi. It waa built in 1879 

from Frx>viDml fiiti'ls at a cost of a)x>ut iHGOO (EU 86,000). The 

p...:i.,M.j n-ou"l briilKu on tbu Kumta- DbdrwAr road has masonry 

i five Hpniis of thirtvtbi-ee feet each. It was built in 1883 

. inrial funils at a iost of X28'i5 (Rs. 28.250). llio Konay 

r liridgL- over tbt Kuuuy stn-am on th« wh«rf-ro«il in 

■III piers (Uul two spuns of fortv feet each. It waa 

' (Vi.m FmvindftI fumU at a cost of £IJ7)i3 (Its. ti7.6:»). 

'ilif? Uattikeri iron bri'%e over the Ik-likeri creek in Ankolu has 

" ''ito piera and four spans, two of forty-two nud two of Pfty-foor 

It Wtt.f built in l«7-i from Provind'al fumU at a cost of £AiS9 

"' 'MOj. The Tattibftlla brick-are-hed bridge on the HaliyAl- 

: otul has granitt* abutments and three spans, onu of ^isty and 

■ v. five feet each. It WM built in lf*7.» from for<-.'''t and at a cost of .C22i{!) (Ka. 22,300). 'ilie Birchi wood 

bridj^ on ihe Haliyiil-Stipa road has masonry piers and four spana 

■.riil.i..t thirty-seven feet each. It was built in 1882 from Provincial 

, fundaataoostof £2;H7(R.-« 2:J,+70). TheitecondTattUiaUa 

'I bridj^ on tlie HaliyiU-VelUptu- road has three spaas 

: i^aeh. It van built froin fori-st and Provincial funds 

5 (Rs. 35.630). Tlic Sidle^undi iron I«tic«-(iirder 

i.ipnr-Bankfipur road has ^ranito piei-a and tlir«e 

. ont; ot I'ifjbty-fivt- f«ct and two of twenty fe^!t each. It waa 

. L in 1872 from "Provincial funds at a cost o? A7535 (R». 75,350). 

The B'j<lti wootl bridge on the Ycllapur-Sinti road ha.s jtraniw piers 

■"'■' foil .■•ipAns of thirty-fivo foet CJich. It waf* built in 1879 from 

: and I'roviitciut hnuh at a ox^t of £2)307 (Rs. 26,070). 

irativeiv well supplied with accomniothifion for 

_ twenty-four travellers' ami thrw<li.itii(;tbiin{pilow8 

. -uight rc«t-boust^'s or dharmiihtil'U. Of the twenty-four 

... i..' bun^alowfl si x t <«en anft Provincial and cijiht local fiuid, 

■ lev«n are in tlje coast and thirteen in (ho upland «ub-<tivi!«io»B. 
;mvellers' bungalow at Kirw&r is Provincial; of the three in 

■ An, the one at 8nnksiil Lt Provincial and thnse at Ankola 

I'lftla art! Iix-al fun*! ; of tlie live in Knmtn, tboose at Kumta 
^iil are Provincial and those at Santgnl, Gokarn, and 

■ local fund ; of the two in Honivnr, at Honiivar and 
..ttr, Iroth ar« local fund ; the one at Konaili in Hupa is Pro- 

>1 ; of th« five in Yvllupiir, at YeDapur. Arbail, Eirvatti. Palla, 

" ■•.dg»i. all are I'i'ovincial : of the fiv« in Sirsi, at Sind, 

: Sauipkand, Ekanibi.and Hiuiavlsi, all are Provincial ; 

■ two in Siddiipur, ut SidiUpur and Kodkani, boUi ore 
Of llio-so twi-nly-fonr bungalows seven are of tlie ilrst 

Kirw4r, KuuiCa, Jisnigal. Huniivar. Yell'ij>ur, Sirni. and 

Tlie first class buugulow.f aii; well suppbm] with tableau 

rx, and crockery, and chante a daily fee of 2if. (Ue. 1). 

tuning Kvveutevu am aecona class bungalows. Tlwy are 

clas.H. at 
ICm. ! ti VI r I i , 



(Bcmbttjr &u«ttMr. 


supplied though less completely with the samo orticloK as the ftnt 
class bunp^owK ami cliargn n diily fee of 1a (8 ans.). The KSnnSr 
Provinciiu fli'st cUuts btin^low, At tlie village of Baitkul on (he 
KArwAr-l)hArw4rrcwwl,wa8 built in 1 865 at a cost of £995 (R«.9950>, 
It is a Iat«rit«-built bun^^alon' M'itb & tiled roof and htts itir«o lai^e 
rooms, two drossijiit-rwuiw, iiiid thrw b«tb-^oonl^ with out-hoiues. 
Of tliv thri^ Aiikom bungnJowa the Suiika^ Pro\'inci&l buiigolov 
on the Kirw^lr-DhnrwAr road waa baiU from local funds in 18^ at a 
cost of i93 (Rs. ySO), It ismud-walled, tile -roof t-d, and hastwo rooms, 
vcniiidas, and outOioiwos. The AnkolR local fnnd bungalow on the 
Ankola-Kunita roft<l wtiA built in [^:^:i at a co«4t of £l^<ltti. ISU). It 
is mud-walled. that«b-roofedf and has two roonia and out-lionses. 
Tho Gundbttk local fund bungalow on the Hiregutli-Hebnl road 
was built in 1828 at a cost of 118 {Hh. ISO). It is mud-walled and 
tile-roofed and baa two rooms with out-houses. Of the five Kumta 
bunffalowH the Kumta first class Provincial bunf^low, at the village 
of BUdi-Hervntti on the Kunilu-DbSrwilr rond. was built in J'*56 
at a co6t of £194 (Ks. IdlO) and w&t n^piaired in 1ti7l from locid 
funds at a cost of £19 (Ra 190). It i* Iat«'ribe.built and tite- 
rooffd, and bos two rooms with out'houscs, Tiie Katj^al Provincial 
bunj;a!ow on the Kuiuta-Dbilrwfirriittd was built in 1855 at a cost 
of £91 (Ka. 910). It ia mud-walled and thatch-roofed, and has two 
rooms and out-hoo&es. The Santgal first class local fund bungalow 
on the Kumta-Sirxi road through tlic Nilkund pass was btult in 
1842 at a cost of £S1 (Rs. SIO) and repaired in 1873 from local 
funds at n cost of £50 (Rs. 500). It is mud-walled and tile-rcofed, 
and has four rooms and out-bouees. The Ookam local fund bun;^* 
low on tho coast bridle road was built in iS^H at a cost of £43 
(Rb. 430). It is mud-walled and thatch -roofed, and has three rooms 
n-ith oul-hou»es. 1'hv Mirjan local fund bungalow on the Ankola- 
Belki coast road was built )» 1834 at a cost of £10 (Rs. 100), 
and repaired in 187:) from local fuu'lK, at a cost of £(iO (Rs. GUO). 
It ia mud-walled and tilo-roofed, and has three rooms with out- 
houses. Of tli« UonAvar bungalows the Honjlvar first local 
fund bungalow on the Ankola-Belki coast road -wan built in 1846 
from local funds at a cwi of £208 (Ra. 2080). it is laterit^^-built 
and tile-roofed, and has six rooms and out-bouses. At SIunli-!<bvar 
a small mud-walloil building is used as a travellers' bungalow for 
which no fees are charged. It is maintained by local funds. The 
Sopa Provincial bungalow, at the village of Konadi near Supa on 
the Kadi-a-l^lgaum iv>ad }>}■ tlio Analu pass, was built in 1S72 from 
local funds at a oo»tof £100 (lU 1000}. It is brick-buitt and 
tile-roofed, and has one large iwom and out-houw;*. Of the five 
Yelliipur bungalows the YclTspur first class Provincial bungalow 
on the K^rwiir-DhiirwiSr road by the Arbail pass was budt in 
1868 from Imperial and local funds at a cost of £9 IS (Rs. 9130). 
It is brick -built and tile-roofed, and ha^i four rooms and out-hooses. 
^c Arl.iatI Provindtd bungalow on the Kirwiir-Dhdrwitr road 
was built in 1868 from local funds at acost of £102 (R«. 1020). 
It is mud-walled and thatch -roofed, and has one room, veranda, 
and out-houses. Tlic Kirvatti Provincial bungalow on tho K&rw^r- 
Dh^rwAi- road was built in 1868 at a cost of £99 (Rs. 990). and 




n-*i4. ' rA. 



) >•! 1870 at a cost of £57 (Be. 570), both from local FtuuU. 

td'bnilt anJ tilu-roofiH] aii>l ha» two rooms and out-hoosee. 

III!' 1 iLLja Provincial bungalow on tlie KuiiiUi'Dh^rw&r roud w-ah 

bunt in 1831 at a cost of £ii-2 (Ka 2^0). It is bnck-uiUlvd aiid 

|1j fod. and has two rooms and otit-houiieo. The Mundgod 

Vi < buu^'alow on the Kiintta-Dlutrwiir road was built in 1§&5 

It a cost of £70 (lis. 7tH)). It b luick-wallinj and tliiiU.'li-rwfod, and 

ban two Tooiii.s ajid out-honsea. Of the tivc Sii'^i Imiigalowi^ thii ^irai 

first clah.1 Prov-incial bungalow on the Kunita-DhSwir road was 

boat in 1548 at a cost of £261 {1U26II)). It is latcrite-built and 

ttle-rufifcd, and has two rooiua and out-lioa»ca. Tliu l>cviiiiiuii 

T- i bunjpilww on the Knmta-DhfirwAr road was built in 1855 

a: if I1S2 (Ita. 1S2U) and repaired ia 1870 from local funds 

at a coat of £80 (Its. 8(>U). It is stono-bttilt and tile-roofed, and 

lu>3 two rooms and oul-liou.-ti.'^. Thu Hainpknnd Provincial bungalow 

on the KninU'Dhiirwir road wa^ huilt in 1866 at a 008t of £S8 

(RflL 680) and repaired in 1871 from local funds at a cost of £S0 

(Hs. 300). It is mud-walled, and bamboo and tile roofed, and has 

' I out-hi.nwi.'ji. Th'- Eknnibi Provincial bunf;i»low on the 

At i-oad was built in 1S65 at a cost of £70 (Rs. 700). 

;utid-i*iill«l and thatch -roofed, and has two rooms and ont- 

s. The Bnuuvti^i Pioviuciul bungalow on tin; Sirsi-Biiimvaat 

nMfi wa» built iu ^S2S at a cost of £16 (IUI(!0). It if luud- 

>'.Ti..| )^„i i.hatch-roufed, and has one room and oot-houses. 01 

liree Sidd^ptir bnn^owa. the Sidd&nar local fond bungalow, 

" < Dl Kondli on the Sirsi-Kodkani road, was built in 

of £65 (Us. aaO) and rviiairt-d in 1&7I and 1874 at a 

r (Ua. 970), l>oth timej) from Wal funib. It in mud-walled 

; ofed and has four rooms and out-houses. The Kodkaoi 

lam hxs\ fund bungalow on thv Gcrsappa-Talguppa road was 

i" 1^72 fnjin Impuriol funds at a cost of £UB5 (tts. l+,6o0). 

built and tile-roofed, and has neven roomit and out-housea. 

. L» twenty-four travcllei-s" bungalows, there are three district 

. ono each at HadaHliivgad in EitTwAr, at Haliyiil in 

i Ht Sirni. The .Sailii-tluvijad bint-pilow i.i at the village of 

>n a liill-top iJt'ftr the hich-i"oad leading from Sad^iivgad 

It is Iiiteritc-built and tile-roofcd, and has four rooms and 

■-. It was K.ught for £120 (Rs. 120(J) iu tlu> y.*ai-lS72. 

:il buni^ulow W1I8 huilt in 1827 at a coitt of £18 (Ra. 180). 

.V 1--. 4r,,> o.-built and tile-roofed and haaalai'ge room and out-housea. 

The Sirai bnngalow on tho Kumta-Dhiii-wir i-oad was built in 18G6 

' ' funds at » co««t of £161 (R& 4160). It is laterite- 

lOOfiMl and hait six rooms and out-homtes. 

t>i rest-houses, which are calle^l dharmthdliis or charity -houses 

l-'f'i^ travtrllcrs have free (iuart«rs, there are fifty, seven in 

. iir, six in Ankola, six iu Kuuita, six in Hon^var, nine in Supa, 

n VoIUpur, seven in Siisi, and live in 8idd4pni'. Except t*ome 

J are hnck-built iu a quwliangular shape with a courtyaid 

in lliL- centre, thrj rest-houses as a rule aro built of latvritv witu six 

to tfii initoiun:ct«d rooms and surronndeil bv a three feet high 

iiry i>arai>ei wiUl. Kxc>'pt tive or six n-liich are roofcil with 

h or palm leaves, tlie reat-boosea ai* tile-roofod. lliough 

Ctaaptai VI 

BuopJowi. I 


6omb«y OazctUer, 

Ch*pt«r VI. 




without furiiituro, th^ Accoiniiiodaiion in good And is Bufficient to 
hold suvvnd fiuiiiliea. Each rest-hoiLie ia supplied wiUi a well, built 
ft-oin local funda. Exc«pt two built by pnvste indiridu»lit and 
tJiree ot four fi-om Impcrin] aiul munidpn] funds, most of the rwit- 
hous>es have bi-vn biiill from locnJ fun<l.t. The average cost of ft 
n-^h.ja'w i.^ alwut £100 (!U lOOO). 

Except on the smaller rivern and creeks whieh, during the fair 
iteaaon. are fordablo at low water, public forrica are kept on the 
chief rivers uii<) crork.s for tlio trauKport of n^xula and passengers. 
Of thirty ferries maintained from hwal fniids, two work only during 
thft rainy season and the remaining twenty-ei^t throuj^ioiit Uie 
year. Of these nine work owt the Kdlinodi, seven in Kitrwilr, 
and two in Supa ; thirii^*n in Kunita, six over the Tadri, four over 
tb« GangAvali, and three over small nveka; four hi Uondvar, one 
each over the Shij-Avati, the Ualdipur, the Vonkt^pur. and the 
Tndalli ; and two in Sin«i Iwth across tho Varxlha. Tlie two that 
work onlv duriuj' tlie rainy 8«a.son have heen lately opviiod from 
local fun'ls as puiilic feiTiea, one on the Mavinhalta cit^-k luid th« 
OtliiT at Iktanki in lionSvar. The forrv revenue amountt^d to about 
£lti54 (Rh. 16.540) in 1880, £1525 (R». 15,250) in 1881. and £1575 
(Rs. 15.750) in 1882, Uiat Lt a fall of £129 (R^. JSUO) in 1881 
compared to 1880, and a rise of £50 (Rs. 50O) in 1882 coinparud to 

Kiiuaru forinR part of the Dh&rw^ pocital division. Beside! the 
chief receivinc and disbursing office at Kirwir, it contain.s wven- 
teen sub and elvvoii village ptwt offlce-s. The chief disbursing 
office at Kirwii- ia in charge of a poAtuiiiNter who draws a yearly 
salary of £108 (BalOSO) with an establialiment which costs £160 
ffis, 1800) a year. Tlie seventeen Hub-ofiiceo at Ankola, Balegulli, 
Banki-kol, BonavAfi, Bhatkal. Cokarn, HaHviil. Ilondvar, Kumta, 
&Ianki, Mtindgod, Murdeshvar, Sadiishivgai,l. ^jddiipur. Sirai. Sups, 
and YellApui'. are in charge of aub-postmasttrs, ilmwiug £1S to 
£60 (Ra. 120- Rs. 1)00) u year. The eleven village p.wt olliceS at 
Avarso. Haldipiir, Ltlur, Kixrki, Kiwiirkode, Majali, Molgi. Mudgeri, 
Palla, Sanibraui, and Sliimlii ari> iu charge of %-ilk?e 6<uioolnia8tera 
who receive, in addition to their pay a» nchoMniasten, yearly 
allowanoea varying from £2 8* to £7 +9, (Rs. 2+-R».72). Letters 
are delivered at KirwAi- by thrcejwstmeu, ut Kunita by two. and 
at each of the remaining anlMimces by one postman, all drawing 
yearly salaries of £!• lis. (Re. 96). except one poslniiui at KrirwAr 
who draws £12 (R.-*. 120) a year. At the village post office letters 
are deiiviTi-d by postal runners who rew-ivo yearly from £) 4«. to 
£2 Sa. (Rs- I2-Ra.24) for this additifmal work. Of the lOI postal 
runners iiincty-fivo ai-e paid yearly from £7 4«. to £9 I2«. (Its. 72- 
Es. 96) from ImperisI funds, and the romainingaix who run on the 
Yelllipur-Mundgod postal line are paid £8 8s. (R«- 84) a year from. 
Provincial funds. The post ofKces are Mupi>rvised by tlie sup^-rin- 
tendent of post offices, Dh&rwir I>iTi.-«ion, who has a ycaily pjilary 
of £408 (Ra. 4080). The superintendent in mfiifU-d in KHnaVa by an 
Inspwtor druwinfi £9fi ( R-t 060) a year. The three chief postal unes 
are the KirwAr-Hubli line by the Arboil pass, 104 miles long the 




Bnl.-_aiHi-Boin(Iur ctMwt line from north to soiith. aeventy-two miles Chaptor T] 

and ihe KuinU-Sirst Hne. thirty-nine xaHes long. Mails fnta T«ide. 

aji-i to Botnljay are carriiyl onco a week by ittcttincrs for K&rw&r 
thr(iu;;li<>ut Ihu vc«r. 

The two Irli-p-aph offices at KiSirwfir and Kumta are of the third 

cUkk, w*trkin^ for wvt-n houra a day from ten in the morning to 

fire in the evening dnriitg vwk dayii. KArwdir i» juinol to DliArwili 

'— ■■ ■ ' -jraph line on Ino Kiirwir-Dh^irw^r road by the Arlioil 

Kunita to KArwir bv a branch line. Both the offices 

. are snppli>»<l witJi the Simon's Relay and Sowndcr instni- 

-, an.' in chaigi- of tclff^niph iitasttji-s. tb« Oiii' at Kitrwilr 

salary of £218 S*. {Us. 21H-*). and the one at 

, I . li'SOj. each liaWng an t-stablishipent which costs 

£21 (Ks. 2-VU) « year, llio m«ssageiS svnt from KArwir wcr« 5555 

in ISS2 amunst 5155 in IRSl. For »cvi>ii vii-arsi iwtwwn 1866 and 

1671 the KirwfU telegraph office was of tne lirxt class with one 

! ' ■': [iia.-tti>r and fonr signallers. As. owing to the decrease of 

.-vii) -witr, thiTi- was a fall in the number of muiBBgW tho 

aiBci- was reduced in IN72 to thu third dan. 

Of the three light-houaeH. two are at Etlrwitr and one at Kumta. 

The Oy>ter-rocW. north lat 14°ty'26' east ioug. 7'i° i^ 50", U a 

flx.-l white dioplric lif-tit of the first order, on ft white grniiito 

I L inry tower which risi.t seventy-two feet above the top of the 

Oynli^r-rock or Devgad itJe in KdrwAr boy and is about 210 feet 

aoore lutjh wnt^r. It can be seen in clear weather from the 

'! k Fit a jJiip iweiitv-five miles otruml ligliteii.s ail ai-ea of about 

' ' -^^uare niile^t. it wiuk built in IStii. Konay, north tat. 14° -tS' 

- !Uri long, 76" G' W, has a red fixed ship's port-side light, dia- 

LiUti^l from the E&rwdr port office on a white fiugstaff sixty feet 

irom tlie gniunil ami siMy-five above Iti^h wat*T. It can bo seen 

'r : I a ship's de«k live niili-_H otl'and UyUlens an arc of Hi" seaward. 

i: .;.s built in ItlGt. With the light bearing ea-str-south-cast. a vessel 

can aiichur in three to live fathoms. Kumta, north Int. 14° 25' 1 0' 

pB-t tony. 7-*° 22' 56", i* a fixed white light, a common lantern with 

burners, on a whit*- Uterite column sixty feet above the top of 

I Lcal hill 1 2(J feet high, at the mouth of t)i« Kumta creek and 

■ a mile and a half from tltc town. It can be seen in the fair 

i'rorii a tthip's di.-ck nine miles olT and lightens an arc of 

L ■ .(lit, or an area of fifty-four square inili>a. It M'as built 

iu itt55. 


The products for which Kitnara is fanioil!*, its pepper, white 

■d, Ijetelnnt and betel leaves, spices, and rice, the iron 

r, and the fine muslins and painted cloths of Dhirw4r 

luni, are among the chief articles in Uiu earliest reeorda 

i>i iiiiji;iii tra<le. The.te records go back with certainty to fl.C 1000, 

the time of Solomon and the great Phofnician trailersi, probably 

|o B.C 1500, poKsibly to a very mucli higher antiquity.' The 



' Campnt Th* B«v. T. FcfOUm in Indiao Antiqiiary, VUI, IOl 



(Bombiir OawttMr, 


nearuess to Homtvar and Bhatkal of the s]icieDt,_(-apiUl ot 
Banavitai. of which rcconl reiiiiiiii« art ourly W s.c. 25(1, und its 
tUf^ntion in the Jain vcntion of the Kduiiyan iiiako it pi-obfiblQ 
that trade haa centred at Hondvar from very early times. The 
first niuution of HoiiAvar is under tlie form Naourn iu the Greek 
Periplusofthe EryHinean sea whose pi-obable date is ad. 2+7. From 
the close similarity of the names, several of the earlier English 
writers on India identified Uirjiin about ten miles north of 
Houitvar, with Muziris, which was one of the leading centres of 
Qre«k trade with India during the fir^, it^'oond, tun) thttxl centuries 
of the Christian era,' The detaiU riven in the Peri|ilu.i ihac Naoura 
is the first port in Liniurike, that is Damurike or the Tamil 
country.and that aft*r Na^iuraconie TiuidU, Neikunda, and Mou^uris, 
if Xaoura is identified with Hondvar, would place Mnuziriit much 
farihoi- south than Mirjfin. And the discover}' bv Bishop Caldwell 
and Dr. Buriieli that the once fauious {fourteenth century) port of 
Kranganor in Malabar, about fifU-en miles north of Kochin, was in 
early times known as Muyiri or Muyirikotta is now accepted aa 
proving the identity of Xluziris and Knuigauor. None of the Greek 
or Bomou writer* give details of the Innle at Xnoura or Honiivar. 
But as most of the leading articles were prolmbly the same at the 
two porta the following detttils are taken from the Periplns account 
oE the trade of Nelkuixla. The exports were, pepper in ureat 
quaTitilicM, supiTior jiearls, ivory, line i«ilks, spikenani, miilaBath- 
ron that is fii/(i<(7(i/»ifm or fej^inMiom the eastern countries, trona- 
parcut sboneif, diamonds, rubies, and tortoise-slielL' The iniport9 
were, great quantities of specie, topa«^s, plain doU), fine cloth, 
stibium, coral, white glass, brass, tin, lead, a little wine, cinnabar. 
oipinumt, wid corn for the ship.' 

> DelkUi are given under MirJAo. 

1 ViiKeot'iComincm>o( the Andcnla, n.4Ii7-460. Vin<«nt (WS) thonafct mola- 
b»thrna wm tbo bot«l lent. But Yulo |C>tb«y, Icitr.) iitentlSta it wtth tb« tmwdla- 
patnt Lauiiu cMais, A laaf with n pluuuil clin-«-Iike iDioll. 

*Viiic«at. II. 4S7-4S9. Afl<ir TurkiiiKvbuM, which uapfarantly infUlodKiri t,ni 
it jKMiiibly ft Gnirk ininli-'riDx ot RAjipur, Uw author of Uie Pcriplna O'ctorw 
GeqgrftphiMSoriulore*; Vineviit'cLVnimicrcBof tbe A»cicnta.U.AST-U6: UcCrindle^ 
129 ■ 130) MVB : 'You oonie next to the ULuiiU called Sowkioiou aoit ths JaUnd <rf ilia 
AJ^dioi Mid Uiat of ths KkineitAi, near what ii called ttie KhcrwuMMU, pbcM in wfaick 
ftro mnUa, aud after th'u th« iaiand of Leuke or th« White. Then follow Xaoar* 
ft»dTniidii, th« firot niartcuf I.uiiurike, iLiid after tfauo Mniinris mA Xrikuoda.Mata 
of govemmoit,' Of IhOMi plaoea the S«*ekf«iiiM lalaiMhi ai« prohabty the VDnjrutla 
roeka, whioh, though too f*r to the •outli, pOMibly awtar in Ptolmiy (Ittrtitw' 
EditMu, 213) undur Iha nain« of Ooan^aliaor VaOBaUa. Tlie uland ot thr Aigidiol, 
wbidt aippt*.n In Ptvlvuiy iBortiiu' Edition, 2I3| aa AlgiiiJon, in 'ho urit-hhoarhood 
of Vangalia, and lik« it mueh too for to the aoiith, i« placed br Vinoent [t'on- 
moroe of tbu Auoimta, 11. 433] at (lng^ but a{i|iHr«Qlly i> Aoji'lir. lie itland 
ot tba Kuiiciui ia doubtful. It appar«u(lv la Ptoli'iay'a (.'ntutlini iBcrtim' Kditlon, 
SIS) which ho places ncttr the iaIand of tliti Ai^diui. aia<di funberaoatli than tlie 
lEikMra ooftit. Keitai, llio Mcoad part i>( Kaiueilai, au^rata Notnui or Hkcoo 
laUnd, fany-flre mile* wntli ot Aiijliliv aiid about tweut^va milm •onlbwtvt of 
Ueuivar. Th« ckno rcMmblanM ot Iho uamu aocmi to Ideutify Nctrini wttli 
Pliny'a (a.ti. 77 ; Natuntl Hiatory, VI. 33) Niihat. a pla«« wh«re-piratca and rovna 
KathnrmI and lroubt«il vaMelioiitu«ir«M'luMiizira. whiiih italamlocitaiiilj'UuTiTi 
or KranpooT about tiftoMi milM north of Kocbiii |Cald«vlr(l>ravi(tianGrkinin«i', VI). 
A^aisat th* idonlifioiitiDii of PUay'a Kitriu with tlio iaiand Netrinl there it 
P^lcoiy'a (iWrtiua' Kdition. lOS) trade«Dlr«or*innoriuni of ^'itrBdo*eto tlia uottli 
of Tundi*. Nt)ra h«> (UcCnadk'i Paripliw, 130) Vmb MpI>oaed to bo a miitalua 




It may l"' ■iiij'ijyHftd wittimil imwli iinii<*^T of error that KArwir, 

n.ltiikul, or wiuii? oilitir [lUuti' at the luoutli o( tho K^iuudi iit tbe 

of tho (tislrict, and Mirj^u, Ilondvar, anJ Ijhatkal in tlio 

shAtvil in till' ppppiT trudi.' fov whicli froia tliu sixth century 

- foitrt*^-nth Century thu ^uIhIhU- const coiitiuut-d famous.' 

■Illy n-ftuvnc-w which have U*eu ti-act-*! to KAiiam [lorts aa 

- iif traile doriu;; ihtt ioni; pt-rioj between the IV-ii|)lus (247) 

'ho anival of tht- i'ortiii,'u*'s(! (l-Ht^) are the mention of 

_:. jvarhy the ■;wOi,'nii)fi.T Alnil-riOa (I27;t- 13:U),* of Bhotkal by 

Joplanus iu nSl'diSimlahnrthnt is Chitskul and of Hoiulvur by 

[bji B&tuta in liii2.* and of Eloiulvar by tJio Persian amhassaiior 

Abd-er-IlazKak iu H4+* From the titnu of t)w couquci^t of Upper 

ir ' ' '. 'r>isalmiiii« in thtrek>v<jnthAndtW(dftJiwnturic^,a supply 

v. .: Aralita and Fersia bi-came tlie most pnt.-<Hin<; want 

of SuUtJuiiu India. Tbe import of honte.s wa^t proliably a vt'ry old 

tnnte. It i« iHTtjunly as oldasthcsbcthcuntiiry, ivs Ivwuias ludiko- 

pl.'if^tea (.t3.i) incntJous that tturta^iif were l»rou^lit TromTcrsia to 

r. % T,„|,a Hqi in thti Uttiir pari of ll)e tbirteentli ceuEury. tliv foar 

. asion by th« hordt-t> of nortbtirn liorscmcn, scums to have caused 

at incrcaw? iti tht.' imp ort of b OT ) M i» into Southern India.^ 

in tht! fouiXoiinth uciitiuy (tSSB) Aeeatablisbnientof a )>uwvr- 

1 . ty at Vijayaiiagar, with control over tlie coast, must have 

e I jh t) the trado iu the Kanara poris. Kini' Ucvraj (1-120- 

iid to have been wani'il in a dreiuii that Iii.'* only chance 

^ hia own with the liuhmani kingw was by ad<)iitg to his 

vtock of horsca, and during the i-e^t of tbe mteenth century a grcut 


500- ISO". 

I of Uie Panplua Naonn, wbldi, pt»tably oanvMj, U tak«n tobe a corKption of 

inu-. TlnujtrocNitncBohar-UyliciimuUkafDrtlMnkiiieKBoim, uid, w brfora 

ny'i "iitae Ihrpli-rF irii lowcU kiiowa fnriw piiUeiutt aecnH pn>bftble that Fii>I«imr 

' till Ihelnulo centre of lloaiiiraj<aithoiicighlxiurin|i ooMt. 

I unar vhUb l)w iduid KaluirlUi limweniBtatiotMauiM 

ui>, 1 Kii r-iiii'-niiKii^Tiiuii' K^liUKii.lSS). Vinotat (CoiiinMWAnftii* Auctnita, 

lik-iitiixH tl«: KhorsuiiiMa* willi (tax, tbo Mily tiNihiiiQl* «« tb« eo««t. 'J'bia 

ti^TiHin'll williUi«na^ti<>iittiultbBUkiii1u(U)GKun«tUlliiNau<nl, butnu 

' MitifiratifiD osn ba o^ed, Tlif< ul.iatl of Lviiku "r tl>D Wbiu anptor* undUr 

I niiRif til Ptotcmjr (Bertina' Kdilion, SOe). Mr. It. t~ Cutdv, tlie CiIImcot 

'•U tiiBtI<cuk> u the KTuup of niiw itbuicU wvll kaniru an t-liu 

IMtuilw ifulh-Bat of Xcuiiii, (out oI which ar* lUserltwd l>>- 

....... .-.,., r«Mlicni. IV. 12^ 431, 43«. -Ut. 458) u pBr«d with fin* •now whit* 

mail 'rtw gLtre of ihi* wkjt* ccfisI would help til* ohauge of nonw frtmt 

, ■■i I.i^iilic or tlw IVtiitc. Nkaan is gtaanMy, uia pmbab^ oonvotlx, idcnti* 

riivar. .V> Lki I'ovn autiufil klH>T«, IImi pcnitioD of HonAT^r corm|>ooila 

I'tnl-nny't Irt.lnomilni Kitim antl Buy 1)0 Pliny'i pirntfluunt Kitra Or 

l.n uniBn Nitii Mill NttrlM <iMini to ImIod;[ to Neurit ot Pigoni 

ii<.at IK 'III V live MilMAitrth.waM of HouivAr. Tmtdka, Nflkamla, 

bfD KitiiUliud by Biahop C'^Ulnvll aiid Dr. Baraell |C^:*Mw«ll'a 

T, IC; Map in BsrniiU'a South IndUn Pslan^ntphy) Tuwlit with 

.Ijdr abutit t«ai uUm aoatji of EJalikat ; MouutH witli Mnviri tho 

I .loor about tWDpty loila north ol Kocfaia, uid KBlhanda with 

■ ■M uiiUa coith of Quiloa. 

■.'■ry CoMnaa indifco^onatca inViimat, 11. 4$I-S0(i ; Yale'l 
.e'n PatmIogueC(nini»,HI: is the fourtavoth oeoMry (132t) 
^ -;. aif] (Mori.! in Yale'a C«thav, I. 71. 
4IU ii.%lii 2 ami tfil. • .r,.r<Uiiu>' Miraliilia, 40. 

.U, Ii>4,IG:>, ir-l, i;a. » Majors li«iiniuXVihC««it»ry,-M. 48, 


I, bone* ftboat l2!Mil«talta arajnroiinYnk'aMatvo Polo, II. 
■-•in.i\ tiKtJiiil-ii-dia ia Klliot mi4 Oowaoa, L O- 

[BombAj OftsetMr 


Oiaptet TI. 

Inulc in horses ocntrcrt in Gon, aiid After the capturo of Goa hy tiM 
I)iji[>uT Mu~^iUi)^ii» in \4G& in Hon^varAnil Bltatkal.' 

In the Ix-ginning oE the mxtet^Dtli century tlie chief centn>s o! 
trailo were Chitakul or Sadti& hivgad. Hoiiltvnr. and Bhatkal. 
In 1305 Varttienia nicntious many MoorisE^ inurcluiuts at CTiita- 
kol and at~Bli»ifEftl,* w»d m 1514 Barixxm mentions \ery com- 
mercial Moor and Oentilc tradent at BhatkaL* Of exports m 1508 
iroQ was sent from Bhatkal to all parts of India* ana in 1514 in 
lar^c (guaiititicti to tht Malabar coast and Ormux.^ In 1503 rics 
wivs .tent in f'TvM (|iuuitit)«s from Bliutkal to all parts of India.' 
In 1505 much rice waa sent from Hon^var and great quantities 
from BhatknU In 1514 cheap rioe was sent from ihriin and 
Hoiiiivar to tlic MaUblli- t>ort« and good white rice from Bliatkal 
to the Jlala))^ coa^t aixf to Onuiiz." In 1503 nugar van wnt from 
Bhatkal to all parts of India ;" in 1505 abundance of sngac 
fspecially of candied sugar was exported from Bhatkal;" and 
in 1514 much waa sent from Bhutkni to tlu^ Maluhtlr coai«t and 
to Omiiiz." There was a small export of lirugs and spices. In 
1508 tHo Portuguese ships went to Bhatkal to take cloves." and 
in 1514 tliurc was an export of spinrs and drugs of which myrO- 
balana wci-u th« chief,'" Of iinuorbt in 1.5H copper was l>ou£ht 
in Urge quantitie-t at Bhatkal and sent inland where it was worked 
into caldrons and coins, and there was also a sale for much quick- 
silver, vcnnillion, coral, alum, an<i ivorj-." From th(- lilolahiir |>ort« 
oocoanuts. oil, and palm-sugar were nrought to Miniln, Honirar, 
and Bhatkal. and palm-wiuc and some drugs to Bhatkal'^ TTie 
chief branch of traoo wa« the import of horses from Arabia and 
Persia. With th« ]>eoc»n and Mjuyanagar kings tlie supply of 
horses was the chief object of tra<le. At VijaTanagar, aays Var- 
£Ecnia in 1505. borsca are not reared ; there are few mares and the 
kings who hold Mioportn do not allow marcsto be imported.'* In 
150*) l)alboquer4{Ue found thatusupplyofhorse,swa.twliattheIndiasi 
princes most valued. A promLw to .sccuii^ them a monopoly of the 
import of horses foruis the chief inducement held out by the Portu- 
guese in theii' treaties with Vijayanagar in 1505, 15U9, and ]5)2; 
with Bijiipur ill 1*>I0;" withOujariit m 1538; and with VijuyuniigAr 
in 1547. Barbosa in 1514 notices titat all the Vijayonagar horses 
were importwi from Onnuz and from Cambay and that they did 
not live long. In 1505, uccording to Varthcma, tlio V^ayaiiaffar 
king had 4O.O0O horsemen whose bor^s were worth £100 to 41WJ 
{Fardaot 300- 500)," and some of the best a^ much as £266 (i'arvfoos 

> tit. Mu-k'* MS. AoMuat of AlaLtUr. > ll»apr'» Edition, ISa 

» SUuUy'H K«rl>M>, 78. • Thr** Voynm-u of \'»m.-o d» Gam*, 3W. 

* Stuilryu KnrlHiM, 'H. * Thr«« Vvyn^ea at Vmm dkGuiu. 300. 
' Kiutger* \'im)iu>nit. )iO, ISS. " Stauley's Batboos, 78. 

* Tbreo Voy&uua <■( Vmou <la Ouna, S09. " Bodgtn'B V»rtli«n». ISO. 
" StuUr^ &ib«M, 7S. i> CDiijinc>ut.iria* of Dalbaqncvqoo, IL ES. 
u Stmtley'* Buhuu. TS. " 8tuilr}'i livbou. 78. 
>* Stuakjr** Bkrbou, 78. >* Bulger'* VarthooiA. 
" CompMv Birtoty Clisptcr ftiut Com. Dalb, III. SI, 38 :11. Ivr.i SabaUJic*, U. 

" Appwcatly tbo gfAA Ftinlmo, whicli ao<»nliw to C*Mr Prvd«Tick (I56T, Hak- 
layt, n. MC) wu wcrtb tit. Sd. Tbc nltxt Panlao dm vortb U M. roni. Pidb. 
II. K. The FaMao wa* ulled Pagoila by >:at«i<uwiK bsMMO it bore tb* imag* "* ■■ 
Unpi*, It u tba Mm* m tbc Maiaitf tftui. B*ii|ar'* Vartbciina, 130 




800).* lu 151't Barboaa t'atimatetl tlie number of the Vijaya&agar 
cavRlrv «t. 2.1/HjO airniifir vuliu- at £100 tu ^200 (Di«viis300-«00) 
: Iiors.'o* Bn-i U> t-ino (.> £3:1.1 {Dwut- 900-1000) for 
1* in war, horwis w>'re much used for caiTj'iug tlie 
1 of naptain^ and principal lords.' BailxiHa notices that th«se 
■1 camo from Jazan, Haii. and Allior in Wtwit Arabia, and from 
-r on the south count of Arnlua which had very large and good 
uvrsos worth in Intiia £10(i to £200 [Ducats 500-000).* Verj- f,'0'>d 
tiomus were also to be had in the Persian tiulf which were bought by 
Che Moors of Ormuz who L-vcrj' war i>«.-nt< to India 500 to 600 ana 
aomctimcs as many as 1000.''' \Vhi.!ii Mi<: Portngiiesc came a groat 
trotlic in liorsts c<tnt*;rijd in Bhatkal. In 1509 DaUxxjuenjue owrwl 
tli'j Vyayana^'ar kini; a njonopoiy of the horses wliich were brought 
£rom OrmUB to Bbatkal." In 1512, when ha was finnly catab- 
lished at Q<>a, it was onu of Dalhoquerquv's tifNt carMi to contra 
tiie horse tra(.le at Ooo, and with this object he built ittabh;^ and 
■ !00 men to look after the grass and fodder.^ The supply 
I, continued the cliicf subject of n<;gotiatio» between Uie 

1 ^e and the Indian priiicwt In Da Castro'i» trasty w ith 

'■ --i^L^arin 1517 the first provision is that the Portu^dse sliall 
Arau ahtf P.:r^ian horaea to Vijayanagar and shall prevent them 
.' to Bijipur.* In December 15*7 Cwsar Frodcrick went from 
LO Vijayanagar with name horsu-inerchoiitet who had a caravan of 
jljij jVrab lioi-*M. He found the horse-i of the country small and that 
!oti^ pnc'?- ni.rc paitl for Arali horse*. Ulgh prices wei'e roijuired to 
-tradt^ Jiay, It was very costly hrinj;in(; horses from 
' ' jiuz and from Ormuz to OoA, in Kpitv of the help which 
'irtngnese Govcmun-nt (jave by remitting the uxual eight per 
!.■=.. L .luty on any sditp which brought more than twenty horacs. 
On leavinj; CiOU eadi horao had to pay £14 {Pagodas 42 of (Is. Sd. 
•acli). At Vijayanagar Arab hors«s fetched from £70 to £225 
(OtMrofj* 3O0-1000).* Bositie--* proving that the horse trade wm still 
Ui*' 111 ■I'tant branch of traffic, the 1.^47 treaty between Dom 

Jor.o . '(I and Vijayanagar shows that the Portuguese had 
s at Ankola and HouAvar; tliat gniiii, salt]>etre, iron, and 
were exported from the inlanil parta to the coast ; and that 
r, tin, coral, vormillion, mercury, silk, and other articles were 
- t*d from Portugal, Ormnz, and China'" About 1 554, Sindabur 
it (?hilakul and llon&var arc uK-iitioned in the Mohit, or 
J teaman's Guide, as starting points in the regxilar voyages 

ti> . In the httt^r part of the century the pepper trade seems 

h> have riiscn in importance. In the Port-ugueat) treaty with the 



1 SuJmt's V.ith«aaa, 136. 

* Stiaiirj-'t tMiUoB, UO. The dncU U ftppireutly thn paniao. Conpare B»ilgrr'* 
\z.r:h^n.i il,^, > Cmd. 0>lb. tu. 3d. 

' BtrboM, 36^ 31. Juan I* Juns or Qh«««D, UmH u All the limit b«tw««B 
. i.tuui, Alor iaknp»r(rnlly LoboL X«bcir li Slutlur oc 8h«liiTiii tlkdrxniiiL 
.1.9 ia Viuoiiut, U.ltiiA Miihare, I. SI. * Staalw^ BtriiOM. 33, 42. 

rn. D«lb. II. Ixv. ' Com. Oslb. lU. 39. M. * SbmUU*, n. SK-SSJ, 

-vir Fi«doriak, 166315SI. HtUu/t'* VoyafM, II. 34ft. 
-bsdio* Pan a Biitoria da India l^rrta][UM ; Utbm, 1888, P. IL 2S«. 2S7. 
fsr. ai.Soo.Beng, V.J, 4M, 


Ouipter VI. 



ciut^cii of Gersappa ui 1540 she in matlp to proiuisti that ^lie will not 
«liip p«pw.T.' Towanls tho. close of tlic stxtoi-ntli fcnttirj" J««ii 
Hiiglittt «e IJiiwliot iiiciitJoii.s timt there was a yearly iruilv »f 7000 
to 8000 Porttuniese auiotaux of pepper which wsh o^iiAiditreil the 
best in Iiidia^ Early in the seventeenth century, in consequence 
of the -tprejui of Bijipiir [Hiwer tilon^ IIil- Kriimru vimi^i. KdrwAr ruse 
to iiii[Ktrtuiic:e )!.'< H pliict^ of tmilc (ut>l V^-canti- iJin clu<-rJM)rt in t)te 
Bijiipiu- (lomiiiions.* 1 lonivar luaintaineil its nalut^ a>v a pepper mart, 
the quofii of Gersappa from whoso lands tht- pepper came Wmc called 
hy thv PortUji^ciW; nsinha dc Piuionta thv Pepper Qnccii.* It was 
chiofly the fatiw of thti pcppoi- of Sonda and Gi^rsapim which inilucwl 
Oourten'a (.'ompany of Eitglixh merdiant^* toop«i) factories in Kirirdr 
and Bhatkal in 1038 an J HWO.* Between 1<J60 and ItitiO api-eat 
export of the finest muslins wils dcvclopcil at Kllrw4r. The cloth 
WAX ni)t woven in Kiiiwa hut ulxtvu tJic SnliViidHx in Dhifrwiir 
where Hubli was a grcut weaving centre. When the Uhrirwir 
iliatrict* wore laid wast« by Shivaji ui 1672 the K&rw&r factaiy and 
their agents arc said to haw hocn cinnloyiiif^ iw inauy as 50,000 
wvftvera.* Besides the ;;reut export or niiL-dins Kiim-iir provided 
pepiwr, cnrilaiuonut, ca^-tia, and coarse cloth ot dungari. There 
was a demand for lead an<l bromlcloth." It waa usual for the India- 
men or ships Erou Kuropc, after latidin^ part of their cnr^o at Surat, 
U> ilrop down the cotusi to K^wrir, laud snch iinjiorts an wer» in 
demand, and talcc in local ladling.'* In 1600 ii ajila nia dei^ribcs 
K&iara aa rich in rice and other produce." In 1665 the Ksrwar 
factory had to pay Shivaji XI 12 (Bs. 1120),>° In 1670 Uiv trade 
at the KjirwAr factory was proiperonit." In 1673 the Dmcli and 
Pnrt(igu<Kw <iivi<le«l thu uiuic. of Honavar.'^ In 1670 F ry er notioea 
tJiat Mie Sonda or K:4rwiir pepper waa the best in tlio^worR It 
was also the dearent ax most of it wont itdand and little to Kiirope." 
The iM-piKT^-oHiitrj- was 8upi)0(*eil to yii-lil thw Sonda citief a 
ycaily n>v«itue uf £1,000,000 (I'aijodaa ^iO Uikii^y Fryer also notices 
m the south some peppia' and stores of betelnut and wild nat- 
mee." The southern pepper was much vahieil and vran known in 
trade as Bntkole from Bnatkal pepper.'' Mii^jilijiseMt [Mapper, salt- 
pi-trv, and bctclnnt to SuratJ* The cliiif pi-odwctti of tlio districb 
were ricv-, jnfat/mi, millot, hemp, turmeric, (onger, and poiatow." 
The destmctive rai<bi of Shivfiji were ruinint; trade." So great 
wiw the depression that in 1678 and 1679 onhTt* were issued to> tlie KiirwAr fartor^-."' In 1678 the Portnguese opened fac- 
tories at Mirjjin, ChaudAvar, Honivar, and Bhatkal." In lOSI and 
1682 when the strength of the foctoi^- at KArwdr wait incroaacd, 
Ibe object i.t .-aid to havo been (o keep open the moans of getting 

> SntmliM, tl. £57 -ffiS. * KaviMtien, SI. * Ttytr^ But India ud Feraim 58, 

• UcIa V*I)u ()«?ai. III. 191. > Bmcc'i Ansal*, I. 419. 

* Huniltan'i Nvw Acorvat, I. Om. ' Bnicc'* AiiskU, II. lU, 144. 

• Bmn» Aiuwla, II. I4!>, 144. 8iint to Ik* Court, SSUi JkiiDnry UX3. 

* M*I*Mr ud OnwiMultl r««i AuakU. 1S79, 68. 
" AiularaoD*! Westrni Inili.i. 70. " Rnrco'* Auiu1», II. TSIT. 
» Pn-cr, ST. " Eut Inili* »><l I'mu, ll». " i-'iyur, U9. 
» Oi«tUA Rci-icw, XXI. 864. ■• Ktytr. fS. " Fijw. US- 1 
" Prrer. 1S3. 




pt.>ppc;r, cardumoms. benjamin, doth, anil Oawiia lignum.' In 1683 

UiK Ivnrwar invt-stmcuta were 200 toua of pepper, 51.000 pieces of 

■'" "oavi. SOOO pioL-i>A of ;xtU-i«, lO.GOO ptixos otperkotit, 6U bales of 

Liiiouia, 20,U(K) pieces of hnJiiM. 2000 setMgajis, tuiil 60 kitatulU 

{.•i >_*i.v>ia Ujmnni-* In 1 690, pt^ihaps in conReqiienep of tins ^I'At 

<lf;ir<'j(^<i<iii 111 BomLay and Surat, KitwAr Hoema to have been 

[ r thf first time to liavt- ti'iuloil <lip.x.'t with Englanci.* 

' I iifthi) c«iit«ry, iiispiUrofU"! rivalry of till- l)uteh, 

«ii>isu t^riat ofijixit was to got iw^issetiion of the popper trade, the 

.itily bmiicli oSiho npioe trade of wliich thoy ha«l not secured the 

iiiDUopoly, the KArwdr trade iu whit« pepper wan prosperous and 

iiiLpjrtaiit.* Milbuni jfivutt the folUiwiiif^ .tnniniar^- of tliv Engliish 

Ir^ni'j at KitrwKr: Frfmi Fon*ia caiue almonds, datex, rooewater, ami 

I Arabia horsiw and di-uifs ;' and from Europe iron, lead, 

, knivef, hraneh coral, uiid weunng appnrcl for tho 

. ijjintsi!. The exports weiv, i>epiwr, ccMU'ae bwjwn cloth, vosrsc 

'.vn muAlin, (Sou sjnritt, Shirilz win«, cai'damonia, casMiA, nus 

\'>iikica, be7.oar, aud a few other trilling articles. Hie K&Tvix 

liijip..'!- wa» tho l}eston the coast.* 

In th« cnrlr port of t]ie eight««nth centuiy the Portuguese 
I i to nave faetorit^ at Kirj&u. Honivar. Chfui^Ldvar, aud 

1 ' In the »outh of tlio district tho export of ric« and tho 

import of honfos were still auiong tlie inont important brancliea of 

tnnle. In 1713 tlie Portn<;it(-Hi! complain tliat the Bednurchief waa 

always proud and tmiibh-fonie Iweause hia counti-y waa his neigli- 

bours' K^anary,* and one of the eunditioiiH of the treaty which they 

roiieludtvl with the Bednur chief in the followinj; year (171+) wa« 

' th>- Portii^ie^t- hIioiiI'I iiiluw two Kiiiiara l)oat(t U> go to Ormuz 

ich hoi-siM." Till 1720 tho English kept open their factory* at 

K.TVv&r nhere the 8onda pepper was still ocknowIodRC^l to be the 

I' I in India."* English ^hips alno often visited Bliatkal to get 

r;.r_'ocM of pepper.*' In 1720, in conitcxjuence of a dispute with the 

bonda chi(-f tlie Eiij,'li-iii were foi-ced to leave KArwkr." PurliApa 

to supply its place thev aoon after opened at HoiiAvalr a hnuieh 

! ■ rj- from Tollicherri. "Hie chief oryectsi were to secure a share 

: I'* traile in pcpp«r and .tain In 1 wood.** In 1720 and 1727 trutla 

.t a staini on account of the ravafii-s cftuwd by B^jirfo 

l\ :>U\\n in hiA invasion of Mai^ur and Bednur." After the Englutb 

were forced to leave Kfirw^ in 1720 the value of Uie pepper trade 

at KAr>vur continued Kulliciently great to tempt them to make 

iiven,' i-tfort to persuatlc the chief to allow them to return. Lesvu 



f I; I 

HniK'K Anmb, II. 4«0. 487. 

fiTTiM'a BiitoiruMl Pra)(incue«, SOP. The p*«c» o( dotti >« Mid to b« oifditMn (Mt 
■ur. ' Sm BomUy Gmnrftwr, XIII. 4S0. * Bnn-e'ii Aoiinli. IU. 427. 

^'tw tlJOl BolKM lint Anh hone* we tbo IH« of the Indian mvalry, uiil 
1 :!i-f,; '.'nt AwbMid Ponpwn bot»«cort tb« Moj^ulf IU. 1090 WRfcStKN^ 

li I I I, :'■ L-ii. 

U.ii Li..: L uonarcc. T. 312. ' iBrtrncoko, S. • Ot Portupwioa, TIL 148. 
0». ^<.rt^^:u(a<l^ VII. 167-lfil. " lUraUtotiV N«W Accoant, I. !MS. 

0». ri>H.ig.iww«, VII. S78. " HuniHooV How AoMNibt, 1. 2«8, 20. 

Oi>r>i tutotj to TsUtdiarri, Mi Junury 1737. 
Onut iMtory to TeDklierri. 9tlt Juuty l7iT- 

(Bomlwr Qowttwr, 


ChsptOT VI. 


1790- ISOO. 

was given them in 17S0 ami tiicy n-mainod till 1752, when, as the 
Portuffue^e who claimed the monopoly of the tradu had oeizetl 
Pir Hill at the month of the river, they wore forced to withdraw,' 
1h 1 7-'1 the Eni^ish succoedHl in establishing h factory iu Kontivar 
chiedy for pepper, and efbor hit oonqutAt of Hodnnr in 17U't Hitidar 
gave the factors l(?ave to n-inain.^ In 1772. Forl)es mentions a con- 
siderable Diiuiufacture ofcat«chuat Kai-w&r.' At tUJrjiiii the English 
had for sovcnty years a large warehouse to storu pupju^r and (sandal- 
wood liroiiglit from Slaisur.* HonAvar wa.* Ow. oontrt; of a consider* 
able trade. Th« EnglUh had a factory to buy pepper and sandalwood 
for the En^ilish and Chinese markets, "nicre was also a large 
private trade with Bombay and the north in Ifctvlniits and otlivr 
articles. * The lo»'!n[id.t nt-ar HonAvai' were well ttlU-d anil tliicldy 
planted with cocoa and betel palms, pepper, rice, and cheap grain. 
Of the export of white sandalwood, whiai was the most important 
bi-anch of trade, Mr. Forbes give* the following dctftiU.* Tho 
sandal tree i.t indigenotift to the rocky hills of Uonivar, and if 
allowed, would grow to a tolerable size ; hot the wood is so valuable 
tliat the tree is cut before it grows at the mo»t to a foot broad. 
n»ft wood is cither red, yellow, or a whltiitli brown ; and from its 
colour and ^i/A- is called the first, second, and third ooH of sandal- 
wood, each varying in price. 'ITie best sandalwood costs £10 to 
£20 (Ra. 100-R8.2«'0) the kfvindi of 500 pomid*. Tlie wood of tlte 
brightest colour and strongest Mcnt is moett etctccmed, having a 
Ane grain and an aromatic smell which it communicates to every 
thing near it. It is much used in small cabinets, writing-desks, and 
similar oi'tieles, as within its influence no insect can livi; and no 
iron can ru^t. From the dnt^t and shavings an aromnlio oil is 
extracted. The oil and wood are used by Flindus and P&nds io 
their religious oeremonies, but the greatest part of the wood is kept 
for the China markets where it sells to great mlvAUtago. The 
English traveller Parson*, who vi-tit^^d Kitnara in 1775, three years 
after Forbes, notioea that the Portuguese felons in the penal 
settlement of Anjidiv spun thread and yam and made the beat 
stockings whicli were to 1>e had in Western India. The English hod 
still a factory at Honiivar and the place had ri.'«-n in importance as 
Haidar Ali tiad iniule it a naval store and dockyard. Parsons, who 
was a sailor, was much interested by two half-iiiitshcd and 
excellently modelled and built frigates tlicn on the stocks, one of 
which was to carry thirty-two and the other twenty-four guns.' 
The river was very convenient for tho export of pepper in which 
the pla«! alMunded and of sandalwood of which Haidar hud a 
monopoly and from which he drew great profit as it was in constaa1| 
demand in China.* Ho refused to let Europeans have the san^ 
wood unless they paid for It in fire-anus. Sandal oil was also ^ 
great c»tecm ana worth itA weight in silver.' Until Hniilar'4 
death in 1782 the trade at Honivar contioued importani On an 

< Bom. QoAT. Bcnew, VI. 909-SlO. • Bam. Qnu. Kcriew, VL StI, 

* OriMit4l ManMin, L SOS. • Oriental Memoin, IV. 108, 109. 

■ Oriental HNDoin, I. 3M. * OriouUl MMnoin, I. MTT. 

' IMkUa BE* nvBB under HiBtnry. ■ ranow' Iwtl*, 320 ■ 2SS. 

* FwMOa' THvoli, SM-SSS. 



svorsge the EnclUh factoi-a procurod every year 900 kfiandis 
of pvppor, vwhUiuruU conttuiiiii^ 520 pouocla aud being worth 
XII U> £12 (as. I10-K».I20). Tli.-y also Hccuml tlw whole oE 
t>i<- iuuiiIiiIw'ikhI wliich variorl from 200 to 300 kha»di» of 600 
poundA each. ITiere were do cardamoms, but every year 1000 
thandiii of 560 pouuds of botelnuU vrortli about £4000 wer« 
csporU-d. The tra>lo iii cocoannto and kcruiils callud copras was 
W'irDi a1)oat£I2D0 (K.t. 12,000} a yoar and wiut in the hands of 
privaU? traders. There were no manufactures and little export of 
rice as the whole was cotisutncd in tho local aud inland markets.' 
DHring thu rwigii of Tipii Siilthii (1782-174*9) the tnidc of the 
K.'inara ports was rui ned by Tipu hecau-ie it gave .ttrangcra an 
excuse for prying info the afiaira of his kingdom and becau.<(e in 
his opinion tradu impovcrl'^hcd a country. In 1799, when the 
district p:i'^<^-d to tli« Kritisli, Honiivar hod not a single house 
and Mirjin vrofi ruinn].* Jn 1801 Uuclianan found the coasting 
trade much hampered by pirates as people were afraid to build 
boats. There were no nianufacluri^s. Tipu hud di-stroyed trade, 
and uicrcliants were only b<>j;inni»g to come Iwc'k. TIio chief 
i.-xjiort wu« rico and after rice coonanuts, betelnnUi, pepper, and 
!utuibilwoo<l,* and salt and a Uttle catechu went inland froai Ankola 
ami KArwiSr.* In the upland pnrt^f therv were few morchanta. 
S.imi'v traders from below ilie SaliyAilrin lioujjht a liltlo peppier, but 
thit chief btiyi.*r» were Banjigs from llubli, Dhirwir, and the 
&I;iriiih]i country. These inland traders bought cloth and grain and 
t--'k pepper, betelnnt. hik) cardnmuuui. 8ouie of the trmliug was 
■ioiieby barter, but mocsl by ca«h pa>nitent« to the local idiopkc-epeia. 
There wai( an import of iron fi-om lUaisur for local u-ie and aii import 
und jzn'iil chrouith traiiicin salt from tho coast to the KamAtak.' 
By I'-Oj the trade which hail been destroyed )>egun to rc\nve. The 
tiHi-chants rcturnwl from the oountrifw where tlniy hail taken 
nii> IttT. Bid;, ]i>'pp»r, hetclnuts, and cocoanuts were taken to Ooa, 
Ki.jiipur. and Boud<ay. Till 1812 pirates, wlioso hea'l-<)Uarter» 
n- ri- at Milvan in RatnA^iri, coutiiiu>.tii to prevent the ri^covery of 
trade as the pvoule were afraid to build or to own boatK. Tht: fear 
of pirat«H coasea at the close of 1812, when Colonel Lionel Smith, 
witti a tli^ht military force and a Hr|Uuilrou of »iiuill craft, helped 
>.\- lh>- fourieeu-giui cruiwr Prince of Wales, went to MiUvan and 
u'ljiplettly de»troyi-<l the power of the pirates,' 

Under Briti.'«h mle, in the ninete«nth century, the oneniog of tlic 
two main i-oatls joining the porta of Kuntta and Kdtr wAr with 
Ik-l gauni and UhArw^ r, the clianj,'* from small Ifair-weatEer coasting 
(■r..rl to targe .'itvam -ships pMna all the year round, and the 
i: ti™luction of the telegraph at Kumta and KArwdr, have trreatiy 
l tho trade of Kannra. Bctwe«u 1^0 and ll^iTO at Kumta 
I wdr tJio through cotton iroite with Belgauin and i>h(trn'&r 
gt«ady increased, but since 1870 it has again falteiL 




> unburn '■ Oriental C»min«n«. 

t BiKJuuuuF .Mrsoc. in. 137. ISO. tUS: Mnnm, Kith Ukf IftOO. 

I. BikIimkui'b Myaor. III. 152. • Boclunu'* Mytor, III. 77. 180. 

• Bochuun'* M>-Mir, III. 328. * Uw't UulUn Havjr, I. 277- 

!kaptar VI. 







Tile lea<lin<^ tnulors am KjUa-t)itk;&i-.i, QuJAr VdnU. ami Bh&tiiit 
on the coast, nml I jngiyat^i iu tJio ii|>Un<l.< Kxeept ii lurf;« uunilvr 
of Gujitr Viiiis at Kunita who are cotton ^ent^ to BomUi 
nterchant^ M>me of iIk-hc trmk-rs arc m«) of capital and others < 
buHine.ta on borroweti cttpitul. 

The chief places of tnuli* on the coftst arv Kiirwiir, SuldshivgaJ. 
Cbt^mliyu, and Bti>({hi in Kiirwjlr; Bulikc-ri, Aiikoia, Jm<i <Jiuii;nvi»lj 
in Aiikola; Ookai-n, IVIri, and Kunita in Kuuita; aiul HonitvKr, 
Uanki, MorJeshvar. ShiiAIi. and Bliatkal in llomivar. In the 
uplnndH the cliitf tnule c«ntr«s an: Hiitiyiil. Stipa, «nd tHn in Supa ; 
5iiinilj^)d, Yvliiipiir, Miilyi. and Pidlii in Wlliijinr ; Sirsi, Bima-Vitsi, 
and Si>nda in Siitii ; and CJorsappa. iiiddipm, and Bilgi in Si.idrtpnr. 

Of local fail's or jalnu the three most important aro at Uokam, 
Sirsi. and l^lvi in Stipa. TIic articliss "oM at Uiu-it! fairs are topper, 
hras;, iron, and Ixdi-iuctAl v«t«--^lH, Kui-op<?au and conntry-madu 
cotton and WiwUeh piece-goods: and of sundry aitieks, toys, ela^ 
bangle.4. coral beads, aiifl pearls. Besidui th(w>j, at Goka rii. buHaloea. 
cows, shocp, and otln,-r vattlu «r« brought for mUc, At Gokarn 
two fuint are held every year, th» gi-eatttr being in hcHioiir of 
Jtfahiidev on the Shivardlra Day in ^'i^* {Pebniarv-Marcb) anil 
the smaller in Kdrtik (Novemljer). The greater or i/.ijrA fair lasts 
fi/tcen 'lays auil is utit^^nduil by 20,000 U> ;i.'>,000 pi'ople, »}x>ut oiiti- 
balf coniii)'^ from B<^l^um and Dbdrw&i'. The value of the artiiJi'n 
sobi at the fair is estimate.! at about £2500 (Ba. 25.000). At the 
nnaller or E'iiiik fair 100.000 lutnpn aru lii;hle<J ut Shiv'a tviiipie, 
nitd thti altv^iidance of pil^riin» is about '>0O0, imxsl of theiu being 
from the district. As Ookam is t aie of the chief [>tace» of Sh aJv 
pilgriinair e in India, siniill parlies of pilgrims ore always foimd 
there. During thv year tJm nmidit-r of swob pilgrims docs not 
vxcvcd 10,000. Thfi ^iwi fair in held in honour of the g<MldiviH 
Jlfori every second year in I'aush, Af-igfi, or t'dlgitn (January, 
February, or March), and lasts for al>out a fortiiiglit. It b attended 
by about 12,000 puopb^, soiuu coming froui Bulgaum, Dh4rwAr, 
and MuLiur. The valufi of the articles sold L* ctttiuut<^il at aUiut 
JilOOO (lU 10.000). The Uhi fair is held every year in .V.;.f/i 
(February -Mai-ch) and lasts" Pour daj-s. It is atteudod by alxjut 
5000 people, not less tliaii tliix'c- fourths of whom an^ LiiigA^iits; 
the vHuiit of the article'i aold ia e^itimated at about t^W (Itn. :J000). 

Almost ev«ry lar^ village has a sliopkoeper, b«t in remote 
foi'cst tract.-* till- pmiple havo to go t4i the nearest trade-centre for 
umpplieti. Below the SahviUlriH the »hopkeeiV:rs arc gi^uoraUy kxmtl 
Siiaashtk&rs, Vinia, Mmalm^iti. and sometimes Uhristian.<. Almvc 
tile Sahyidris they arc geaerally Lingiiynts. They deal in grain, 
spicc», salt, oil, stigar. miiiRssi.s, cocoiuntts, tolwicco. bct«^^l loaves and 
nuts, ciaritW butU-r, ilatim, iron and bra-is ware, and various other 
articl'.-s^ The buyers are the people of the nt:igh)*oiir)iood and 
trav«llera. The shopkeeper buys his stock from wholesale dealeis 
at the chief town of hix sub-division, where imports fi-om Bombay, 
Hubli, and other plnco^ are kept in store. If iu gooil circumstances 
he often gets his .iupplie» dirt-ct from Hondiav, Hubli, or Dbtirwiir. 
Thfc villa^ cloth-dealer's nUKk meet^ tJie oruinary dciiuuida of the 



4i!r*, Iwit <lo6s not affopd room (or soeh choice aa U ro()nire(l ou Chapter ' 
^^■.liliig and other special occufiuiis. Soinu Bohoiibi and Mtitnaiu, Tnde 

who in the fttir »«aiiou (.-ouio from BoiiilMy to Ktlrwitr, Kuintit, Hnd 
T' go from hiDisv to iioune in villa^^ lying along tho main 

lalHc, selling cloth, chintz, Waiiketa, and other goods. 

Next to v'illage sltopkeepere conic the pcddloif) who are knoM'n as VodHtat, 

T . "li Tlicy j^onttrttlly sc-Ii W»iU, cortil, lliiii)li]r«, ncwllcs. bells, 
■H, U>yi, ami otlu^r luiicl^, travolling from village to village, 
comi! in largo nuiuVx-ra to tht> faint held at Gokam, Ulvi, and 
where iheir wares find a ready sale. 
Ol' Exports the chief artieles arc, of fihny*. cotton; of iyes, Eiportt. 

v-^>1)alniis; of grain-s, rico Uith hoiked and; of spicw. 
:iutA, cardaiiii>m.4, hlank pepper, and long peppei* or chillies ; of 
'"tny. teak, black uuidal. and firewood, and bamboafi; and 
..lueotLs articles, salt, honiN luxl hidut, honey and wax, and 

Cotton ino-ttly comes to tJio coaxt from Dh^rwitr for export to Cot 

Botnliav. It i<i grown in Dh^rwitr by ldngi}'at3, MaritthiLt, and 

other classes of huslMndinen. Cotton is soniutiiiies taken by the 

growers to Kumta ami KArwitj-, but i« mostly .■«iiil lo local doalem 

mitn whom thu growers oft^^n receive in advance about one-fourth 

of the valae of the cotton agived to ha given at harvest. The local 

dealers sell the coUou either in the Oluef Dliftrw^r marketfl or 

•"•■"' it to the coast. On (Jio coast cotton i.** either sold to Bombay 

Uantm or Mint to Bonilmy for nale through commission agents 

. 'ay in advance pari of the value of the cotton consigned to them 

r by bills or in cash, Tliu traders are European merchants, 

- Kutoh Bh.-itidi and (>ujiu-ilt VAiiis, and IMuirwAr and 

i-!t Simie ait> agenti and others are indep^m h:nt trader*. 

arriage of cotton fi-oin DhiiwAi' to Kiirwar costs 10*. to JEl 

,.L ^ -Rs. lU) a cart or 4a. (Rs. 2) a dokra of loO pounds; from 

KarwAr to Bomltay it costu about 44. {Ha. 2) a hhandi of .560 pounds 

if w:nt in coiintrj' craft and S*. (U^. 4) tf sent in steam-boats. 

HI vroWans. which ai-e much valued in tanning and in dyeing.grow UgnMitat.^ 
wilil in ttiG Supa and HonAvar forests. Tliey am gathen.-'l by ^resfc 
pi-oph- who arc fxiid by the forc't officer* at a fixed rate for all thoy 
art- nI>I>! to bring. Tliey are sold at auction to Eiutipean and Nalivo 

' '-'lants who, as a i-ule. send them to Bombay by steamer at a 

f about Ua. (Ra.8) the ton. 

'■ rioe of two kinds ;"j»rfi and paini, is grown in Kitnora jtie*. 

_ itisl from the K.inara jmrts; and uidin.*ktxl, also of two 
. suniya and ukra which ti partly grown in Kanara and partly 
. ht from Dhdrwar. is shipped from the Kiinai-a ports. On thft 
m coast' ricD is ^rown in KArwiLr by Konkanis, Bhand&ris, 
iiks, and IVItit ; in KiiriitM by Kunbis and N/UI^^tH ; and in 
hy Lingiiyfttt, Wanjign, and other clas-ses of husbandmen. 
■ji thp.' rie'_- J growers, being either permanent or yearly lease- 
rs, pay reiiU both in grain and in cash. The rice tnulo is 
in Uie htuuU of woll-to-do landlords of whom the growers 

,.- .- .\jt. By tliese landlords, chiefly Siirasvats and Shenvi;*, rice 

ia either sold to Ooa traders or sent direct for sale to Ooa and the 
I sift- s 









MakMr connt in counti^- craft n-hbli cliArge 4«. to 6a. (Rs. 2 -IK 3) 
a khaiuli of ^GO pouiuU for a tiip to Kochin. 

Of Hpices, bttclimts vsnUmonis and ttnck pepper are ^wn 
clikfly t>y H«vif;.i in the Sii-si, Yi-llapur. and Siuaiipur iiplandsL 
CtiiirKttt wliicU are grown by Liii^yatA and others art- brought for 
export from Dharwdr. BoUrlnutA, canhimoiii», uik) I'lack pt'pp^jr 
are brought to the coast on pac'k-bu1lock.t and chillier in crarts. 
The cost of conveyonCiu It a)x>nt (i^. (lti«. H) a kkandi of 5(}0 pounds. 
l'h« ti-advrs ar« Ot^ai-s, V^ia, Oaud Sdraavata, and other local 
dealcrsL UTiey generally sell these articles to the coast tncrchants 
vho send tliein to Boroba}' in country cntfk 

0£ tiiiibt-r, leak, Wackwooii, fI>ony, and lircwoo<l go from Ka«Ira, 
Salgari, an<l other KAiiAra for&it^, the teak in logs of seventy-live 
to 15t> cubic feet each. Sandalvrood moiitly comes for export to 
HonAvar from S^gar uikI Shimogu in Muisur. Tlic forctit timber, 
whifh is Govi-nimont pmporty, in .-told by Oovemmont to mercliantn 
and coil tractors either in the forest or at the wood-stort«. It is 
mostly exported to Boinl<ay, Goii, Itatndgiri, and Gujnriit. From tlic 
forests the bamboos an; tHkvii to the nwire-^t port eithor hy hvad- 
loads or in carts ; from th« coast they go chieily to Bombtiy and 

Uoet of the local salt is sold at Katgal and Dvngi in Kumta by 
Uie S&rasvot »iid Niidgi propriclont of the ^t^nikalta ttalt-pana. 
Th« buyers are Belgaum ano l)h&i-ivilr tradei-H who bring for sale to 
Kamta cotton, rice, and chillier, and take back salt. Except the 
skins of wild aniinRl.t vrhicli uro sunt to Europe by Europoan 
reiiidents of tlw coa.-<t towns, hides ami honw mostly go to Bouitwiy. 
These articles are ccnerally iMmght by Itatnitgiri Khojis from 
Chimbhiirs. Mhilrs, Kulckilnv and Ms<lig8r&, and are sent to Bomliay 
in iwuiilry craft at a cost of aWut -fs. (Rs. 2} the hundredweight. 

Honey aiid Wax, the right to collect which U sold c\-«ry yoar to 
the highest bidder, are mostly sent to Bombay, Ratnigiri, and tli« 
Malabir coast Salted lish are aent by Musalmiln shopk<-opera 
either to Bombay in country craft, or to Belgaum and DliSrwdr hy 
hcad-lood.s or in carts. 

Of Imports tlie chief articles ore, of cotton, oolourod and wlilt«- 
twist anopiecc-gooda Tlie twist comes from Iktmbay ami is almosb 
all sent to Dhitrw&r, Hnbli, and Cimlag where it is sold to the local 
weavers. The piece-goods come from Bombay, Mangalor, Eiilikat, 
and Madnu. Tlioy are partly used locally and partly sent to. 
B«Iga>im and Dhdrwilr, Of drugs and medicines, brimstone, 
camphor, quinine, and auiafa-tida ai-e brought from Bombay.; 
They are either tiaed locally or sent to Belgaum and DhArwAr.' 
Of dveing and colouring materials, coclitnc-al and indigo ai-o> 
broiignt from Bombay by the coast traders who either sell tliera 
to the local artisan!* for dyeing cloth and colouring Imildings, 
or e*nd them to Belgatnn, DhilrwAr.aDd other upland parts. Of 
grain, unhusked rice Is brought by coiust traders from Bombay, 
AUIvan, KundSjiur, Mangalor. Bsiiidnr, ami Barkur, ami sold locally 
to the pc opie and retail dealers. Whi^t of the baksi, pate, and siniilu 
varieties is luvught for local iiso from KarAchi. Gujar&t, Bombay, 



MAlvAti, ami Vengtirla. Millet, jv<iri aild hljri of tlift ghaii and 
f/ufiirutl voriettea ut broticht for local uao from BomV>ay, BtLUvati, 
and Venguria, Of pulses, pigL'on pea tvr Cajanua intlicuA, 
common giutii chana Ciocr urii-tinum, fi*:I<J pi.-ji vntana Pisum 
vativ-uiii, small fruited kidii«y mntj FIiascoIun iimiigo, and 
lentil vMimr Erviim lens. ar« brought for local uw- from 
Kaniclii, Ciujariit, Boiitljuy, M&lvaii, aua VenKurUi. Of lisixlware 
anil cutli.'ry. kiiiv<^ acissOrs, »nws, and plated wuro arc brought 
from BoinWy «itlier for local us« or fur export to Bclgaum 
Slid Dhirwdr. Sackn, both machine and hand woven, comtj from 
Bombay and Calcutta. The cotton merchants aewA tJiem to 
Bclgautii and DhArwir and tlicy aru locally usmI for packing 
myndudAnt Of inetalf*. cupper ft;i<I bra-w »ii«'t.-i for making cooking 
ptiLs, irun and stt^cl for inaking ti<'ld-iool8 and for building purposes, 
and lead, quick^■ilv(.■r, till, aod zinc for miscellaneous purposes, are 
Iir,.ii{^)it fruni Huiidwy. &[o«t of ihvi^ imported articles are sent to 

,iun and i>hArwiir. Of oils, k<TOtsiiu\ ctLitor, cocoanut,jingol]y, 
nit'i groundnut oils are brought fix>m Bombay. Venguria, KochiD, 
Kan&DQr. and M^van. They are sold wholesale to tne local shon- 
k '.1io sell thoni retail to tlio pi.»pk\ Cocoanut-^. both with 

ai !iut tlm husk, aru im]>ort<.sl fmm th.? Mal<il>:ir coast, 

Goii, and Anjidiv. They areuned either as food or for making 
«&). Of provisions wet and dtr dates ax-o brought by the Arat» 
firom Arabia, Turkuy in Asia, llasnih, Quctta, and Bombay. The 
Arab merchants generally sell articli.-» to tjic Kumta and 
KArwitr tra'Icra. Tliey are both' locally use<l ami »ent to 
' .\im and DhirwAr, Salt Ls bi-ouglit from Ooa and to a !es.i 

X from Sind. It is botli used locally and sent inland. 
Of silk, raw !>jlk and silk pivee-goods are brought from Bombay 
and Madratt. The silk goods are partly nsed in Ktoara and partly 
•ent to belgaum. Dhirwir, and Ilubli; the whole of the raw silk is 
- -■' *ti Belgaum, Dtuiiwiir, and Uubli. Of spices, cinnamou, cloves, 

r, and nutnn^ conK> froui Bointmy, MAlvan, Vciigurla, and 

iv<.x.'hLn. Part is used loyally and the rast is sent to Bclgaum and 

lilutrwdr. Of spirita and liquor, ale. beer, brandy, rum, hiu, whisky, 

r' I", claroi. ]>ort. and sbern,' are brought in .-omul ipiantities 

fi. :i)iay and (Jolomtjo by Kiiropi-aii resiilents and licHL-siril sliop- 

kw.rpi-r8. Locally foreign wines and spirits are chietly u»eil by 

Kuropeans and Eurasians, the rest is sent to Bi-Igaum and Dh£rw&r. 

Of sugar, candied sugar and molasses ore brought from Bombay, 

MjU\-nn, ttn<l Vongnrla. It i.* partly used locally and partly sent to 

Briyuiim and DhirwAr. Of totiacco.mj'upuri ormanufai'^tun^'il tobacco 

- are brought from ildlvan. Venguria, Kdlikat, and Alaflras. 

liy used iu smoking, eating, and snuffing. Of wool, raw 

inii kIihwIs and otlior wooltrn piece-goods arc brought fi-om 

. . . iny. Part is u.sed loc&Uy and the rest is sent to Belganni and 


Th'? trnffi'- by sea is carried on jwrUy by tftcamers and partly by 
Coasting steamers of 1950 to StiOO ton.s twlonging 
i:.....ii India 8t«am Navigation Company call weekly at 

. or throughout the year, uud at Kumta during the fair scawn 

Chapter TT^ 



IBoinlny easettetf, 


ChapUr Tl. 

SaiUiij VmmIi- 



(October-May) when apeciallr requirwl l)yuu-rcliiuil^ Tor the shipmont 
©r cotton to Bombay. Tlicy deliver and i-cccive the weekly ma0.ssnd 
all kinds of goods, aiui ih<! rvtiun «t4.'anicrs i-cc^^ive large cart{Ocs 
chiefly of cotton, foi- Bombay. A .sti-aiiior j^noraUy makivt thu trip 
bftwx'cn Kiirwir and Boinlmy in forty-eijiiht hours. TIiwh? siojiniera 
souu^tiuK-A bring piece-goods and stores to KarwAr from Btimbay 
for the local inarKbt or lu Ix^ Kont to the Uombay Kam4tak in 
carts by tln^ ArWii pas.* IJurinj,' (he 1870 and 1877 faminft in 
the Bombay Karndtak largo qtiauUties of rice and othor foo<l grtuna 
wen^ landed at Kdrwilr oud sent in carte to DliAm'ir, Jfnbli, aiid 
JJelUri.' Tlic piwseiigur traffic bctwecu K&rw&r and Bombay ia 
small except daring the i-ainy s*aj*on when the wei-kly stesmcni 
bring in a large nnmbor of passengers from Bomltay to Goa and 
laud them at Kdrwftr inntoadof at Goa. I'H-om Augui^t or September 
1S83 it is exiK'ctvii that (smaller »tcaiin-rs Ix-kmging to Messnf. 
Shepherd and Company will prolnbly ply daily betwi-vn Kiin*"(lr 
and Bombay. 

Of Railing vessels there are two classes, foreign and local. The 
foreign slii|>s wry; Arab (JA i/u-y, vc-ssels of seven ty-tive toloOtons 
bnrden. vrilh two niaata and two or tlu"cc saiLs. and a crow of a 
captain tarang or litidal, a naJioda or niati^, a carpcntiT, and 
twenty seamen. Besides their meals, the seamen receive 16«. to 
£1 (Ra.8-Rs. 10), and the offioera £1 to £1 10«. (Rs-lO-Rs. 15) a 
jnonth. Of late yesra tew Arab vessolit ImvB visited the Kiiiiara 
porta. Tlio ownora of these vessels, ax Well tw, their commanders, 
arc either jVrabsor liuliun ^tusaltuans. They generally come from 
Arabia to KdrwAr and Knmta l>.^twel'n the months of October and 
May, bringing dat«», pomegranatct, almumls, raisins, sweets called 
kaU'tt in plates or small mat pouches, and pistachio nuin. 11iey 
»t«y in the ports for a wwk or tww, load their vvg^uls with rice, and 
then sail either to Boinliay or hack to Arabia. 

Of local sailing craft ' the chief varieties are, IiftHifles canoes and 
fij*l ling boats, the fhalfrndrj o f fifteen to fifty tons and the wacfeniand 
f)«<fa t!locallvhetterknowaaa gaf&Qi»aiMlwt/ra>i.gtWa iboth varyingfrom 
fivTlo thirty tons. Thej- aro usually Imilt at Ko<iibag.'Belikori. 
Ankola. Ciangdvali.Tadn, Knmto. Kassargodi, Shiriili, and Bhatkal. 
Coiopai«tiveIy few phaU-nuiri^ an> built, as the maehvu*oT paildvii 
being suiall and of lighter draught, are morv c^isily worked in and 
out of narrow-mouthcii inlet.'', .-^iich as the Boliken. Ankola, Tailri, 
and Bhatkal cn^ks. The buildert are Hindu.i. J(ii.iahiitin.s, and 
Christians. The timber mostly used Ut nana Lagerstixi.>mia micro- 
caq)a, and milli Tcmiinaliu toiiieutosa, for the outer planking, kwil, 
»t«m, and stern po»t«, and un<ti Calophyllum inophj-lluui for the 
tJmbera. 'JTie local sy6t«m of bo«t*building Is somewhat opposed 
to the English practice. After laying down the keel, stem, an( 
Bteru po.*ts, the loat is shaped by the out«i- planking some <ti^UriC( 
beyond the wat«r-line. The timbers arc tlieii .shaped to the mod«i 

■ In 1ST7. 160,000 too* ol gi«iii wtre Inadcd U lUrvir and otbor [Hvtii »ad MD 
to the Bombay K*mlt*li- 
> Ooatribatod \y Ur. It. <i. C. Vr'nOiroolt, Vtxt Officer, Ktnt^. 




i.jiinoJ Ity the pUnkina; fnstcnwl to tho tiinlxini The boats ftnd 
ve^ '^^■U, fw ft rulo. *TC very i-\ ^-nly built and are good amicrg ; and if 
W.-U carod for last sbotit forty years. The lime th*.*y nmially 
run is from Cocoanut Day in Shravan or Aupii-st to the first 
i.| t ai-aiicc of the monMOii, which is t^eiu'rally early in Jun«. 
luolii-sivc of th« cft])tuin the crew of ajWia^t-muri varies from fight lo 
twelvi!, and the crew of a maekca or padav from five to eight The 
oi-'W ia generally paid by the trip, the captain rcccivinjf twice aa 
1 1. ■..I'll as u seaman. On the voyajie the captain never, if he can help 
'■of lnn>l. 'Hny f^nide their vosseLi hy laud-marks 
.y andhy the MtarHatnight. fhily incase of fojtf, cloudy 
^^ ■iither, or when th^y lose sight o£ land, is the compass, whicli is 
always carried by the larjjer vcshcK bronfjht into u.-w. Tlie siiwllor 
vc6S'-;U «re alway:? carefuf to luig tho lan<i aft«i- dask, and if the wind 
ia unfavourable they u.-tually anchor for the night 

C'anoea , or holU M. and donU K.. are built at nearly aU the coakI 

\iirui>T"tli- (onnage van,'inL; from a iiuarter of a ton to five tons. 

Tito K'iiK:i;( and Sttdiishiv;,'a'I caiKw;*, whose lower pai-t ia the 

I niiilt of a tjt-e . are the masi Ruheitaiitiallv built of all KAoara canoea. 

'I lin planking used in making canoes la usually one and a quarter 

indies tJiick. A few are Fastened with nails, but coir yam is mostly 

tis-ti, llio yarn liein;^ maiie into pads fi'om t«n to fiftiK^n fevt long. 

Ai'tortht! jointH uf ihe planking are cloftoly fitted, a layer of cocoanut is laid over them, the padding ts laid on the fibre, and the 

\v lude is sewed to the plunking;. If the pa^^Iding is occa<!ionally coated 

with oil, this nwiicof fa-iteoiiij; lasLi about ten years. As a rul« 

cjuiOits are oiled once a year 'and somctinu-.H oftenor, the poorer 

classes nsing for cheapncsB fish oil and those in better cii-enmstancea 

cn-ilor or sweet oil. ThcMj ciuioo» are all fitted with a Imlancing out- 

viL;;.jer called uliiHtIi, and are always staercd by a niddcr. Tho ofter- 

{i:trt is usnalfy* decked for the capt«n to ntand on wliilo stcorine, 

ill' 9pac« below the deck being used for keeping cooking vcsams 

:irid foo<t. Tliey carry n tatven-»iil on a mast witli a great forward 

i7ik,e, Tliey wMoin leave tho rivers, K-ing alii)oe<i entitvdy 

fiiiployed in bringing to Kodibilg wood and other forest produce 

from MullApur, Kiidra, and the neighbouring %'illagus. During the 

fair sdLsou they occiwionally carry carj^s to Goa, Kirwilr, 

Knmta,andoth<'r{>ortH further .south. Tho crew generally includea 

the captain wlin is also owner anti two seamen. Canoes var^* in aiza 

from om and a half to five tons and cost £15 to £27 ]0<. (Ra. ISO- 

Bs. 275). 

Fi.shiii" canoes vary from afjuarter of atonto fonr tom^ The larger 
ciana of fishing canw which varies from two to four tons is of the 
ftatne build as the Sadishivgad canoe, except that it atands higher 
otit of the water. They cost from £8 to £12 (Ra.80-Rs.l20). The 
larger canix-s have a register certificate which aIIowb them to trade 
as well a.s to fi-ih. They always lie up from •lune till aboafc the 
Ist of Angust The smaller canoes varying from one-quarter to 
throc-i^uart'^rs of a ton are ongagod in uut)iin;r but fishing. They 
keep to the creeks in rough wertlier, but in the fair season some* 
Umes venture one or two miles from land. They ai-c worked and 
Kt£>crcd by |«ddlcB and have seldom either halanciug outriggers 





ifUtt VL 
lUag VcMuU. 



or sails. Sliould they citWr on th«ir way out or on th' 
return find the wind Cavourablt? Uiey sccuro one or two of the paddles 
^ la&hing to make a mast and knot their hciul-twurvi-^ into a mil. 
During tnu stormy eeaeon they f>«h in Uic rivers. In tint Shir.l\'HtJ 
some of tl>c eatioos which m-Idom engage in tithing, tjwle 
hetween Hou^var an<i Qerwppa tsktnff passengers on tJio down 
trip and returning with fruit, dried palm lfAT<u9. and grain. 
These caiio<» have uo balancing outrigger aa thoy arc roundly huilt, 
Uiv lower port being a hollowe<l tnw-irunk. In place of a lateen 
sail they u^e an almost square nxl »ai! which is made fast to a 
horusontal yard of light bamboo with aumll lines ticl at each vnd 
for working tJio sail. They vary from one to two Um^ and covt 
£3 to £C OU 30- lU <>0) exduitive of »Mla Moat are manned b: 
two men vho are generally the owners. 

Then; are two daaaea of maelw d*. one which trades along t 
cotut, and th« otiier which trade*' in the Ta<lri and Sliiriivati rivers. 
The coaating wMyAwtj are nineh larger tlian the river IhaehinU and 
coat £40 to £lOO (Ks. 400 - Its. 1000). The average length over all 
is thirty-five to forty feet, the breadth twelve ic-et. nnti the depth 
four feet- Tliey ai-e usually iHiiit wiUi a very slight aheer fi-om 
the stem to the aftt^r-part of the main-mast the sheer gradually 
increasing from tlie fore-part of the main-mast to the stem post, 
wlilch is generally set at an angle of 60" to 70°. Tlic« 
voswls are alwaj-s built with a curve in t]i« fore-part, the 
aharpast section Wing from tlie lower part of the stem to the fore- 
part of the foot of the main-mast ; about eight feet from the afi 
part of the main-mast to the »t<;rD po«!t is a straight line. Maehi 
Uiilt in this way are said to sail closer to Uio wind than maehvds 
with level keels. Ail are open, but to make it easy to walk fore and 
aft bamboos laced with ooir yam are laid over tJic beams. From 
the aft«r-piart of the main-most to the aftvr-psrt of the mizzcn-nitttt 
they are covered with a roof of Immlioos, palm leaves, and straw 
Caatened with coir yam. On the top of thifi i.t a small deck, where 
the tindal stands to steer and under wliich stores are usually kept. 
They are rigged with two masts, two yards, and a jibboom. Both 
nuv^ take an equal rake forward. Tuey arc supported on either 
side by light coir rigging, and forwanl they are made fast by a 
strong coir lashing to a round post close to the mast whose lower end 
flt« in a wooden lied place>^l on the upper part of the kclsan. The 
people give two i-esMns for raking tlie masts forwanl ; the boats sail 
isstcr and they hilcjur less in a bean' head sea. The jiitlioora is small 
compared to the other, a-« tbuy Jo not use cither the jib or the 
mizzen stal except in light breezes. In running before the wind, even 
in a mo<lerate breeze, the jib is not ujjed because the forc-pari of tlie 
main sail takes the wind out of it, and the mizzen sail is aat used 
bvcaujte it prevcatA Uic after-pArt of the mun sail from drawing. 
The main and mizxen sails >vhieh are hiteeii-shapci^l are made of light 
cotton cloth, cut into narrow strips to straight^in it. On each mata 
ooir yam is laid and the two edges of the cloth are turned over on 
the yarn and sewn. Asctof sails for a twelve-ton niiieAt)aoosts£310«. 
to £4 (Its. 31; - Ks. 40) and If repaired lasts five or six seasons. Like 
all couBtry rigged v&ssols, the mocAm has to wear in tacking 


nre- , 

m m 




bM-anne the yanl U fast«nixl to ttiu liftlliAixI-i on Uie foropnrt of 
thi.' mast, Httlliards ulnciyl in tli'iR way ar« a great support to ih<i 
inuvi.M (he lower t^udUalwaVR fa.<it«iiw) as far aft as the Fore-part 
of llie mizz^n^mast. J/tifAmw do not confine their trading to any 
fiartirular ports. In March and April many hring hags or 
in of rio? from thi> St^iiitti Kiinara portt and fiviui Knilgal in the 
r i rivt-r and the villages near it Most of llie Sonth Rdnars rice 
iii brought t« llondvar and Kumta and most of the liof; from Eatoal 
and the villa^^d near it is Kent tu Goil^ Smaller mac-hvit ranging U i 
fruni four to nine tons are found In tlie Tadn and Shirivati rivers. ^ ' 
They co«t £17 10». to £40 (IUI7r)-Ka.+00). They differ flora the 
larger machvtU in having verj' little sheer and a perfectly atnught 
keel, the Ntruight keel Iwiny on uTIvnntnjii.i hi the shiutow rivers whero 
they geiienilly ply. Most of them niv fii^ti-ned together with coir 
yaiti in tJte «ame way as the larger canoes. Those of the Tadri 
river are n^olly larger, stronger, and not so crank as those on tho 
Shiriivati riv'r. They tnoi^ly carry salt from S^uikuttato Kat^al 
and th« interineiliate villafjwt, Iwii^j paid Qt. to 10*. <R«. IJ - Bti. 5) a 
trip, and bring l>ack a cargo of groin at rates varying from 4t. to 6». 
(Us. 2 -lis. d). If no cargo is available they return in ballast. 
With favourable wind and title the up and 'luwii journey can he 
made in a)>oiit eight hours, tiivti^ mtuhvda carry one ma^t and 

000 late<;n-.<uiih Most of the owners live at Hon^var and let them 
onliire. The man who hires the boat tisually aets as steersman 
or iintiai and engages two men to help in working the boat, paying 
each 8*. (K». *) a month with foo«i. Tiie seamen ate generally 
Christians, Mnliammadans, and Hindu.t of the Khiirvi caste. 

Padact and maehms are so much alike that it is difiicult to namo 
any point in build or iu rij^ini* by which a I>ont of tlie one claM 
can be known from a boat of the other class. If an owner is asked 
why be calls his vessel a fodav, his answer is that ihemaehva is a 

1 ' \Mer vvavMil. But a reference to tho Customs-house register 

.s faaofiKon espial in stint and value to any paddv*.* Pa<iiivt 

•■ '..xy in size from twelve to thirty tons and some maehvai are as 

much as twenty-<-'ight tons burden. The only difference that can 

be obtierveil is that few p < nfar a arc ^fl atter liottomeil tlian maehwut. 

Tile rig and the accoinm<Mation are'pKcisely the same, and the two 

etas.<tes of craft generally ply to the same ports. In Kumta ves-sela 

are built which their owner! call maehvda but which pFoi>»rly 

•peaking ar« '}ut(Utvs, mucli like though sotncwhat smaller than 

■ Keen in Bombay harbour carrying cargo to and from tJio 

[ing. They have a perfectly straight keel from st«ra to stem, 

ami an.' mo^lv engngvd in carrying cotton bales from the wharf to 

thi^ shipping III the roail4tea<]. In fine weather and smooth water 

they carry 100 boles in one trip, for which tliey are pai<l 6y. (Ks. 3). 

During strong winds, when they hove to reduce thcii- loading to fifty 

bales, they ore paid Qil. (4 ana.) a bale. All other cargoes, whetlier 

ift or export, ore charged ut tho rate X)f 3</. (2 ant ) o khandi of 

; -Minds in fair weather and Gd. (4 ana.) in bad weather. Though 

^' to a. sand-bank near the mouth of the Tadri they can work 

< _ about seven hours a day, they manag>- to make an average of two 

trips a day. In the slack season some arc nggi^ \\Vi.« ux<&MiiX'^ 



8«iliD« To 


IBombity Gaietteer; 



)Ur TI. coasiJDg padavt and tragic to porta between Hondvar an<l C!on. They 
^^ vary in aiza (roiu fig>it to eleven tons and in cost from £25 to XJjit 

(R».2i>0-K».300) exclM.-<ive of saiU antl rifjfjinff. Tliey are mostly 
owned and worked by the tuhiug cIa8aos, cnpcciaMy the Kharvis. 

fAaUmdrl: The pkatemdri* built on the Kinara coast are haTvIly vwt nioro 

than fitby {ons bui'dcii. Those built of cheap limber, it' fastened wilh 
nails cost Jt200 to £300 (iU 2000 . Ks. .'iOUOJ, and if fastened with coir 
£160 to £200 (Rn. 1600 -Its. 2000);thotKt of teakwood, if fastened 
with nails, co^t £300 to £400 (Ub. JJOOO-Jla. 1000), aiid if faslvntsd 
vrith coir, £200 to £300 (R«, SOOO-Ks. aoOO). They are inosUy 
built with ^roat beam and di^pth. A.phatem'iri of about lifty tcmn 
bunlen is So' (J' long in the Icel, l^' 8* broml, «ud 7' 8" deep from 
th« nppijr part of the timbers to the ijunwale. Nearly all uru Imilt 
with squai-« tttenis. Ah, uiiliki; Kn;;li»li-lniilt vvcsels. they have ho 
pintles on the rud'Utr, a strip of woo<i with a gi-oove in the centre is 
fitted to th<> after-part of the ateru-post or nidder'tr^k nnd thts 
fore-part of the nwder which is rounded is placed m the groove 
and laslied to the NtorD-]>oit in throe places at (^\tiai distauces with 
small coir rope. Phalemiirig as a riili; am built with inotit sheer 
from the after- part of the maiii-mast tothcHtem, and thoafter-purt 
of iIk- hull is higher than the foro-part. Wlion aHoat or sailing 
they ap|iear very much down by the iiisiui though the ditTereace Id 
draught U protialily not more tlian one foot. Vessel* in this trim 
answer their lielm quicker, bat their speed is aomcwhat K-Jtsened. 
All are built with a curve on the forefootj but the cui-ve is much less 
than in vessels built in anti ■ii.-jir Bombay. Tliey carry heavy masta 
well raked forwaitl with light yards, which enable them to have 
M large spread of canvat, A H>rty-toa phatemdn has generally a 
main-iuast fifty feet from foot to head, a mizzeii-ma'^t of thirty-live 
feet, a main yard of eighty feet, a ini/jii'u-yoi'd of sixty feet, and a 
jibboont of thirtv-live feet The sails are made in tlie same 
way and are of the same shape as ntaehtni saiU. i'Anf<'»r(fn> always 
Cftrrj' a *-erj- larifc jib. For a jilialemari of about fifty tons a set 
of sails, including inaiti-^l,inix%M), and jib, oKst uWut £:20(7ls.200). 
The cloth is mueli thinner and pnorer tlian that iisiil by phatentdris 
built nvAr Bombay. If well looked after and cai-efully ri'pairvK^laset 
of sails lasts about six seasons, but under orrlinaiy eircuniKtancos 
aula seldom last over four yvATs. As the phalcniiiri is open like tlio 
machva atvi jxidav, the same flooring of split ljaml)oo is laid as a 
pa.««age for walking fore and aft. The covering between the main 
and mizzen-mast is abo, as in the miT'^Acn.of palm leavct and straw, 
but at the time of loading or unloading much la)>our and time isMirVe<I 
by tricing Up the sides. The lai^ger phaUmdria usually trade with 
Bomliay, taking cotton from K&rw&r and Kunua and returning 
with a general cargo oi- in balliLsL Including the cjtptain, thu 
crew, who are generally Uindiw, vary from eight to twelve. Those 
which carry twelve men besides the captain have a mate whose duty 
is to see that tlie vessel is properly loaded and unloaded, the captain 
looking after the freight luid the entering and clearing of his vessel 
at the Customs-house. The pay of the e«ptain is twice and of tho 
mate half as much agun as the seaman's iwy. As the season 
advances and grows stormier the rates of freight apd the pay of 




Uio crvw From tho o]>eiiiiig of the season in OcU)l)er to 
the early part of April » !«ciiiiiuti who uiakefl a trip from Bombay 
to K&rwdi- and Itacit reoeive-i 8« (Ha. 4) and sometimes 10«. (Rs. &). 
Between April aiid tho end of MftT the rates risv to 14». (Bs. 7) 
aiid sometimes to I6& (lis, 8). If tho trip i^xtends to Kunita he 
recwivds I». (S flda.) oxtru. 

TTi* thirtt-^u l>ort» oF the district arc for customs purpoms 
oroupfilinto thnu! liivisions : KArwltr with thrvo portw. Sftdilsluvgad. 
pn.-,.-.i, .,„ I 'hendiya ; Ankola witli four, B<>Ukt;rt, Anko li*, 

< ■ .'Iti ; and HoiuLvar with six, K umta, Murdealiv ar, 
!; ■■'■ , Manki, and Sfairt JL During the eight years 

yearly valun oF the Kiiiiara sva-trade averaged 
U.r,2ii.S2ii:'ii f.w ttx>m 11,*63.416 in IS74-7r> to £l,7ii7.124 in 
lS7.i-76. and fell to £l.HS,7'.r2 in 1877-78. iti ISTS-?!) it again 
rose to£lMS>S:)l : and aftvr a sudden fall to £1,405.874 in 18'^*80 
again msd totl,52o.4H4 in 1881-82. 

The following statemonte glvo for the eight years ending 1882 
t' of exports and iiiiportt nt I'acliof the tliirtwn ports. They 

^ :i in lti82, of the thirteen ports, six, Chendiya, Belikeri, 

< iiii.^vuli, Muideshvar, Manki, and Shir&li. had a total trade of leaa 
'> <i £10,000; four, Sailibhivgad, Ankola, Tadri, and Bliutkal, had 

■an £10.000 and £25,000; on«, HoiiAvar. Wtweun £50,000 and 
Aa'\>.000; and two. K&rwdr and Kunita, above £100,000: 

Kanartx Sta Tnatc Imparu, 1874 ■ tlf^- 































































KnmTA .., 


























Murdd^hiar .,r 
























Oiuid TDtal... 
























■ Bitf^d 

[Bomb4ky Oatetteer. 

CTuiptcr VI. 




X^ntm Sea Track SfjMfU, IS74-lSSe. 











*>CU1U ... 

Chtnillfs ... 



SS^"*" :: 


Knmlk _ 


tl<inl<r(r _ 

















eit.Bi i«.aM 






















































The following tiUloiiient i^liows Uic total trade of each customs 
ilivision during the sainc eight jmn (1874-1882). Of the three 
divi.iioris, HonAvai*, cliiefly on account of its cotton, colourwl wood 
ware, ami suicuM, mostly sent to Bombay, had the larg<-»(i trade 
average, and Arikola thv .stnalk-ist averagt.-. In Hon^var, the total 
value of imports and exportt roso from ITflS.tWC in I87+-75 to 
£1.092,').i7 in 1878-79; it fell to £'J46,*26 in 18S0-8I. and ngmn 
rose to £072,993 in 1881-82. In KArwAr tht; total value of 
import* sud exports yo«e from £C+5,170 in 1874-75 to £037,271 in 
1875-76 and ftll to £413,190 in 1817-78 ; in 1878.79 it again row 
to £722,604. in- 1879-80 it fell middenlr to £391.7)3 and again 
rose to £52-»,222 in 1881-82. In Ankola the hight-st total value of 
imi>orts and export-t wiw £3.'>,2M6 in 1876-77 and tlie lowest 
£22,757 io 1879-80 ; in 1881-82 it was only £28.269 : 
Kdnam Sta Trad* ly CMfonu Diritienu. I8T4 ■ tSSt. 



ls:^ T*. 1 


EipMt*. i TduI, 



















isnTa. 1 







Askoh ^ 

llflllltH ,-T 


















Xltmra Sot Tnulr if Cviottu DlteMMU, lS7t-lS8S. 














































The three ports of ihe KArw*r {jrouji, Sadifeliivgad, K4rwir. aud 
Oion.livtt, had in 1881-82 a total trade worth £524.228, of which 
J' I were imports and £.t29.63ti export*. The chief (exports 

u- I, native hand-iDsdc cloth, mid huskvd uiid uiihuitked rice 

These niiicl'S arc partly pn>diicixl in the division au<l parti}- 
brou&ht for export from above the ^iviUlris. The imports, moat 
of which are for local use. ai-e chiefly wheat, tobacco, and European 
clotli. Tlic tnulerii are VfUiis. Qnjnrs, BnUimaiis, MusalmtiuD, Go» 
CtiriAiJariH, Etimpcans. and P&nds. Host of tlK-ni are men of 
capital. The ithippiii^ is jjAuf^tdrim, huUiA*, vuichvdit, and paddv%. 
B^idc« the locaf sailing craft, xteamera from Bomljay, Vengurla, 
and Muii^'alor. and other Jitalabdr ports of 1000 to 2000 tons, 
and Arab boylAn and other ves*t>ls of fifty to 100 tons visit tho 
ports, anchoring nliout half a mile from tlie londio^at Eilrwdr. 
rhutemAriB.machfdx.anA jkmWw are built In* local ilhaudiiri and 
Giibit carpcntorH. and have erewa varying n-om three to twelvo 
who M- '.'■•in.TttHy local KhAr\-is. Gdbits, DAldis, Bhandiris. and 
Amtiiit. Tho crow aiv paid about 14*. (Ra 7) a month, and the 
captain twice an miicli. .\ tiin to Bombay generally tsketi ten and 
to Madras fifteen to eighteen days. 

The four AukoU ports. Belikeri, Ankola, Oan);;itvali, and Tadri, 

bad in 1881-82 a total trade worth £283», of which £15.073 

wrt' iniport-t and £18,1 9<> ex^rU. The chief exports are 

•JOS, niiaked au'l unbuskcd rice, horns, fish, cocoa- kem<tli<, salt, 

■ r, and woo<ieu ware. These articles arc pai-tly produced in 

tfae divLiion and partly brou],;ht for vxport from Dh&rwdr and 

T'-'fitxm. The imports, tliouch greater than the exports, aro 

t entirely for local use. They include husked and tmhusbed 

' id, yani, and fish. The traders arc Gimd Stiiaavat 

-, \(itii.s, Miualmtos, and Chriatinns. Some of them 

[■ own and otln-rs on borrowed capital. Tho shipping 

'' i'd«, and jJialemdi'te. Besides lliu local craft, vessels 

tif twenty to thbty-two tons from Kochin and other MaUib&r 

porta, of six to fifty ton-i from Ooa, and of Boveu to sixty toox 

from Honilvar Kumta and Kirwir, visit th« Tfotte, t«An ^s» 



Bombay 0«i«tt««ri 







niiclKim,'(i a mile from the landing at high lido to vi^ssels oF 150 
Uim* aaJ at low tide to veiwels of Ktl) totis ; Ganf^dvfili, n milu from 
the landing to vessels under fifty ton.><; Aiikola, near thw landing 
at high tidi; to vesa-Tlsof wight toiis and at low tide to veaeels m 
MX loiiH, and about a mile from tho landing at all times to vessels 
of greater tonnage ; ami Belikeri. near the lamlingat high lido to 
vessels of fifty tons and at low tide to vi-,s.sid.i of twenty tons, 
Jluili^, piiuU-nidris. ami nrnMixw arc bnilt hy the local carpenters, 
and are niiumc) hy a captain and a crew of two to seven scamoD. 
B<t»ideH their mfiafs, the crew are [>aid So. to 10s. (IU.4-Ri).5) a 
month, and the captain twice as much. On .spLviol occasions tJicy 
also get rewards from the tradiirs. A trip to Bi>itii)ay with a favour- 
able wind takt!» thriv to fivo dayn. 

The six HonAvar porta, Kuiuta, Mardcshvar, Hondvar. Bhutkal. 
Manki. and ShirAli. had in 1881-82 a total trade worth £S72,99S. of 
which £28*.325 were iioportaand £fi88,6(l8 exports. The chief exports 
nro cotton, cot^oAuiitd, .siuces, black pepper, ami iH'tftlnutj* to Bombay, 
and grain to Kdlikat, Kititiumr, Mangalor, and other Malabtlr port«. 
These articles are partly product^ in the division and partly 
brought for export nam above tltu Sahy&dris and from Klaiimr. 
The itiiports, whieli are cliiefiy from Bombay, Mangalor, K&Iik&t, 
and Kdiianur for local use, are wheat, pulse, Italian millet or bdjri, 
sugar, camphor, tigs, and cIoUi. TIio traders are SfSrasvat, ChitpAvan, 
and Konkan Brahmans. Viini^, Ibfut^iuitmi, and Europeans. Some 
of them traih^ on th>?ir own and others on borrowed capital 
Ue«ideA these local Inwlers, a few np-country merchants stay in 
these ports dui-iiu; the hii»ry season between' January and May. 
The .-ihipping incnidcn kodui, mttcJit^, jiattdva. phatrmAri«, and 
bttlildtt. Bi-jiides the local craft, ateaniera of 400 to 1000 tons 
from Bombay, hatfldi of twenty-live to 200 tons from Arabia 
and of fifty to aeventy-fivc from E&iliiiwltr, and ^atemdria 
of ten to 10(1 from the "MsUb*r coast visit the jiorls. Honivar 
givCA anchorage at about 125 feei fnini the landii^, at high 
tide to veiHeLt of sixty and at low tiile to vi'jssels of forty 
tons; Kumta, at about 125 feet to small vess^-ls of four to 
twelve tons, and at about two miles from the landing to vemcls 
of greater tonnage. The anchorago of the remaining four porta 
is generally in the sea. Jloells, mnofcivf^t, an<l phat^mdrh are built 
in tliMO ports genea-ally bj- SUlvan and sometimes by KAnara, 
Ratniigiri, and Makbfir caiiierit-^f.-!. Ve^els of iiridei- ten tons are 
manned by a captain and crew of four seamen, and above ten tons 
of seven to twelve .seamen. The crew are paid 10*. (R«.5) a 
monlli, and the captain twice as much. Witli a favourable wind a 
trip either from or to Bombay takes five or six days. 

Owing to recent changes in classification no compari<>OD can he 
made of increase or decrease tmder the (lilferent articles of trade. 
The following statement gives the approximate value of the chiof 
articles imporU-d and exported in 1880-81. Of £1,4*0,448, the 
total valuB of the sea trade, £991,205 were exports and £449,243 
wore imports. The chief items under export* are cotton valued at 
£641,099 or 64-67 per cent of the «xl)ort^ brought for export to 




liomtwy from Bi>l^auiii, Dli&rwiir, ami otlicr iiilaii>l dUtnct-s ; 
pieee-gcx>d8, valueil at XST.Slf) or 2'7-* per ix-iit of the esparts, 
niotiUy from Bclgaum aud Dh&rw&r to Katud^^ and H&labAr porta ; 
CLiloun-<l wares, vulue<l at X10.i>61 or lOU p«r cent of tlic exports, 
Kt-nt cM'^tly to Bombay ; ri«(\ botli 1iask<jd ami utiliii!tkc<l. valunl 
at £.tri,I2y or S.*!* iii^r ctiit of tin- export-s, sent to tlie Koiikan and 
Malalj^r port^ an« to tho dUtrictt almvt; the SaVivildris ; spices, 
v«lu..-.l ut £21».031 or 21 it!) per ctnt of the txports, sl-ut chk-IIy to 
Bomtiay ; aixl olhc-r iiii-scvllsnt-ou.s articles, valued at £21,89tt, iwiit 
moHtJy to Konkan oihI MalabAr port«i. 

Of £44D,2+.'I. tlio total value of imports, the chief articlen are 
twist and yarn. valueiJ at £62.653 or 131)4 per cent of the imports, 
broiifjht fniiii Bijiidmy to K- mH'tL- into hand-woven chrtli ; piwcc- 
t^ouds, valiii^i at .Eo7,16i or 12-72 per wnt of the iinporU-i. brought 
iToiu Bombay for local use and for inland transport to Belgaum and 
Phiirwdr i unbusked rice, valued at £11,513 or 2*56 percent, brought 
fr'Mii Malabdr ports for inland trausport to thi3 districts above the 
f>ahy&lfi.s ; raw nictal-t, chivlly bra-w aiid cooper, valtie*! at £28,491 
or 6*34 per cent of llie importa, iiujK>rt«a from Boniliay to be 
made into cooking, water, and other vessels ; oil and oilseeds, 
valnttd Ht £I7,7h2 or 3*05 percent, brought from Bnmtiay and Kochin 
for local use and for inland tranNport ; italtv valui^ at £14.437 
or 3'21 per cent, brought from Kumta for local use; silk gooda, 
\-nlucd at £32,866 or r31 per cent, brought from Bombay and 
Mi\dra.'';and spiced, valued at £17,803 or 8-96 per cent, brought 
fr 111 Bonilmy and AfalabAr portt« for local u»u anil inland transport 
to Belgaum and I)h^rw&r : 

Sdnara ArlicU* of Sea TntJt, ISSO^l. 

' AaiMW. 










(.iv*«wtk ._ 



»■>«■«.«& .. .. 



(.'mil _ 



Bplrlbi Hid Uuunn ... 



tWitr-I Rc^ ,„ ,„ 





(^l.^n V.\i. ._ 



Oil Md Oll«Mdi 



Tvitt ws vun 











OUriOo* BnUw. 

rui, SiHtd _ ... 
.1 OiM 



I>nMB and 0>l«iitlnic.,. 

rnilB urf VtcrttUn.. 












Hflli Ooodx 



,. unbMiAvd ... 
W^mM ... 








Huni uid SuRiinuMlf- 




' l^il— , 






otbtrflnlx ... 



Miu^blncry A HlU-nort- 



i-uma and TU^a 






IUf4am uil OMatj . ... _, ,., 

IIl<tH ... . 



UiaorUjuwolu ... ..1 





TOti ... 



ChaptAr ' 



' Kdiiara Is not a mamifact wring district. Thfi only craft for 
which it is known is its sandalwood -carving. Other tirancbes of 
indtistry whicli arc worthy of notice are the working in metal, 
li'iin.cane, earth, and stone ; oiUprossiiig ; the making of molas-ses, 
catechu, and salt ; sawing timber by st^Un ; and the jail indOstries. 


■ Contnbnted hj Ur. R. E, Cuidy, C.S. 

(Bomtwy Qaietteer, 


ll«fu Work. 

hue Vfotk. 


For npwairda of a centiu-y the sandalwood-earving of Ktlnara 
baa been well known. Tlio vrorkcrs urc tliu Gudjnrs or carv'ors 
who aro fouDil iii siuull iiumlH^r8 in tlio stilMJivisiolix of 8ir»i, 
Si<l(Upur, Huniivar, Kuuiut, luiii Ankola, and who call theniavlvea 
Chiters, itanua name for artisans. They are said to have come 
from Goa after the establishment of Portugese power. They 
CArve sandulwood, ivory, aiid vl>otiy wiili oxiiui^titu skill ; tJicy 
work on the latho in wood making lH>autiful liic<]iiercd articles; . 
(hey make tliw pitli a^owns which are worn by bridegrooni.<t, and 
the pitli flowers and crests which ore much used by tlie lower 
claases of Hindus durin<; tlic Shitaga holidays in March-April. 
They work the lathe with a lM>wAtHng of raw d«cr-hide, not 
like looH carpenters with the help of a second workman. Thu 
articles ma<le are work-boxes, cabinets, work-tables, watch-stands, 
glove-boxen, jcwelry-box«s, writing-lioxea, pcn-holdcrs, pcn-stond 
card-cases, cbfcHs-boards, pi^r-wciSita, wiper-cutters, nenlle-c 
card-lioxes, and various other articles. They vary in value from 
Ss. to £jO (Rc.t-Ra.500). The carved work represents Uio gods 
and heroes of Hindu mytliolo^', wild beasts, monkeys, pAiTuts, and 
otJicr binU, and creepia- and (tower ti-aceriea. The piece of iMtuilal- 
wood which is to be carved is carefully smoothed and pnlUhetl with 
sand-paper and the pattern is sketched on it in pencu. The toobi 
used in csi'ving are of native make and are .-entail and delicate like 
kh« nectlie usod in Knjjliish enibmidtTy. The (ju<l(:fiir!< j,'eiKTally work 
to order, itelilotu nfli-ring articles for sale except nueh hk have I»e«ii 
condemned by the person who ordered tliem. Their chief calling 
la engraving and pauiting. Altliough their saiidolwood-carving is 
much liki.-d by Kuropcaiis there in little local demand. Some of the 
article« carved by Subanna of Hon&var which were sent to (ho 
1867 Exhibition in Paris gained a silver medal. 

Goldsmiths are found in all towns and in almost all large 
villages. Some of ilio town goIiLsmiilit* are skilful workmen and 
make excellent ornamental gold and silver ware. Blacksmiths are 
found in towns and in most large \'il!ages and their craft b well 
paid, though the demand for their work is not large. Coppersmiths 
and mctol-potmakurs ar«) found in the prindp^ towns and earn 
more than any other uietivl workers. 7ney ai'o cliielly Christiau 
KAnttdra from Qoa. 

Fancy articles of cattle, deer, and bison horn are made by aome 
cari>enters and Gudigars with con.'^iilorable skill at Kumta, Honi- 
var, Siddiipur, Bilgi, Sirsi, and Sonda. The demand for the work is 
small and in nu place employs more than a few familio:*. The horn 
iaccJlccted in the district, the price uf a horn varying from Od. to 
S«.(4 an#.-Rc.l). The articles made are small jewel-boxes, combs, 
anuff'-boxes, cups, handles for stjcks and knivus, buttons, ring^ 
and toys. A jewelry-box costs about \0x. (Ra &) and a comb or a 
snuff-box 3(t to 6d. (2-4 aits.). 

Excellent cmie work, lx)th u.seful and ornamental, is mode at 
Kirwilr hy Chin<'.'u- workmen, who were formerly convicts in the 
KArwAr jail. The raw material is brought from Bombay. Of the 
cabc articli^ c&'ty •chairs cost ICs. to £1 (Its. 8 -Rs; 10), coiumoQ 



Chftira Qi. to V2a. (lUi^-IUC). footstools 4». to Oa. (lU S-IU. S), 
lunchcou bosket-s 6», to 12», (K3,3-R>t. H), lailim' work-lMwkfl.-* ti#. to 
16*. (lU 3-K#. 8), Hower vaj*e» 8jl to 10«.(Ra. IJ- Rs. 5), wiv.U--paper 
ba»kr<t»:{<.to8«. (R&U-Ra.4), ftt>dcoto4 lijj. Co £2 (Ka.S.lU 20). 

Potter}' U carried on in most towns and villages. Red Pot« are 
made above and black pots aiv innilc Iwluw the Sabj'&lria. Tlio craft 
tlirivt'8 Wtt'-T aUivi) the Satiyitilris thnii on the coast. Ofstono, 
frying paii-1 for native wheat and rice cakes, jug9, small flat baMn>i 
to store wat^T, and other vessels are made to a small extent at 
Sejva«l, three luiles from K&rw&r, and near Chandil\'ar in Kuuita. 
The iiiHtenal used is an asb^colouriMl p^ruud slate fuuud in tlio 
iici<;hbouriug quarries. No fee« si-e cnarged for quarrying the 

Oil-pressing Is an important industry. Oil for lighting is chiefly 
extracted fromcoooauutsand toasmall extent from wild castor -seed 
and from the sovd of the tindi or Colophyllum itiophyllum. The craft 
is foDoweil oil tiie coa^t by Oaiiii;» and a few Chri.-^tian.'t and in Uic 
opland-s by f<ingAyat«. The oif-prosser extracts oil either on hiii 
own account or from materials supplied br husbandmen and shop- 
keepers The mill, which is a rude luid clumsy machine, Mtantls in 
the ^^)urtya^d in tho house luid if worki-d either by the hand or by 
a bullock. Ca.Hor and umli oil in used locally and large (juanUties 
of cocoanut oil are »ent into the Ratnil(^ri ports and to Bombay. 
Besides in lighting undi oil is nscd in iiaintiiig boots. 

Molasseji is made by most htislmndnifii in all psrts of the dis- 
trict i« <|iiaiitili<^s i^uilieient to meet th.j liwal demand. Very little 
li-aveit thf di.itriet. Tliu work Iwigins about January and ends in 
ftlay. >lolatwes is chiefly made from sugarcane juice which U 
extracted by a rudo and old-fashioned mill called ghdni. The juice 
i» 1x)iled in lar<;c copper or iron caldrons and stored in cartlicn pot«. 
The Mugareane mill oastUt tH to £C (Ks.50-Rr.60). Above the 
Sahyddris the molasses ia hardened and made into cubical blocks 
by means of wooden framea Besides from su^jareune juice Bhan- 
<\:\rm, KoniiiquUks, and Christian.s make ^Hraall nuantitiea of molasaes 
Irntii i^ilin juice by i>oiling it with lime. Palm juice molasses 
is mostly used in sweetening coffee, as it gives more tiavour tluin 
aogarcano molasses. 

Catechu is made in sravil quantities on the coast To nuke 
r^r.rizehu the khair tree AcociA catechu is felled at any seaAOU, and 
nft- r the wbilv w<xtd ha.s been renioveii, the heart is cut into small 
I :N, and [Jilt, with one-half tlie quantity o£ water, into a round- 
lii.lliud earthen pot. It is then Iwiled for about three hours; and 
when the decoction has become ropy, it is decantcil. The ttame 
qxiiuitity of water is ogun a«lde4l and Itoilcd until it becomes rop^. 
when it is tiecanted, and a thinl supply of water is given. This 
i\'. rncts nil the substance fi-om the wood. The three dt-coctions are 
tl,. n mixfiil, and next moruiut' boilc<l in small pots until tlio 
extract becomes tJiick like tar. It is aftem'ards allowed to remain 
in the pots for two daj-s, when it has become so hard that it will 
not run. Some husks ad rice are spread cm the ground, and tJiu 
thickened juice is formed into ImIU about the stxo of omtMgiK 'wV\«\\ 

Chapter V 

BMtli mi 81 








are piftced on the hiiaks or on loaves an<l left seven itrtys in 
the sun to liry. Dunu<; thv <lry iH.giAon the b«lls mn spri'iul in tlic 
shade for two tnonthi>i and <luring the raiwt for four uiunth^ Thoy 
ftru tlion fit for Bale. 'ITie making of catechu waa stopmit for 
several years, bat in 1880 a small conti-act was grant«(I in Iiouiivsr, 
yielding about iS&i (Rb. SQ¥>}. 

'Up to 1878 salt usmI to be manufactured along the co*Kt at- 
Sinikatta, Kumta, Bbatkal, Shiritli, and Bailur. E» 1878, under 
Goverumvtit orders, all minor twit-works wen.- closed, and at present 
(1682) SiLnikatta, about ten miles north of Kutiita, h tlic ouly placo 
where salt is inmnifiietuifd. The Sfluikatta ssolt-work oontAtn.-( 176 
dgarg or sslt-puus of which only MH &rv in u.*ie ; the rent ai-e either 
waste or hnvo been tuniijd into ricivtii-liLi. Of the 128 in use, 119 
dgart, containing in all 19,400pan8. were workod inlSS0.81 and 
yielded 6555 tons of salt, or 34(i3 tons over the avei-age of the three 
years ending 1879-80.* All Kanara salt-works are the property 
of pri\-Atv individuals who pay an acre MSCSSmcnt varying from 
Rt. 7i<(. to (w. IK (lis. 2H to Rs. ;ljJj)- 

A few salt-makers do nob begin work till February or even March, 
but most set tlioir putts in order soon after tho beginning of 
January. 8ult i» uevi-r reinovod from tlic pans before the middio of 
Murt'li or rathi^r iMifore Shivnratra. In pn^poi-ing the panit the first 
thing ii) to bail out the tain-watfr which has gathered in them.. 
This is generally done on cuntniet )>y labourers who are paid Is. to. 
l».6d. (8-12 aft",) thu thilla or ihirty juiii-s. The p(uis vary gn.'Btly' 
in size ; on an average they are about sixteen feel long by foiirtt^un 
feet broad. When the water has been bailed out the soil which was 
gathered during the ruinit is removed from tho pans and eight to 
ivn incites of MUt water are let into them. The di'ain« arc closed 
and the water is left to evaporate. Wliile evapoi-ulion goes on 
the enil>ankments or feajidA* and the reservoirs are n^paired; and 
when the pans are completely ilry a second supply of salt water is 
allowed to diAr iii. Aft«rr thirt the iKui^s are Niip])lietl with salt 
water every sMOiid or thini day, ami tliey are troddi.m one day and 
bcsteii the next until the HUrt'ace hardens. The surface in tlteu 
levelled and made even by drawing a plank over it, a boy or a 
woman standing on the plank to atld to lU weight. This smoothing 
goes on for .-wveml diiy.t until grain.i of salt a))pmr here and there 
which are worked into tho ground with a plank fattened to a long 
pole until a thin crust of isnlt fonns on the surface. 

The day for removing the salt from the pans is tixed by cotLsiilt- 
iug the village rleitiett. From this <lay forwai\l water is lot into t)i« 

Eans, and, except on cloudy days, salt is daily removed and is 
eaped at places set apart for the purpose. Tlie work of 
removing the salt is done by Agiars who are paid in g:min. They 

■ContriliutmlbrMr. Ktviujt KborKt]) JuuMtji, Acting ABwtant CoHootor of Sail 

« Tile dotuU m : 3S56 toua la 1877-78. 2031 Igai in 181619. and 3306 toM m 
IST9-aO, giviiiKaBav(ragiat3Q9Stoiu wluiihHl<a«b]r34G0tOMthaii6S(UIl«Bi, tli» 
fowdace of l!90-SI. 




get two muiltU or 164 poun^ of rough rioo for each ehlUa or tliirty 
pans m^aAurinff one-lif di uf mi acre. The avt^i-a^ proiliioe of a rhitla 
or tJiirty puna ls eatiniatt^t at about ei;(ht and a iiaJf toa<t (2 ynrfw or 
240 Imliun ma»a). The salt is canic^ From tlic salt heaps in boutJi 
bv lalnmreivi to tlm ])IatfunD in front of thi; kolhiirg or 8aIt-slon«. 
Tliei lalx>iu*rs are jwiil In. &/. U> H*. (hw*. 12-lIs.l J) a giidi <A 
four (incl a (juarier tons. The salt is left on the platform to dry for 
alixit a fortni<^ht, when, under the supervision of a GoviMiinivnt 
officer, it Li weighed aud stortxl by laboiircn* who ar^^ p«id Is. to 3«. 
[''Fi^.^-Ks.ll) a ')ddi, Acconlin^; to the distMnccof the salt-store 
truui the idatfoiin. Salt w»ls to make alxiul W. a ton (Ba. CJ the 
1-0 vtaiiit)} 'thx chief points iu which K^nara salt-making diflera 
from Konkaii Kult-inaking are that tlio salt is daily removed from 
the pans and is kept in salt-storvs or koOidra. 

Between 1874 aii<l 1878, the Kiinani salt trade was very dull, 
because more land than was wanted was set apart for salt-making. 
The supply was h'reater than the demand, and a largv bulance was 
always in haml at the cloese of each yonr. Tlio re^mlt was a con- 
Ktaiit slut in the market which kept the price so low that th« soil 
manufacturers maile little or no profit. In 1878, all the worka 
except at Sitnikatta were cloHetl. The whole trade in salt was thus 
thrown itJto the handfl of the salt-owners of that place, who were not 
nlow to n^alixe their position and enhance the price. The price of 
80 pouniU (one Indian man) of jwlt rw from *ld. (1 J 'uu.) in May 
lS7>ito 1«. (Suit*,) in May 1879. This continued to April 1880. 
when a hir;;e supply brought it down to !)i/. ((i ans). at wnich priec 
it hn.s (lino- rvimniui-d. This is the rate at which the mukcry sell the 
salt to the licenisir-lioUlers or retail tr«dei-» who pay tliu duty of 5i^ 
for cif^hty pounds (Kh. 2} aman) and ttpend aliout \\ii. (\ anna) 
morvi lu weighing, bagging, and carrying the salt to their shop^. 
The total cost to the trader of eighty pounds (1 mmt) of salt is 
thei-efore at. lOjti, (Rs. SfjJ). Tliu wbok-side license -holders 
gfiierally buv their sidt a httJe cheaper than the retail license- 
holders. They pay £4 (Rs. 40) the ^lidi of ij tons or 120 Indian 
mam, or Hd. (ii^ ant.) the man of eighty jKiiimla, while the retail 
licensees pay !>(i. (6 aim.) the niaa of eighty pounds. These selling 

E rices prevail within a di.'ttance of ten iniic-s of the «aIt'Worka ; 
L>yond that limit prices increase proporliouatvly to the distaDCO 
tniv tiled. 

The retail license-holders do not actually retail the salt, but sell 
it at Cit. l^d. for eighty pounds (tt.'*. 3^^ the man) to consumei-s who 
can afford to buy m large a tguaiitity at one time, and to ahop- 
kwpcrs who rfitail it to petty consimiera at Id. {^ annn) the rltiir of 
tliiity-two loUa or at about Id. the pound or 7ji. (lls.34) the Indian 
fitdn. Ilie wholesale licetise-batdeni gi^vrally trade witb up-country 


■ Th» d«UiU uo I Ttio toUl cual ot Bsktog mm g4dS or ISO man* o( mH i« 7H 

{.^ uMflcT nixing mtarftttbemtcaf li. W. {W ani^ Oi^ <hHta ot \ifti gAdit ; %>. ^d. 

|H-. aj^ for ullii^ at lli« itkU of two n<irfd« i>( rke or 13^ |Bb. KJI the (Xitu or 

it. |Ro. 1) for cMtriDg tbo lolt to thu |>lAtfonn ; -U. (Ho. 1) fot Morue I 

(IOa<w.] lor thtteUng ult-aiotM ; giving th« tOt«l co« of 18*. 4K> 

» m<i-io 



ShipUr TL 

MM Saw MUU. 


merchants and e«ri-ifirs. Tlu-y have thuir sliops on the Saliy^h 
roads and sell ICO to 8000 pounds (2 to 100 mrtii*)ftt a time. 
Their rutt-s arc lower tJiau those of the retail license-hoIdi'i-H as they 
sell K two matt bog ut l'2>. SJ. to lit. (></. (Rs. 6i<lU. (>1) or at 
G». I Jd. to 6#. ScL for eighty pouuds or Ba. S-,!^ to Rs. S^ tJto 
Indian man. 

The -Kaiiuieeri saw-mill, about five miles noi-th of Yollipur, wsa 
started in 1875 under (Lu Hupei"vi«ion of Colonel W. Ptyton, tlic 
Coiwcrvator of ForcaUt, at a cost of about £6100 (Rs. 61,000). Tlio 
mill li«9 in the heart of one of the chief Kiluara fort.-Kt tracts. The 
maclunery includes four plain circular and one crotki cut .law, work- 
ed by fcht«o steam engines each of twelve horse-power. The milla 
arc in charge of a fcumpcan sub-assistant conservator of forests 
who 18 a U'ained mechanical engineer, and who ift«i] by one 
foi-enian. one head stoker, one assistant stoker, one oilman, one 
carpenter, two luesseugvnt, and one sweeper besides a store- 
keeper. Tlie yearly cost of the (^tablishment is £795 {B& TO-W). 
The average number of tiamU entertained is thirty-three ; when 
there is a press of work additional hands are taken cm. In the 
beginning tne mill worked at a protit, but in I $79-80 and 18S0-41 
the <li'iuniid for sawn tindn-r fniru Belguuni anil Dhjirwilr fell so 
coUNi'ii^rably that the working of ibi^ mill showt^l a Hmall losut. lu 
1882 it again yielded a smalF protit and in 1883 and probably for 
several years to come the large demand from the contractors of the 
West of India Portuguese K»iilway will ensure good returns.* 

Tliechief jail imlustries ai-K cane work, weaving, and carj)i>nlrj*. 
Betww;n 1863 and 1S70. during which there were several Chiniioe 
conriets in the jail, the cane work was excellent, but, since their 
release in 1S70, the work luts declined. Up to 188S two handlooms 
tnrtioil out excellent shirt clotli, chequered tabloclotVw, napkins, 
toweLs, coante cotton carpets, and coarse cloth, which had a really 
aale in K4rw4r. Since 1883. to encourage private enterprize, these 
jail industj'ies have been stopped. Of carpentry, neat boxes, chairs, 
oots, tables, tools, and benches are made by loug-'tenued prisoners. 

iTbe d*tait( m«: In 187fi-7e • ptofit of £l$81i in 18T»-77 • profit «t <e66 ] in 
1ST7 78 a pro6t of £SSS ; in ISTS-TS a profit of £»9 ; la 1870-80 a Ion of JCS33 ] in 
ISaO-SI K tuw ol £227 i and in 16iil-93 n ptollt of £10. 




Ka'nara above tho Suhjiidris b«1oQg« to th« KtirniitAk. From 
Terr early Ume.i it liag almost nlvray< formerl part of thn territonM 
of iho great dynaHties wliich havo hold Maiaur, the Karndtsk, and (lie 
Drtcoap. Baoarisi, about Gfteen miles soath-east of Sirai, the moat 
biitorio place in t^o district and one of Uto most hietoriv places in 
Westero India, is repeatedly mentioned iu inscriplieiia from tho 
seivrnd to the sixteenth century after Clu-ist. Many of these iuacrip- 
tioQs werxi eolleeted aad tmnalalcd by Sir Walter Elliot between 
ISUO and ISIO ; in 187li « large niitiilntr of tlicin were rmhodiiTfl iu 
Mr. Rico's Diatrtry of Alaisiir;' and In 1SB2 their information was 
exhausted by Mr. J. F. Floet, of tho Bombay Ciril SeiTice, in h'ln 
l)ymutttc» of the Kiinarese Districte of the Bombay Presidency.' 
Neither Mr. Bice's nor Mr- Fleet's work includes the coast of 
Kitnnra, and except thotc recorded by Buctianan iu 1800 few 
inscriptions from the coast districts have been published. 

From nnvnrly period thoKAnttra cwuit liaa been deba tftbla l and. A6 
one time it hiu been part of the Konkau or Weai India, at another 
time of Keral or Sontli India. Some IliudH geographers make 
OgJi^Qi^tho famous niace of pilgrimage on the coast about tnenty- 
five miles south of K4rwar, th e boundary lintween thy K|oi]lMa or t ho 
Seven Kop^ana ^d Kera l which stretches south either toTTnnovelly 
or to Cape Comorin.* Others make tho Seven Konkaus part of 
Keral and take Keral as far north as Surut.^ The Kiinara eomt 
aocras to have boon always governed by local chii>fs. I'lmcs of 
order and prosperity, when tho hical chiefs were the nnder-Iorda 
(if some atroiig inland government, seem to have been divided by 
longer periods of distress when control was withdrawn and the 
petty cbieb were loft independent and at war. In spite ol local 


1 Tha buIt Hiadn detaik am «hie67 ftom Mr. J. F. PIcet'i Dyiuuti» of tba 
Klnircae DMtrieta ol tho Biwibar pMaJdooc]-: tbo luttaruh fcr th* PortasiMM 
Sivtion hare beta eontribalcd b^ Or. Gorvon Da Cunbi : lad dmU o( tii« rMukLnlng 
portiuu* arc ttom a kjalanr of Kinun propnnd foar tbrtiucttMr by Ur. J. MoataMk, 
of tbe Boaibay Civil Sorvlco. 

1 Mv— — ■■■ ■' Coorg, Thr« VoU., Buyptlnra, 18T8. 

* \S ::« Boiobiy Oiuvttmr, BMnW, I88Z. 

< n i ii of India, I , S : WiUna't U*ck«nna CoIlMtiao, N«w Edition, 5S ; 

M«idn»Joi>nuluf IJtonitur« ui'l Soiaixir, ISTH. iTi. ^poonlmg to tho Talav or 

Sfaurase recorda jbr ivna K qiikan* a n), liosinoini; from tlic north, Kirit«, Virita, 

'^ Ua, Koaiaaa, baiga, Tulav, ui'l KonX WUun't Mackann* CiitlQctihia,V^w« 

u. SS. * Bueiuuiui'a Itysoce and CHai«,U.W&. 

(Bombay Gaiettwr. 


Chapter Til. 

E«rly UBtocy. 

conteats and ot chanj^irta over-loi-ds, 8i»re early liiKtorionl tiiiu«, 
perhaps aboat the seveutn century after CUri&t, the gTx-jiier part of 
tlio prcttviit Nortb K^nara coast baa forniod a distinct territorial 
division known aa H|i>itfB or HnyTc . apparcDlly tti e liarnj of Bc akeai 
from habit or kai tlio local Kduar(rtt« for a ^nnkc. 

Few traditional references to EAnara have l>een traced. Lika 
olber parls of the west coast Hindu books ascribe tbe origin ot 
Kaiuira to tlie rront warrior F»rai;hnr&in or Axe-IUm, tbo sixth 
iiic-arafttion of \ ishun. This groiil wsrrtor dcfontod (lio Ksbatrijaa 
twentj-one liimri*. When tbvir power wait utterly broken Parashnr^m 
vfas anxious to settle in the lands from wbioli his enemies had been 
driven. But the Br&hmans wonld not allow their blood-slAinrd 
otiainpion to live with tht-ni. Uo retired to the Siihyiidrif* and 
shootiDg an arrow from the crest of the range won fmin the sea the 
strip of ru^^d lowland that runs along the Western Coast, 
The books tell how he raised certain white shipwrecked corpses to 
hi) lir/ihinans, and afterwards disgusted with their want of fiulb 
left them a pror to the wild hin-triboa.' According to an acconnt 
quoted by oncnaaun, the Briitimnnit whom Pnrashuritin settled in 
Haiga or\orth Kinara and in Tnlav or Simth Kanara were Nngr 
a nd MAchi BrA bmana. They were dofeatod by low cla*a chioFs, one 
a liKhcr or ^oger, the other an impure llolayar or "WhoUiaxti.' 
An aocount iu the Mackonxio Culloction of MSS., of doubtful 
truthfulness and perhaps not app)icablo to North Kinats, states 
that af t«r the first Brihmans were introduced, the country was divided 
into wixtjr-four dlstricta and the government was vested iu a certain 
iliunber of lir.-ihmani< chos'm from oach distrii;t, Tbe ilriihiuanB 
lived as over-hoidiTB of the land and as oiBcials. Tbe defence of th© 
country was entrusted to ten and a half of the sixty-four districts. 
Tliu ropre«cntative BrAhtnatis of tho sixty-four districts chone four of 
their numbvr^s a coun cil wh««e term of office hwlcd thrcu jeara. 
Orer the council was a fifth Briihman preiiident. Iu time this 
arrangement broke down and a mleroflhe warrior caate look the place 
of Mic Briihman council.' Another of the earliest traditions is that 
tho Kanara const was under Ra va n. the king of the south, the famous 
rival of Riim. KAvan unil«d tbcclianictcrs of Brnhnmn and Htiksbaa, 
and according to tradition foundi*d five temples wilhiu tho pres>cnt 
limits of North KAnara,* Mr. Itice notices two references to tho 
K&nara coast iu. the Hale Eannoda version of the Jain lUm^yana 

■ Thc«tflryo(PKrs«tiurftmia^nainBa«IiBOAn>Mj«ciryJl.M9:KuiluiCl(>limal«a»^ 
HiaV^y. 'J3<,)-340, AvcordinK toTnlavEciidilwai wlieii Pkn^nrlm nvovviedTaUv 
Hiiil K:iiu.i from lh(> ten h« tnrnod tbe eoatt fidicnnwu iato llnlbtxiiiiu. \Vbna li« Ictl 
huloU tlipmif they wprccvcrin tranbloUicalloiiIilin Midbowuald<cinc totbciraid. 
Aft« iKiin« timB, toitec if hp u'outdkDophU word, tbcSnlb)iutaicBllodoBp«TMlnlHiin, 
nocuaaanil Ending that ho hud boon oMdUaaly tiouliM AitgmioA tbent to Im 
Shsdnu. Wil«oii'» !>li^cDnc C<>IlEcti<«, New Edition, S9. 

■ Itucliuikii* My«i}rcknd Caaar*. lit. 163. 

■ Wilaoo'a Uackoniie CoUwlion, N«w I-xIrtinii. !>0-57; Asiatic ItMnrcliM.V. 3. 
<Rlna^te|Bida we, Mlliwalaihviir m Hokam. Murdahviir near HgDivar. 

ShinESIlvSi^^llw wntt'^^''^ ~'vw Uko. PhiPwliv ar about fivo milw wfllil ol 
Kamta. and Shiywhry nea r ndj BocCuiMi'.'ni. I3S. Thia t nidi lion iaol 

lUtla raJao a» wany SHal ir ten ' : ^^'uatcni India, cvcu m fat uorth na SoDBaA lh- 
PHUa ia B outli ^flS Uwir, abim to >■« (oaiuCSi by RAv aa. TiwdJC BlS^'Cilir. ' 





(a.d. t>i2), tliat R&vsn'a kingilom owled at Ookarn, and that ia 
Riiro's lime IIcmurDlia orlTonavar was tbe seat oF an indopondeub 
cliiuf.' lifr. Kiuti also notioea that, according to the Mah&bbflrat, 
Sahaduv, t)iv gpiivral of Yudhislitlttm, conquorod Maisur of nhicli 
Nil waa kin^, ttubdutHl many liill clii«f» in llie Suhyiidm, nnd 
descending to llie coimt, overran Konkan, (Jaul, and Keral.* Two 
inscriptlous aro recorded, one by Bachanan and the other by 
^I r. Rici?, whicb j^roft-its to budntud in Yudbisbthira's era whoso initial 
date in b.c. ^IKHI. Uiichnuan's inrfcriptioii, which he saw nt U>e 

'to Siiuhunna 
nngcriptioaison a copper-pin tcfotmd 
in the tShimoga or ourlh-wc^t division of Muisnr oIoku to BannriiKi. 
It pnifesaeH to have t>een grautod by Juuitnioiaya and is dateil in 89 
of the Yndhi-->hthira era, ihat in in n.c. :)012.* The origin of thew 
two ini^'riptions, which are certain ly forj^erie a, has not )>ecn explained, 
lu iipliitKt Kdntira Banav^si in tbo sontb-oaiit is ono of the 
luaoy places which claim to Itavo bven tJiit rwidcnco of tlie PiiidaT 
brothers i n their twelve years' exile f rom Korthem Icdia.' 

The rrarliest piece of bislory at present known to be recorded of 
the diati-ict is that abont u.c. 240, shortly after the great council in 
Iho eighteenth year of the Maur^'n Kniporor ^i^) ) A y (b.c. 242), 
tlio iiii^siuuary or Ihen) BakxhitJi woa iwnt to sprmd the Buddhist 
religion in Vaniv^i or llanavAjii.* It was a merchant from 
Vaijayanti or BanavjUii who, about b-c. 100, built the great Klirle cave, 
nbuiit thirty fire miles noHh-wost of Poena and the Vaijayanti army 
it !^>mcwh»t doubtfully mcnlinncd in inwTiptiou 1 in Niisik cyive III, 
of ;ili'mt A.n. 10.' In Iho st^cond century afu^r Christ thu FIgj-ptian 
ge','j,'rapher Ptolemy (150) enters the city in hia list of place.* under 
the forms Banaaasi or Banauaai.* A Pili inscription engraved on 
Iho edge« of a largo slate slab, omameDted with a tivo-hoodod cobra> 
iitUf bcun fonnd in thu cutirt of the grcnt temple at BaiiaviUi. From 
tbe fornt of the Ictterit Pandit Bhiigv^l&l Indraji allots it to the 
eooond century after Christ, that is abont the same time as or a little 
before Ptolemy. ITie niler i» nantod HitT^tiputni Sh^tiittarn J of 
the VinhiikHdmiulu fumily, or perhaps ot' tlis Unto family of Uio 
jijaice cnllud Viuhukada or Viabaukada.* Hia title ShAtakarni 

■ Riiw** UysMv, 1. 183. Tlitt Juln RtbttdTuia wm eompoud io Hals KuimkU liy 
the poet I^UIlps in Ml. tticu'ii Mjmicu, I. ITS. 400. 

■ Kioo'« MjMirc. L IM. * Bacliuiiui'* Uy»w«, III. S30. 

* Rice'iUfiQire. 11. 331. AMordingto Wilson (TbDUM'PHnwp. II. 2371 Jauuoojftya 
ImJoop to B.C. I3O0. * Dutatla are Kivun mulet BuikiAu. 

' Tu.inmir'i Uuhki-kniao, Tl : Jiidioti AnlMBuy, UI. 273; CnaaingliMn'ii Aneicat 
(^ ,uiphy uf India. -IHS : Rim'i Myaon:. I. Kl. 

' :-i laioto PftinpUut, X. of Ardurolooic*! Snnrny ct West«ni India, 98 1 Bombajr 
V.L.: M«at. XVI. 5M. 638, 'Bortiw' Ptolcmjr, 201 

' I . ■> naiB* Hliitipntn b wi4i>n(ood to mmui win of ImJti. the same or tbe hunily 
..[ till- kiiu'a mother. OtL<T rvkn <■( tlic uii^o fuoily uc ainiiLuly e«Utd 
<■ .■ - .tiiipiitra nnd VisithtJiiuutrn. Tlk« nariM lUriupiitin biu the ({HKial iatercA of 
IviBiinz ODD of the title* V>oIh of tii" KadamliM who lolcd tn BasaviUi bafon 
A.i>. aw and of th« Chaliifcyai I?)- ^hfia in a.d. SCO the Kadunbai' pov«T «u 
OirtrtliTown. Acooniiog to ifr. ttwt (KioanM DyttMtin, 8 note 2) Ita n**, at l«wrt 
bjr Ui« Chalukyaa, doc* aot catAbtiili a <o«iD«ctl(m mttb Uw Sli tt a fc a mii aa the Dame 
WM knewn in N<atli lodia at well m in tbe aeaUt. 


Earl}' Iliat 

[BombAjr Ou«tt««r, 




Euly Butorjr. 


associates this kine with the great dynastjr of the ShAtakarois or 
AD<llir»bIirit}-ng. wbo, u little befuro Ibm timo, Beom to Iiavo hvl<l th« 
wbu)(! bri.-»ili h uf lotlw from Sopfim ou thu Tbiuu coast to Ubnrnikat 
tieax thci iiioulli of tho Ood/tvari. Tbis \» not considered ccrtaiu, but tha 
probability is increased b; the fact that about 200 years before this 
a branch of tbe Shiltakanus was settled as Ear south as Kulb^ptir. 
The next reforonco that has bi-«n tracod to Kjtuara is in tbo (imuk 
F«rip]iiH of thv Erylbriuiin Boa, whoso probable dat« is about a.d. 217. 
Thin uieutioitstbe Lilanil of Aigidioi, probably Anjidir, andKaiaoitai 
which has not been identified, and the coaat town Naoura which is 

goporally snpp ostfd to be HwiAT Br.' 

1/ Kadambu, Aftor tbo Sb&tak&Ftiis the next local dynasty of which record remabu 
are the ^^unbM^f IJanav&ai. The llrnt Kadamba king is said to be 
Trinetra OTlBlwnapa whoso date is gireti at a.p. 168 in an inscription 
fonnd by Bnchannn at Bi<l)igArc in uorth-weat Maisnr, but this date is 
alm ost certainly wrong.- At-cording to a lcf?endary account gi%'en by 
Sir. Kice,' the lornierdyiuiiity came to an end, mud in order to choose a 
fresh Bovereiffn an elephant was presented with a garbind and asked 
to give it to the person who was most fitted to be king. The elephant 
preeentod it to Jayanti, Trilochasa, or IVinetra, who was called 
Kudambu because wbuna babo be hud been found tmdor a kadamba 
tree, Nauclea kadamba, whore he had been left by his parents Shiv and 
P^rrati.* Bnchanan has shon'n that the iuecription which mentions 
Trinetra Kadamba, or one of the same dato and found at the sanws 
plucc, is a forjjiery as it gives a lixt of twctity-oue Kadamba 
aud twouty-ono Barbarika kiugs." It is probably for this reason that 
Mr. Fleet does not mention it in his Kdnarese Dynastiee. According 
toMr.Fleet, as far as present information goes, tbo BanavfaiKadam baa 
cannot be trarwl earlier than the iniddlc, ptTbaps the b4'^'innirig, 
of the fifth eentury." Of Ibc-se KiidainbaH, who were o£ PaliUik or 
HaUi in Belgaum and of Vaijaysiiti or Bannvitai, ten copper-plate 
|mnta hare been found, seven at Halsi in Belgaum and three at 
Devgiri in Dhirwir. They were Jains by religion and belonged to the 
Mrilnurya golra or famDy. Their name H&ntiputra and their nse of tho 
thrce<soaaoned or Buddliist year seem to connect them with tbo earlier 
Sb&takami dynasty. Tho family had four certain and two doubtful 
aacoessions, and as their power was overthrown abont the middle of 
the sixth century, (he establishment of tho dynasty datt^s from the 

■ McCtui<lli)'« P«rii<Iii«, 139.130; IikIimi Aiitii|iiitr;. VIU. Hfi, Several writ«n 
bavcidontifiiKl tli« Mouruuf I'Jiitj-U.u.TT), ojFeutiiigcr'BTKMeitAJi.lOOKof Ptoirany 
(A.D.lS0),uiiloftli(i['uri|>luK<«.l>.247l, u-illi Mirjin. kbont tvrnty rallni nnrllt ol 
HonAvar. KaMOM an (diown umbr Mirjin why this idcntifioiukoi mutitriT* w*y to 
Dr. Bumell'a tm^wtioiB that Utuirit ww Krutguiair aa the ltt>lt1)^ooaM wbowold 
BMiw WM Muytn. 

• BaolunnD, in. 1C8 ; WOiKia'a MMkoiria Oolbcbon, N«w Editiao, SO. ISO ; Bi«o, 
I. 470 1 n. aat » MyMM. 1. ISA 

• Rioo'* MyMre. I . IM. Th« two IhIot bnUKhw oI tlie family, the Gm |()t)3-l2dm 
andtha MMad BmuvAjii ElcUaibw (1068-190$) t«ll Um mum story regarding tlMor 
foundnr, * BacbaoMtli UyMVO, IIL 232, 

• Mr. BIca (MykMK, II. 3S2) noticBi that ia Um bcginauig of tfaa fiflli mbImjp 
HadhM n., thu Koagu «U«f of Talhatl la Majvar, maT^Ml tbo datcr U the 
Kadanka kina KmhM-vanaut AooardiDfi ^> Mr. tt*** [KiUtaMao Dyowtiea, B6) 
Krishna-viiniil vu th« auccataav of HayuTa-VHrini, tlia (uuadM of tho KtdanibM 
or lat<T Kadunboc, wboM piobkUedstv ia about ^p. 700l 



ini<ldlc, perhaps from near tlio bepinniti)j; of tho 6fth cuntnry.' The 
KnmJabaa ac<jin to have pstablislied iheir ])ower by dt-foating Gaugu 
or I'nUav kia^.' Mrigosbti-viirtna, ubuiit a.d. SOU, is nii'Dtioiivd aa 
defeating' Onngs and Pnllnv kitigs, and lii< succu«)tor Ravi-ranntt, 
probably nbout a.o. ^20, i^meutiODodas orerthrowing CbiUKliuIanda, 
the loni of Kiinchi or Conieverata, who was of the Falla? dyuastty. 
Accordiuff to Mr. Fleet tne Kndombu' power waa at ita nighest 
■boat thu cIoHo of till) fifth century. Their principal capita] 
WM at PalAsik now Halai in Belganm, and, bowdw llanavHtti, which 
th«ir in*€ription.s aUo name Jayanii and Vaijayantipiira, they had 
centres of power at Ucbchaahringi iicar Ilariliar in llai&ur, and at 
Tripar\-ata which has not been idonlified. According to Mr. Rice* 
tho early Kudambiui ruled over Weal &fiiisnr, INilnv, and Haiga, 
tliut is tliv coiLtt districta of Kitiuiro. About the iniddto of tho 
sixth century tho ItanavjLsi Kndniiil>a3 wore overrhrown by tho 
ChalukjfiL ''. Hut their lirst overthrow did not destroy their 
a^out fifty years later (t}10'lj^4} the ^'oat Pulikoshi II. takes credit 
forconqiieritig the KadambasoEBauavaiii. It im considered doubtful 
wbetlicr tho Kiidamban were of local or of northern origin. The story 
of tlio child found under the kadamba treo, which is also told of 
Maynra-varmAl. who revived tho family about tho eighth cent nry, 
supports tfao view that they weru of local or southern origin. 
Buchnuan hiu recorded a tnidition tlmt !Mayam>rarniil waa a 
Hoilar of Ti-lugn oi-igiu. It gives a special interest to tho old 
Kadaoibas that according both to Colonel Wilks and Mr. Kice, tho 
peculiarand int'oreHting race of C ^ fft p r Kodapo8,who hold the hilly 
coontry to the tumth-west of Maisur. are KathinilMw who came into 
Goorg nndor a loader named (Jliundm-rarDiii.* Tho i-evival of tho 

I The fUdamba iwpcwrioM w«ra: 



, i 



UdfMh-VMini. [K<it auntd]. 


Rat'i'imnn^ Bhinii'TanD^ Bhivani 


Th« danbtlul luletv Jir« Kruliiu-TJinnt anil Deva-nnnl. Th«y may hava raW 
>ith«r holotv KAktutlia-vwiniorkftorRkri-TitfTDd. PiMl'a Kinartoa DynMtiai, 9. 

* tHc Gnnni wctv iin (^arijr ami ImfKirtont family in Maitar. But th«ir hiitory it 
dnabtfnl, *• Mr, Kl«rt (Klnareap Dfiiuliw, 1)-12) Iiom ahovn nmona for believing 
Uih' if tlic inifriptioni r«^j(ttng tbtn arv fi-rigeriB*. Tlw fwlkv djaaatf 

w;> :i- nioit import&nt FiwniiMagaiMtwban tM EadamliM and aftanraNi 

llhi I -^.ut hail bi tlitliL About tli« middln of tho aixth ceotuTT Huiy von 

(irobably dnvvn out of VAUpi or B*(Uiiii by Pnlikcahi I. Eariy in th« aevi-ntb 
••otvry the Ka«t<ni C'lialtikya* (orrad then out ol V«pgi on tbe «»>t MOst betwni) 
Ifaa KruhiLi and th« Godivari. In the tjnw ol tho Wcateni Chaluliya Ihilik<?elii U. 
(610-<SM| tbcjr oapital na at Kinchi or Ciiafevnaai and thny loa^ cootioucd a 
■Mvrorful dpiaaty. lie 1'adUva rank in tbe Pnribit with tbo tcKiga racuf, tba 
GUihavoa, Sakaa. aad Varaiiaa. Mr. Floct (Dynaatic^ IS) IkM •bowa rcaatuia (or 
twllm-ins thnt th«y wen Attavidoa Panbiana. ■ Mr(OK,1. 103. 

t Rien^ llT-aurc, IIL 93. Tha taut dynaaty la Ooon (IGOO- 1834) ww> not Csorgt 
tin* a yoaiwvr branch of the Bednur. Ihori, or K«ladi family of iMrth-u'Mt Maianr. 

Rw. Ill, m 



Euly Kodiunbi 

tBombty GuettMr, 

Chapter vn. 

luly Kaduabu, 


[y C]iBtiil:Tu, 




Ksdamba fnmily nn<I«r tliP alifrlitly altered form Kfitlnmhn, under 
Mayura-vnniui al Ikinnv^Lii Ju llu: vighlh century nnd uiidor tialialla 
at Goa ill tJie toinh ceutarj, and, in Bpite of occasional rovc'rs<>«, 
tlicir Continuance in power at Banavdisi until late in tlio thirttx-utJi 
ceiitnty (1277), make the Kadambusilic bond of connection between 
the (ragmenta of early KAnara hiatury. Nor do tho KadambaB 
dieappeur in tho UiirU-vntb ciMitury if tnaaccoantsaro correct which 
giro them the honour of nupplying the foundent of the firet dynasty 
of Vijayansgar kings who continued in power from about 1S35 (o 
I -ISO.' They seem also to have Bpread gonlh along tho coaat as 
Buchanan mvuti'jns Kiidambiiubicfsof V'adianagar in South KAnara.* 
Thu chiefs uf Humclia in north-west Mainiir, who are hetl«r kuowu 
by llieir later title of chiefs of Karkala iu South KAuara, who rose to 
power in tho sixth contnry under the early Chalukyas, Bccm alw) to 
bsvo belongod to the Kadnmba fiiiuily.' The tn<'m"ry of Kadamba 
rule Ui Kiinara was .tlilt fresh nt the iulroduclion of Urititih powvr 
in 1800. In 1^6 an account of the KiLuara foru prepared for 
Major Mackenzie stated that the prorinoe of Goa. the connti-y nt-ar 
SoDfla, and the sea coast were rnlc^l by a Kadamba. lliis prubsthly 
refers tolholut«ir or revived KAdambM, but whether to tLoBatiavitsi 

_ or lo the G oa bnmcb is doubtful . 

Kirtti-vanuA 1., the Chalukya king, who about 500 overthrew tho 
power of the- BanaTiiHiKadainlns, wanthird in descent from Jayn«imh, 
who.iwfarnsprOiKjut in(onnaliongoc'»,wa!tthifonndvr of the Chalukya 
dynasty. Of Jayaaimh and of bis sons Buddba-vamuL and Itanaragn 
nothing bat the names are known. I'hooarlieat member of the family 
of whom rccenl remains is Vijaya-vartnA, tlie sou of ftuddhn-varmi, 
who in 472 made a grant of Pariyayayiliagonear JambuNar in Central 
Oajardt. It was lus coaein Polekeahi or Pulike^hi I., also called 
Ranarikrama, who, as faras is known, first invaded ihe south. The 
DamoChalukya is dt-rivcd by tntdition from chulka.cJiuluka,orchal«ka, 
a wntor-jKit, from which thoir ancestor is said to liave sprung. But 
Mr. Floft has fdiowu that thi» is a htl« story, for though fkuU-a a watoi^ 
pot may be the origin of the later forms of thu namo Chllhikya 
in the Deocan and Chanlukya in Gujar&t, it cannot bo the 
origin of the early name wliich is written Chalkya, Cbalikya, and 
Chalukya.' From the fact that their first known inscription belongs 
to Oiijnr&t it baa Iwen Huppoood that Uie ObMhikyas wore n northern 
tribe who did not paes south till the time of I^ilikeshi. Tbey claim 
to belong to tho Soma-vnuHli or lunar race, and mention a succession 
of lifty-nine kingu, rulers of Ayodhya, nud after them sixteen moro 
wbo ruled over t^e region of tho south. Tliey suem to have hswd 
aome connt-ction with tho BauaviUi Kadanibnii as like them tfawy 
claim to In-long to tho Mdnavya gotra and to be the eons of Hiriti. 
Thoir bmily-god orkiUdevaUt-vraa Viabnu and their crest was Vishnu's 

■ Rii»'a Mrsore, L 352) Wilson's ilncktouia CollMtkin. L cir. 

■My^re. IILte. 'BIoo'b MyTmnj. [ILOG-97. 

* Tb» OMiw CboUw or Solko U a vldMpnod nirtiiuDc uaoag the MuAOtiM, 
Kunbdi. Md K«tij of tha Bonkbar D*«cmi ud Konkui. Tbia diaUio mmiu ta b« 
tfaD Buae M tli« otrly CAo/lyo. Tli« BaiM nMyMThnwbo traced M«Wtty««rMU«ii, 
a word in wo tor a 8°*t-l>«id Enpon the Talngn-Mankt&i word rlul a hv-goat. 




bow. At tbc same time they petrLiiiiu>d both Jaiue and Shaivfi, 
and at least oil one occssioQ, in 1005, made grantH to Biiddhist«.' 
TIu: lator kings devoted themeolvus ftlmont enttrolytu tho ling form 
oi ShiiiT worehip. Pulikrobi I. dtffe»t«d tJw Fullav s und itboat 550 
entabliabcd hi a bead- Q uarters at VdtAp i or BAdAtni iti xouth 
Eal^l^. Hia son t^ irttj-ra mft 1^ whose reiyn ended in 5<t7, spread 
Cbalakya power to ibe sotiib and west, dereatinv and subduing the 
N»lus, Mftiirjas, and Kitdombas ; m j^nt of liis a n>corded at A'dnr, 
eight miloK oast of Hiingnl, and tliu C'halukyiui arc said toltavi; fauld 
Nilgarakhauda whtoli vmt Afturwardii part of tbo Bauav&si Twelve- 
thousand. Eirtti-^-arra£'.4 broHier and ancceasor JJaognlJsb (6tt7 -610) 
inaintuinod bin power in the nciglibourbood of tlanav^i and over- 
cauiQ t ^o MiUangM upparentlr early hilUtriW-s, taking Rcratidvips, 
Ooa, and part of the Konkau; but wbutbiT iw far south u tbo 
pre<ieu[ limita of Kiinara doea not a])pear.* On the deiith of 
Mangaliah in 610 the Chalakya dominions n-ere divided into »ii 
eitHtum kini^dum whose head-quarters were at Ven gi io tho delta 
of tbo Kri^bnn and (jod&vari, and a wcist«rn kingdom whottc bcad- 
qnartera are beliurod to have been at VAt^pt or Uddiirat. Tlio 
western kingdom fell to fgUjygh^^X- al^o raited Satyisbrsya I., 
A gro»l nilcT who ia mentiohed as conquering tbo ItAshtTskiitas, the 
Kiulanihas of VannTftsi, tbeGangas, th«Alupu«, tbeKonkan Munryaa, 
f he Ldtas, the MMavas, the Qnrjaraa, tho three oonntries known a« 
Mabirdahtra ini?ludtng 9'JfiOO villages, the Koaalaa, the Katingas, 
ttio Palluvas of KfUicbi, the Cholas, the Keralss, and tho Pdndyos. 
He carriod his arms sdll further oonquering the great Harsha or 
llarahav»rdbnns, alaovaltfKl ShilAiIityn, of Ktinyakuhju or Kananj. 
A epecial iuU-rc.ft attaobea to Pnlikcshi a-inn Arabic rhronii:le rclftteii 
that in (125 Khoaru II. of Persia sent an embaMv to him which is 
bcliuvcd to fonn the subject of painting 17 in Ajauta cave I. 

About 040 Pulikc^i's capitAl iit described by the Chinese pilgrim 
Hiwen Thaang, aa the capital of tho kingdom of Moholacha or 
MflbiM-&«htra. This has been identified by Dr. Burgess with BAd^mi, 
nil iiluntilictttion which has s{>H'iul interest in connection with Kiiuara 
hi-^tory, t>ecAU8e, to have aiinicled the notice of the Persian king, 
Pulikeshi muiil have had control of tho western coast; and if hia 
capital was as far south as Bddiimi, the coast of Kdnara waa 
profvably in his power and Ha ports coittrus of foreign trade. About 
6.'jO on ihe death of Pulikoshi llio power of the Chalukyna was for a 
time ovcrtbrowa. According to one account they werodrivcn across 
tlie Sahyfldris, by a cotnbinatiou of tho Pallava, Chota, Pdn(lya,and 
Kinda kings. Within about twenty yeara (tlTO) Pulikesbi'a son 
V Iktum^jdityn I. restored the power of tho Chalukyns, defeating 
till? PaHava»,Cboliia, Piindya3,Koralas,a[id Kalabhran. Vikramiditya 
wna BUcceeded by bin iwn Vinayjiditya (680-fi9fi), a great ruler wno 
isdeacribed as arresting the powerof thePollavasof Kinchi, causiDg 


Bwly Cb> 

> Fh«4'a KloaitM DTimaUw, 49. 

' Amonft tcaditianal or doubtful re(uNn«e« t« tbn rule ol tlio c*rly tribes. Bnchoasii 
Qtyaan. lU. 163) kivm tbc tmtition that tli« BrtbinuiK with ■rhoot Maynn-TRnni 
KmuhIm laboat TOO) oolonwod K*ma were drivw out by Nand*, » nitolliini, 
ThM* » atiU a gen«nLl tTMUtkui in Kanan that ta early Umu the oountf)- vat ruled 
by Ilolayar chief*. 

o aiu-M 

(Bombay Qautteef 



Suptn Til. 

J'ljr Cbitok^k*, 

660 •?«(■. 

iwnj K4itamiat. 

tho rulers of Kavera, PArasifea, and Sunltala or Ceyton to pny tribute, 
ftnd enslaving the Pallnvas, Kalabhras, Hnihsyas, Viia.><, Malavos, 
Cliolas, aou Pindyu;. A tablot nt Ilalo^mve, twenty miles 
60uth-«»8t oi UiiDiivibi, inentianii, apparently as ViDayitditya's 
v«»:«iil, Pogilli, the king of the 8endrakae, a biuily which i» also 
loenttoned in an inscription of the Kadamba king Unri'VarmfL (560). 
Vinayaditya'a capital was probably at Vdljpi or B^dAmi. In 696 
Vitiayfidityn was sntx-wcdwi by his son V ijayaditya (tt96-733). a 
peaceful and i^trong ruler who maintained tie power of hU family. 
His SMooessur in7S3 was his eldest sonlTikramiklitva 11. (7'J3-747), 
tlvi a powerful ruler who overcame tho PallaTas. T?iindyas, Cholas, 
Keratae, Kalabhras, and oIliurM, and is«i liiii rictory-pillar on tho 
90atl)oni shoroM. In 717 Vikraro&dityn wa.<< succeuded by his son 
Kirtti^vartni II. (747-7C0), who about ihe jear 760 waa overthrown 
byTSdltSsTitrakuta kinj* Dantidnrga. Kirtti-rarmA's only Initertp^ioa 
ia tho grant of a villago in tlio ni^ighbonrliood of BanarioL 
During tlie ovcrWdiihip of the early Cluilulcyii^ no reference has 
beeu traced to the Kinara lowland-i except Uiat in 5tiO, on iha 
overthrow of cbe Banavlbi Kadambaa, all tl;e sea dLitrictii of KAuara 
are said to have been held as feudatories of the Chalukyas by the 
chiefs of Humcha in North-Wost Maisur, afterwards of Karkala ia 

Soath K6u»r».'_ . _ _ 

Fr^im the fiunily-troe of Eiriti-Tarm£ II. also called Kirttidera T., 
who governed at BaiiavSsi ia 1068 aa a feudatory of the western 
Chalukya king Smncgh vur I., it secina that about tbo middlu of 
the eighth centnni', pi-fibably dni-ing the disturbances which 
accompanied the establishment of It&sbtrakuta rule, Mayar-varni i 
foimdexl a now d ynasty of K& dambat. According to Mr. Fleet the 
elightly altered Iormo*"Uie name, Kadamba ini>toad of Kadamba, 
diown that the new dynaaty were not direct descendants of the 
original family. Mayur-varma's date is disputed. Cnlrululing back 
from Kirttidova I. in IWSiind allowing aa average length of twenty- 
two years, which is tbo avvntge of the ax rulers whose dates are 
known, fifteen succesitions would place Mayur-varmA about the middle 
of the eighth centnry. According to the Kargutlari inscription 
in Hinml in Dbiirw^, Mayur-varmA was nrecede(r TTv a line of 
eev^ty^B^en ancestora of whom nothing is knonn.' "the story of 
Mnyor-rarmil, who i» alao vnllcd Mulknnna Kiidarabn, that ho was 
the son of the god Shiv and the Karth, ia the same as the .ntory of 
Triuetra, the founder of tho first or Kadamba dynasty, and of Jayanta 
or Trilocbann KAdamba, who founded the Goa dynas tr about i.n. 978. 
All are said to have been formed from tlie earth at the foot of a 
Kadamba tree where a drop of sweat fell from tlie brow of Shiv.' 

■ Bice'* »yio», m 9«. 07. Tliew «hicfa teem to luv* b««n of tb« Kkdamba Iribo. 

' ItucluiiBD iMyaun: uid (^tuuvm, III. lilS| romnbxo iiuunption founj M Golujn of 
a KftiUi">-<i Kdijrfrror or Chakrmr«rti, nn Mcottor o( Mnyarvumn. Tbo date ia HO 
oi Uio Kiill.viiK'T RCfiOSO, wMcli uitU b<>«itbtaanu>tAk« orkfor^ry. 

*Pluut'ii KkiiaraM DyiiMtie*. 8^ 89; WUmoi'* Uaclcuiuia OdUcboii. Now Eilitwn, 

Tb« Mocaaiou of the Goa KldambM (tro OnktlU, SluMtluidov I. or Clutta, 
CliatUU,siKlChattyii UOOi). Jiiy>kMhiI.(tavj>. Viuyiditya ]., Jnr«kcit,il). (II2&), 
Pvrmidi or Hhivdutta (lltT-llTA). ViJBjidUj-a II, or VUhtiucliitU 11147- MTU, 
TTiUmvaaaulIii, mad »hMUi*4«r U. (18«i ■ lliSUf- Klckreie DfiiMtiai, 90. 

m m 




It k doubtful whether tha two Bnnitritsi and the Gob families of 
KjidanibJis or Kiidambas were of looal origin or were nortbemera. 
The k^g^-'nd f&Toura the view that they b^rlongud to ono of 
the Kanuitak tribes and suggestB that Kadainba may ho a 
Bralimanified Eorm of Knrnmbar, the widcs-pread aud trarlike tribe of 
Kdnnrese shepherds. ' Accordiiiff lo iinothur trniiitKui Mavor-Tarmi L 
CAtDU from Abikahc-trii which Iiom been idcntitk-d with Ahichchhatra 
or H^ninagar in Rohilkand id the Norib-Wesi Proviiicw.* But, 
as baa beeu auppcated (Vol. SV. Fart L p. 117), Ahikshetra or 
Soake-land mny be a f>au»krit rvndoriiif; of Kavigaor llaiga, that 
i« North KiiiiAi-a, for Uni(^ in KitiiarciKo umhuim thu land of etukcs.* 
Mnyur-varDait is said to liave brought with liini, or acoordinf; to other 
ac(!oont3 sent for, 50O0 Bnibmans from Ahikshetra and fHtnbli^liod 
them in his dominions.* TradttJooal details given by Mr. Rice farour 
tho ricw thnt thosu BriibRiiins wore intnjdacod by sea.^ They 
wcru firnt dit^tnbuUid in the countiy along tho coast which was 
divided into » ixtv-four aection a under four centres, Kosargnd . 
Ita rkur. Manifalor. and Kadaba . each of which was in tho tiaudit of 
K~Briihman goTornor. From Hu'»o CL-utroa tho BrUhmana are said 
to luiTi! sptviul into Koutheru Tuiav and into the Kiirnittak ahoro 
tho Sabyiidri.'i. According to Buchanan's aocoant Atayur-vannA's 
Bnibmans, tiko pAnk«hunini*:4 Rrnbmnns. with whom they are either 
idonti6ed or confusod, held the country till they were driven out by 
a low-coxto chief Nniida, a Ilolayar or Whojliiu-u. The Br&hnuuia 
ftra said to have been brought back by Kanda's son and to have 
continued to rale till thoy wero ororcome by the Jain family of 
Gcraappa . who rose topoworundvr the Vijuyanagarkiugs(1330-1&60].* 
Bnchanan aUo uotioc^ a tradition th»t Afaynr-varmii gave fab 
aistcr in marriage to Lokiditya, chief of Ctokaru, and hulpcd him to 
Jeatroy the Uabashika family.' Of the fonrteen rulersi betweun 
Kayor-Tarm^ about A.i>. 760 and Kirtti-Turmjt II. in 106S only the 
names are known.^ ^ 


WO- 760. 

8<t«nil KAJa 

Tlio RAshtraknta a, who about 760 won their way to supremo power 
in the Si?nZ!a^liave been tnkcud bock to about a.d. 37&. It is not 


' Tbu HUfEgMtkm thAt Kad*nib» U • BrtlwnaoiBtd [am of RsiwmbAr rvedvaa now 
•nfiport frum & iitat«n)4at a! WilH«i'« (Uookuniio ODlleotioQ, New Eilttion, 8fi, 84). tlut 
tbeSnt Vijayanackr <])nMtf()3W-ltS0), who are believed tobtT« tiMfi JUduabw, 
wtrr B Kii:iil>a fuuilr. 

' Flwt. «4:l{ic«'iiMy«iTe. I. IM. ADoUierxxountpLuM AbicfcchlmtraonUiobMik 
oftHflTivciSiiulbu (KIhI.M : uuiii|>ar« Indian Anli'imry, [X. 2S2|, ud KuMrdinj to 
Baclutnas (III. IKlj Aliicbcbhatn -au in Tulini^aA. ticD^tlll Coiuiinghun'a dl^ 
ourer; Utat lUmnoear ii itill known a» Abiiib<hliatn (Aouient G«c«ntpliy, I. 3n9 ; 
OMSMtMt N.-W.f,, V. Si;-823|.plMM t^podtiooof Abiel)dib*tnbqraaddia{Nit*, 
Uinii|;h, u i»ito>l in the text, it •cetu probable tbj>t the AbiluhotrmcJUiia t»ditiaDl« 
fijUet ur North KUiu^ 

* The «u(gMtinn Uial Ahlkahttra it > Sotukrit rendninfiel tbo KAnueae Hariga or 
B^tm ncam Mip|)i)rt from !)» kwal butory o( tbo HoufUi tnooMtBir of tho Mprc- 
Mntattro u( th« Smlrt |M<itilt at 8<)ndA, la which Qokmm » mcotiained w in ttie bnil 
of Ablkihotn. See bctuw I'lacn of liit«r«iH> Soi»U. < BQohaoui, IIL ICa. 

■ Myiore.1. IM. * Bucbumi, ifl. Id3. ' BiKliKnu, III. 111. 

* 1 he name* are 



ne«t'* iGouinM DyBMtm, Table aftw p. 86. 


iBoisbftj QuettMr, 


iiapter VII 


oortaiD whethi^r they wpro nortberaen or a fumily wf KMtoa or Kadis, 
the widesprwwi tribo of Ktlnarese hnsbantlmen who fonnerly were 
tlio irtrongeHt figbtinp class in the KarniilAk and MaiBur. This is 
Dr. Bunioll'a riew.' ilr, Flwt socmn lo inctiiie to a northuro origia 
and to trace the DBine to R'UhlrakulaoT Rathtrapnti, a tjtlu miTaning 
a tlistrict-he»«l who i* 8ul>urdinatc to Bomo wvcr-lord.* This later 
iniwriptioas state thai thu family vtob of ihe lunar race and 
de«ootidnntii of Yftdu. I'he OaHlitrakulu king who overthrew tho power 
of iheChaJakyaHiutJioKnmdtakwasDantidurgiaor Danfi-vanni IL 
An inscription of \iw, tiaboil 7^3, states that ho easily defeat«(I 
the army of th<! Konkan and skilfully p«t to flight tJie kings o£ 
KfLiK'hi und Keral, the CKolan, tho Pitiidyas, Shri-IUrsha. and 
Vajrata. His sucootKir and uncle Krishna I., who coDtitinwl to 
press on thu dofc^atoil Chalukyaa, is noticed as establi)>iiinK himwlE 
at Uie kill or hill-fort of El&pum, which Mr. PUH>t incline* to 
identify with the Kiiaara town of YolWpur, hut which in ProfesBor 
Bh&iidarknr's opinion >« tho gr«at Kllora near Anrangabad.^ It 
is said to have bad a famous temple of Svayamhhn-Shiv, which in 
Profossor Uhtliidtirkar'R oniuion, in the great Eailas Cavo at Ellore, 
Under tbu snocesaful lUsbtrakuta tcin^, who is known by httt title of 
*'Bwhay|jff^-T (851-877)aiidwhoestabIi8bod thuRiishtrakataoapit«l 
afc lUlkhea about ninety mtlea sootb-oost of ShoUpiir, tlie Ban^T&ai 
Twelve-thousand, tb« Bolgnli Threc-hnndred, tho Kundarape 

Ii ^m^4 'W' F^TfljlflPUlT^- """^ '•*'" ^'"'•'Ff"''' lESS '» too 

Pniijrare<a' tiatoi*™^"^ M ThM a -hBmd rodwcire)rovern 
by one Bankeraraiia of tho CncUgo te^amilv.* Another initoniition 
at KyiUtanur near HAugai, 'memRn^^n^S'vcnior of tho BanaT&si 
province as Shankaraganda aW> of the CbcUkelAa family. Theae 
mscHptions are nndated ; thoy probably belong to some time 
between 860 and 870. Two other iiHciipliuns show that, till about 
the closo of the ninth centary, the Chellketan family continued to 
govern the Uanar&in province under Amoghavarsha's son and 
8acceii.sor Krishna II. who is also called Ak&Uvarsha I. These 
inscriptions are at Kytomnr near HAnga3 and at Tiilgnnd in 
Maismr. The Kyisauur inscription record-s that MnhiWtniantAdhipatt 
Sbaokanganda, probably tho 8)tank»rgand» who is mentioned as 
his futlivrs feudatory, was tho feudatory of Ak^avarsha 1. and 
governed the Hanavisi province under him. The Tdlgund 
inscription, the date of which \» illegible in the photograph, 
mentions tho samo Shaokarganda tin the feudatory of Ak^avaraha I. 
in charge of the BanavAsi province. A third inscription at idur 
near H4ugal, dated 904 (S. 826 RahVikshi SamwUiar), mentions 
under AktUavaraha I. some other MabAstimnata of the Chollkntan 
lamily whoso name is doubtful, as governing the Banavdsi twelve 

■ Sonth IndiMi Pal«a^phj, p. X. ' Flert'a Kuuu-cm DynsatMa, 32. 

'Indiui Abtiqust;, jCII. An^ilnaiabor. Id tho Scptembor numlmr Ut. Fleet 
sccapta ProfHMT Bli^idilikar'i lattnpreMioti. 

BuclHinM 1Hy*or«, IIT. !2IS) nconi* fr«m Boad* an iracriptioa (oiui<l i>t ■ Jua 
■aciiuMtary, <UUd SM (S. j2T) la itUA Chbaanda Ri}>, who !■ Kt]rt»dchi«r of kQ 
tA« kiBjia of Uia touth, niMitian* acliut^gs gkitml hr bii »iiCM*en gadiakiv aud 
BtlUI uv«r tbe folknren rA BdJiDu. TliDre U ■jip.iimd): uiim ■aW4k« In ttw resdias 
»itlier of th« dkU or of the luoio of the Igjag. ' tlMt'* KiDUtM DyaMtiM, S5. 




ttiouHADd.' This snino family with tbe title of ifabiiBfimanta, in Uie 
{)erM>ii of Kali-rittA, ]i»d the government of the Banavibu province 
in^O-lS, during' the rtiiga o! the mahtraknta Kriahna IV.' ^^ 


In 1'73 under Krishna's son Kakka or TtoJiajn-, Uie power of the Socond Chtfia 
lUshtrakutas WHs ovt-rthrowTi by laUaJLTtbeTonnder of the second OT3-IJfl 

dyoftsty of Chdhiltyas. Those revived Chilukyaa chanf^ the ftunily- 
namo fnun (Jlintukya to Ch&lakya, a oImh^ wmcb according 
to Mr. Fleet shows that they were not th» diroct dcsccndaDta m 
the original family. Taila seems to have estitMisbed his puvri?r over 
M muvh ofEfinaru a« wan form crW under the lUalitrakntsa. Al the 
close nf tlio t«nUi century the Uanavisi proyinee is mentioned as 
gorerncd by Ilia's under-lord Bhimarasa, who was called Tailapauu- 
Ankaklva or Tailapa's cbampioQ. Under the revived Cbdlakyas the 

■ Fl««t'a KfawTOM DyatM—. SO, 38. 
■The RtabU>kut« UiaUylrM ia: 






or DbbU iH^ IL 



ECiMK, H^nfom I., 

at DkoaA-nnlu. 



PnUraUnniA t., 

AfUnun I., JifadniaiK I. 

M VklUfciTnnndn |. 

(*•» (Uurtaion. 


(*.«. wi u« (77. 8. n> Mill mo- 


nrAkUinnhi I. 

(a.*, na ud f 11, S. IVT uid WX 

btdn III. 

« Hutmuinia I, 



or rnMinlaranlBll. 


JMWHqnck n,, 

^ &u aV* toUMl. 

Br hit W P»Wiif « w* « . 

li>ln If.. 
or Kiln.mhL 

»mn>TW)h* IL, ot VUtaUHnumdiii ri 



Kiuhnm III. 

AnOfihtTWtht II. 

KhMUia. KiUmm IV. 

KInnwu IL.or AtaUktudu tl. 
<4 A ftU ud M a MT ud HtK 


(Ilwka in.), KtUuite, tUrium. 

AmeoiBncils III.. 

«T TalbMiMBnadn IIL 

(la tn. a SHI 


or JUaMnI 

fnamM A> A' 

R-MlfM CfdatH thv 



[Bombay Saz6tt««r, 


aapter VII. 



K^nara uplands, moat of which ivere iDcluded iu ihe B«pavfa i 
TwoIyc-tltonsHnd, formed port of the Kutitala conniry, ihe ceatrv or 
heml-ouftrtorft of Ch&ltikya power,' The K^n&ra lowlauda, or at 
Iw&t tie part of them ctMad the Hay v^ ^ ^Kro-ltimdi-ttd. the territory 
between ll^Dgal Uanavtiai Balag&nre elnd ito coast corrMponditiff 
to tJi o Aakola, Kiiinta, aiid Hoaivar en b-diyisiooB, were conKidorod 
ouo ot tlio Konkiinns.^'nnTfUij, niKlur Tnila'a hod and aacceitwr 

^ifttJ ft«^l^ ^Ja II., Hliinmriljft. Tuihi'* champion, was still (foverninjf 
ItanaviUi and the ueighhuuring di.itricti* cif KiauktuI and SAntalige. 
Daring the next twenty years (IOOU-1020) the ChiUukyun power 
was well upheld by Vifcramdditya V. (1008-1018), and, under his 
suDCoHSom AkkiUlovi and Jaya»imh III. (101S< 101^] it waa extended 
hy the conquest of the seven KonkaDas (1024), The undor-lords at 
BanaTdsi aeem to have boen chaiijKed. In 1019 from Dalagiimre 
op Balipnra' in Maisor, Kundamarasa, also called Sattigana-chatta, 
with thu titlu of MuhilujaiidaloshvaF and of the family of the 
Kiitbimlwa of liaosvitiii and Htiagal, wn« governing the Banavfiai 
Twelve-thousand, the fiinteligo 'rbousano, and the Hayvo Five- 
huodred to the borders of the weBtent ocean. Iu 1034 and 1038 
tnention ts made of Mayura-Tsrni& II. of the E^dainhaa of Banav^, 
with the title of Mnfailniandalashvar, governing the H^gal 
Fivc-hundrwl. In 1039 VinajAdilya, the founder of the Hoj-sala 
dynasty, as Miihaniaiidalc«hTar of Vikramdditya VI., governed the 
South Konkan apparently includiog the North k&nara ooasL* IJndtx 
Jsyasimh'a eon and aucccseor Sonieshrar I. (1042- 104^8) Ch&lukyaa 
power wa? further extended to the eaat and the north, and llieir capital 
was established at Kalytln about forty miles north of (Julbarga, and 
tho dty was so beautified that according to their own account it 
Surpai!sed in eplendoar all other citicit of thu oarth. In upland Ednara 

jht BjUMt Hy TwolTo-tboutand, Uw Piaaogst 

' Tfan chwt < 

Piva-hnncT- . _. ... _ . . . . 

Tliwc-ttxniwuid, UieTo wgfctoSii -thomn'i'i ' ThrM-hunilrvil, the Kitaktd 

8«T«city, tho Bilg>daBt Seventy, acd tliv < -lA^. ll«pt, 42. 

■ Khwt'* KUUDHUvfnutias, 44. Balipnni. n;r>re c^inmooly «rttt«D Bklli^rci 
Q|ULe4lBiXBi UAfaouttvwi^tnllaaamith-BWtaf Buiftvdsi. Inthetwcllthotnlurytt 
•ooMMto be itylol th« moDiar of dtioi, tha MjitUil of uuaniit citiciL RW* Uy* 
II. 3^. It abonnda in ituwripUoua and )uh Snlimanic t«mplis which for tnta i 
fialtfa M« not turptuwd in Ukunir. According U Bnch>n>ii (^fyxiiv, 111. 2W1 
BiiiBviii Ktdunuia hnd their csuita) let a tiiii« at dusdrnpti hill ahout Ion m 
•ontb.wnt and toeutjr duIim mA of Ballixive. Comure Rtco'a Myxuv, II. Stiff. 

■ Tho Hc^mlaa. who ara bnt ktinwn «• Ibo Hoyaabui of DvilnaBBiidra In MalaorJ 
ruled bQin about 1039 to 131^ llivir iiuna is alan whtteo IIoyMna, PotBala, an 
iWmiiii. Tfaoy belong (« the liii*«ga of YaJn aud *item ta be ci>an««t«d *iUi 
Ytidavi of Di^vgiri (llSO-1312) aa thuy hoth hnr* Iho fAiiiily titiM (4 Yidava-nlrtyaus 
and of Dvdrlvati'I'ntaTarAdhuhvar, anprcme lc>nU <>( DvArlvsti Ui« bed of cttiM, 
apfiareittly l>TAnuutnu(lrB, theinoikimHalcbidiaMiuiiir. Vii]arAdttyK(1039]i 

Knt of th« family to Mcure any e<ai*idor»ble (bare of power. Tbe tvxi chlal t 

thefamily w«ni VuhnDTardhaoaframaboat 1117 to llSSwko WMiudap«aid(«it«xo 
in name, and BallAla 11. (H^'J-ISII) vboovcrtbtuw Qio Kalachurya aocoeaMn a< 
Cbilukyaa and alao dvduitod tha YAdar* of Dorgiri. HIa aon Nanimh Il> (II 
wu itctoaledby tbrYd'Iav8,aMlblasr«*t-gTaniLwaIlallA)» Ill.hy Ala-ud-din'a l 
Mklck Kifur in 1310. Thn taalaiBed a wcoud and linal il«(eiil from a gmcral ■ 
Uuh»nDuul Tughlili'* in IXZ7. Tbe following are the aueonakuia t Viitayixlitya 
(1M7-I0TC). Kntyann, BallUa I. (UOS). ViahcnTardhana 11117-1137), Nanimh I.J 
BallUa II. (1101-1-211). Nanimh n. IIS33). S<-nu!>hTar<l2SSI. Naraimh III. (l-2&4<^ 
I!S61, and BalliOa III. (1310). Plcot't IUaar««« Dynactioa, 64 ; eoiD|iare WUioa'a 
MaektBoc CoUoetioo, Kcw Edition, 61. 




thvir aattioritr wm well maintsiued. In 1045, from his capital at 
Hnia^mve, Harikesari, iritb the title oE Mahdimaadalcshvar, was 
gflverntu^ the Baoavtisi Twelre-thoiiSRiid.' In 1053 Soinoshvnr's 
chiof qiit'«u Maitnli!ovi, of Uic (Innjfn family, wn« cntnigted with 
th>3 i^vcruim-iil of tlio Biinavn-ii Tw(!lvi!<tliou«aQ<), and aha seems to 
Imvc ooniiiiuvil to govern it till I0&5 under ibe name of her son 
Vikrama afierwarda Vikramii.Jiiya VI. (1073-1126) an<l with tlia 
help of Ilarikegari of tho B«oarilHi KiidumlMu. In 1068 thu 
Jl'iti'ivAai TwclTC-thoH.tftiid was uader the iitanagemoDt of the 
Miiii^iiiiandaleAhrar K irtti-vafind II. of tl>o BanaviUi and lldagal 
K tidan^baa. Tlie BanaviUi ^ddarabas at this timo and on till uie 
bct^tnnin^ of tho thirteenth contiirjr held an important position. 
TJkij- wens eutilloil to have thu t niisiuwl iiislmment TOllod itarma lti 
pinjud i» front of them, to cairy ibfi I wnnor of » '"''^"'l^ ^y o** <'^ tho 
naonkey-jlfod, and to use the aiynet of th^ lion. ^ Their family god 
was Viahnu under the pamo of Madbnkeabver of Jayantipura or 
Banartisi. Ono of their family titloK vftxs Banarun-pumrardtthuhvara 
or HHl>r(>ino lord of Banav^i tho hotit of citivs. Kirtti-^*uriiul w(tn 
Bucc*«ded by hia uncle Sbf Jiiti-varmA I L.and ho by hia aon, grandsons, 
itnd gresit-griindson till 120!i,* 

In 1075, dnring thu ralo of Somcithvara's son and successor 
(if the Oanga family, who bad fought with iiacccAjta| the Uhem, 
Chola, Pdudya, ana Pallai-a kings, was governing uanav^i and tho 
neighboorint; 'Jisti-ict-?, Under Someshvar 11. 'b succeasor, the great 
Viknitiiii'iitya VI. {1073- 1 126) who ii»urp»(d his brother's authority, 
l!aii;iv,-isi jil;iy>*<l an importnnt part. It was apparuntly iw governor 
of liauafd^i that, white still young, Yikram^ditya e^tablishud hia 
fame and* popnlarity, commanding many auoeesaful expeditious, 
defeating the Chela.'* and pliiudenng KAnehi, lending help to the king 
of M&lavn, atfioking (ho king of ^inihtila or C<'ylon, doxtroyiug tho 
aftudalwood of the Malaya hills, slaying tho king of Kerala, and 
COUfinering the citie.4 of G&ngnkuDda, Vengi, and Cbakrakota. Ue 
'i}3atfii'»t to linvw thought lit eslablishing himxclf in iudcpendcuce 
ill l^iinaviUi, and it wan pruljablv with Llio object uf stmngthnning 
hia power in that neighbourhood that be gave his daughter Mailaldovi 
in marriage to Jayakoshi II. of Iho GoaKjldumbaa. After deposing 
his brother Some^hvnr II. (1073), Vikrnintiditya gave up tho idea 
of making Bnnard.'ti a uoparnte cajiital. Still Itiinnv^si continned 
t-i be tho hcsd of one of his most impi>rt.tut iiriivinccf. Tho 
Hsnavdsi command was always held by one of liis chief fftid»Nmi.!s. 
lu 107lJ it was governed by tuo Mah4mandalesbvar Kirtti-vanu^ IL 




■ Acvonliiiff t« w> iii«C7iptiaii pobUilied in tfie AnDtMBcMMeh««, IV. >l!t3, about 
tke mnldU M Uw ctevcntli contiiiy, Shri Der PAla of KnoMmha on tbo Brahmimt'* 
tnvoUod gn a |HlBriina]ie from tM Miut* of tbo Gntigca to OcAnni oo tiic oocaa uul 
oromn all ibo liiDj|<]niB* «n the way. Bird'* MMt->-Abni*di. AA. 

•ash u*. Tula It. (10^-1133), hit xxk Marnt-viinnii III. (IISl) uid | 

»'tI.ni3A),ui.ttbdMM>pbBwKaBiiUT<IISl-1203). PIcot.^Mi. BacbanMi i 

-.:i) rnonrtlas bt«r UMoriptkin dated IS07 <8. II30I froea IlinnJ in ' 

1 ii (ktaelunda Colleetiait, New EditiaiL fi2) noticM KthlamEa In- | 

>- ..r : ....iaT«sL,3Av«iHf, and fiofcam in tbe twtlfth, thlit«*Btb, and ItmrtMatk ' 


i CliOlukyu, 


[Bombaj QtKttM^, 

of the Sanarlki KAilambns atid in 1077 by the Mah^pmdhAn 
Hod Dandau^yak Barmadev. Botween I07i) and 1081, with lite 
title of Yuvar&j or heir- apparent, it seems to hitro buen hvld by 
Vikmnidiilitya'!) fanlf-bratWr, <U;a«tuih IV. Jayiwimh ruse in 
rebellion. H<^ gaiuo<) lu Itts 0>du many vl the local ohieftaios, and 
advanced to llie Kmbua, whore be wa.i di-fi'Ated and taken nrisooor 
and th« rebellion crashed. In 1088 Danar&si waspro^eraeu by Ibn 
Hah&maadaleehvar Sbfinti-ramUi II., also caJli-d Sjinta or HAntayKf 
of the BonaTiUi KtidambaR. the uncle of KirtlivannA II. Hotweea 
1100 and li:$6 the Banav^ Twclvi^-thouBand and the PAduhjb^ or 
Htogal Fire-hundred in Dh&rwir wore under the K^amba Taila II. 
He eeoma to have made P&nungat or Hfiogal, which ix idiio CAllod 
VirAtakota and Vii^tunagnra, his head-qnart«n<, uh iu 1 10^, tha 
Mabilpradhto and IMudandy&k AnantapiUa and in 1114 the 
Mah&pradh^n and Manevei-Eade or cltaniberlain Oovinda wem 
governing at Banav^i,' At the close of and probably during the 
grwit«r part of Vikramiditya's reign (1073-1126) the Soalh 
Ki'ukan and apparently the eoast districts of North Kdaara wor» 
held by hia sou-in-law the Qoa K&damlM Jayakeahi II. Jayakeflbi 
styles himself Konkana'CUakrararti or Kinporor of the Konkan. In 
1126 he is described as governing the Konkan Ntno-hundred, the 
Pftluige Twelro-tfaonsand, the liay vo or Pay\-c Five-huadred, and th« 
Kftradidvip TjMc-nnd-»-<]itarter. 

During the pc4M:eful reign of Vikraitidditya*s son and sacceeacr' 
So ineahTamlil.( li:i<>-ll38) T»i]apa II. continnedtogoveraBanavdai 
and iliogal, bis sons Maynr-ramiii Til. and Mullik^rjnua II. b«ing 
aMociat<Ml with him between 1131 and 1133. Almiit thiit tini« tho 
province of Banavfa i, and apparently the lowland pnrta of Klluara, 
were oremin by the Hoysala c hief ViahnM vardban a, " of whom 
only two dates aro rgcorded. 1117 and 113 ". thoogh lie probably 
continued in power for st^voral years Inter. Vishnu vanlhanft. who 
was the grandson of Vtnaytiditya the fenndor of the HoyiMila 
family, made himself independent thongh he continued to use no 
higher title than Mahflmaiidalc«hviu-. He ostabli-tbed hiiuaelf 
iu the territories of the Maisur Qangas. According to ano 
inscription KAochi or Conjereram Sed before him, Ko^a was 
shaken to its foundations, Virdtkot or Hiingal in JmArwix 
criod ont, Koyatur probably Coimbatur waa destroyed, Chnkro- 
kota made way for him, and the Konkanas threw down their 
nnns and fled into the tmA. His bcnd-qnartors were at Helur 
or IteUpiir in Maiaur. He Ls aaid to have takon Banavd,9i and 
lUngal from Tailap II. the KAd aniba. He did not hol d the 
Ba navfai diatficte tor any Tengt'h o f time, and it is doubtful 
wTi^CT lie ever held the North Kannra coa^t. One inscription 
gi^t-s him Hayvuor Knigi, but a<«ording to an other hia western 
boundary was tbo H^mkuuar iHuts to the Konkan. The most 

important fact in 

liana'8 reign was his convvrsiou from 

> Buclubaii {Hyaara, III. 308) reenrda fnim Kudali in U^Unr a oopptir-platfl, lUUd 
A.a. ] 130 IS. 1013), in Dm raign id Panukdv* BAja, a KiduntM of BMi>i'taL This 
diM liM iiul t>«0D MlnUIUd. Tbo date (•lb a-itiun tb« tima «I IvA* H. 




Juinism to YnishnaTism. He is eaid to bave become the patron ot 
tb(^ gnaal VaUtiiinv rcformor RibnAniij an<1 to have treated the Jains 
with great cruelty, a jKntecution from which, except in the eoast 
districts of South Kdiuiru, they seem never to luive rocuvorod. 
Hi« coast capital is said to have been at Barkar abont forty 
mi left south of Bhatkal,' hut bis chan^ of religion from 
Jainisin ti> Vai«hnnvijtm grwttly Ivswuod his power in TuUt 
or Sonth K4nara,* Someshvai-a III. was nuweeded by his ehlext 
fuu with the title of Jii?adekamalla 11. (I I:IR- 1150). L'nder this 
king lliu rule of the Chahikyna was maiutained, though in the 
BODth it suffered from the attncktt huth of Vishuuvardhuna and 
of the Goa K&damboa. Tovrard.1 the close of hiw reigu (1146) 
Jufj^kdckamnlla, whose chief capital was Kalyftn, formed a prOTipciM 
cajjiul nt Kadalipura. the Sanskrit translation of Bajenalti the 
Tubige uf pliintnins, in the U^ngnl enb-dirision of DhArwAr. In 
1143 the Bannvti^i T wel vc - th o ii wuid was govvrned by the 
Dudan&yaka Bommanayya and in 11-14 by IkfalUk^juna I. the 
8on uf Taila the KAdamlxL Jagadekamalla in 1150 vraa succeeded 
by his younger brDlhiT 1'aihi il J., who about 1161 lent hix power, 
partly owing to a defeat by an eaalem kiug of the Kftkalya family,* 
and partly to the revolt of hia chief eommauder Bijjala of the 
Kniachuri funiity. Tiii\n did not long survive his orerthroiv ; he was 
dead in !H>2. In IISS the Banavii.-<i Twolve-thoosaad was gOYemed 
by Dandandyaka Mahidera, and At the time <■£ Taila's orerthrow 
(1 162) by the DandMifiyaka BannaniBa.* 

Chapter TI 


Seeotid CtiAlDki 
V73 1i92. 

After llfll.B^iala. the KalnchuH, thoroughly established his power 
in the Cbilukyadoiuiiiions. Inocription^ of his occur near Bannvitsi 
both at Balagimre ill Mai.-iur and at Annigeri in DhiirwAr, which 
for a time was his capital. In llCl the Dai^anJyaka Bsrmarasa was 
bit! under.lord at Banavaai, and in llti3 K^apayyaiiAyaka was 
governor of Ihe Bunavisi Twclrc-lhoiiwind, Bijjala lo«t his life 
owinj^ (o the revolution oanaed by the rise of the Lingityat faith. 


' ll«fh«n3).> My«ire, UL l!3. 
^My...n, Mi 1)3. 

WdMa'sMadmiiaCaaectkA, N«wBdilion, 6S. 

*Th" K lkil-.^u. M Tdingn kinita ot Varai^ l (1070-1X!I» ara uicl U kkvo at on* 
tisie br i-llhTirnrara «a rt. Wilitoiia Moolitniiitf CollMlioii, K«« Edltina, et, 73, 74. 

'TliclCsJai'ilDnior KtiiuhMijiAht^reXbutitlrotKdtaigaTa-pitrarardttiMvarxi, that 
i* Suprtuio lord ol Kilaii>]>ra tbe bot o( citici. Tbe aciginiJ itwk tlwratora aUurtoA 
from thai ciVr, now the hUl-fort ol K11«n)>r in Banitclklunri. An aoeovnt poblMiad 
by CtownJ &aBin|th>m |Arr)i. II<q)i»t, IX. A4| ahon-a t)i«t ia the atntb, tonth, iiid 
oteTimth oectiBHu ■ »»iif rlnl bmxli of tbtf (uuily liolil nunil^Jkhand which waa abo 
collod Clicdi. Tht* lainjly (cviii fmoa thnr vn. which ia callml dtbcr th< Kal»«hnri 
or tho (Thadi era, tviUt«ftoinaacail)r aai-ix 349. "nieircapntAlwaaat Trinunt, now 
Tcv^r. abonlnx uiilcs wc*t of Jatalpar. Mmnbenof thiaTripamfaatily of KnUohnry«a 
•eVDrnI tinioa intermatried with tiM BAditrakntaa and W^vtaro Cliilukyaa. Another 
hnuwh ot the Iribc in tho itxlfa otatuij had a knutdoni in tba Konkan, tram which 
tlMy war* Jnvca bv ^10 carlv Chilakya Uangalidh. unola «f Piitihathi n.|i;iO-«S4>. 
Tbu KaLvi'bur) u odl tkionatltM UuufM aad claim daaotnt (n>iu Yadu tlmmDlt 
K^'l3-,4r> It 'ir >.ihwvi>bihu-Ariiuia. TborwuuwtkerfanUKiiot Huhajaa whom t£a 
n VinayMitya (CS0-G9A! MinqiMnd. and on« nl wliow family waa 
ililya'a Knu>'t><>D, Viknunidrtya (ttS 747). Tha RMlu>y*a Mun 
pTi^-iciii) !.. ii;iv» hma ■ (iiraqtn race. Tfcey ai« claaod with SfcaluM, Vavaaaa, 
Kimlniu, F^ndu, and Fallan, and wbcoioirciTtbrownlijrth* Mythical king Sawai, 
an aai>l to have been (orc*d to wear their hair after a partieolar tMUoD. Um%. 
Wyman, L 179 1 Indian AutaqBary, IV. IBB. 

■ Sie IS 

(Bombay OozettMr; 

Chapter Til. 




Ilio founder of thia new sect waa Bhwita, llio son of nn AviiilhyA or 

Shair Brdlmum tvbowasbomeitlieraiBdgeT&iii or in ihe uciglibouring^ 

Tillage of Jn!^k>sbvar in Kaliulgi Baaava roae to power at Ealf'&ii 

by Riurrjing thu dnuglitci' of the miniiitvr nud by giving bis bctiiitifiil 

i^tMlcr ill luttrringc to Itijjntil. Sduu aIivi' lii^ i<isU^r'!( iiiiirriu^ 

Basttva sncoeeded to the post of initiUt^T, ;uid after securing hin piivrvr 

hj filling aJl flubordinttto offices witU his adherents, he started bia 

new sect, which, in the first instance, is said to have done away with 

distinctions of cu«te Mild llio obs«rvanco of cvroinonial impnrity. 

His loilowers were known by carrj'ing « inorable /ini/ which 

tliey wore round the neck, instead of, tike tlte A'r^dfaya 

Br&hmans, ou tho nppor nnn. Bijjitla, diatrusting the spread 

of Basavn'd power, tried to seieo him. Ba»tvB escaped and 

defeated first a party sent after him, and afterwards the main 

army under Bijjsut. Hu brought Bijjala back with him to Enlyan. 

and, according to tho Juio aocoiint, caused him to b« a«»assinAtc<l 

about 1167.' Then, fearing the wrath of BijjaU'a sou R&ya 

Mur&i'i'SovT or Somealir ar. Ba^ra fled w est' to Kanata and 

Bought refuge in tho town of V"rifiha|liltapara. aW called Plyi , 

at iTio nvst of the Siihyildris fourteen miles west of YclUi)iir. 1ISy» 

Miirdri piirsiiod mid laid Hiegu to (ho town, and Jtasava iD 

(IcKpair I(wpe<i into a well and wa& killed.'^ After Basava's dofent 

Someshvar established his power over Iho parta of Miusar and 

of Dhiirwdr in tho neighbourhood of Banuriisi, whure iu 1109 

Dandniiilyaka Keshav or Kcainiayya and in 1174 the Mab&- 

mandaleahvar Vj'ayatrfndya w ere his governors. About 1175 Som- 

eshvar was saccovdoa by nis brothers Aliavatna Utt and SJngbaua, who 

Boem to iiavo sharoJ the govcrumear in 1179 the Mtui.'ipraiDUia 

and Uaudandyak Keshirdj waa governing ihci Banardsi province, 

and there are grants in iha DhSrwir aud Maiaur uoighoourhood 

of that year and of Il8t>. Shortly after this, about 1182, with 

the help of Dandnntiyuka Hnrm^mi. apparently the man who 

hod boon governor ol BniiavJw^o^Tiiila's overthrow in 1161, 

8 ome»hvar I V'., son of Taila, eatablLsheil himself iu the neighbour- 

hood ot iianav^i and made Anniyi^ri in Uhiirwdr thojaiutw of an 

indept-ndent state. Barmarasa was dignified with the title of 

Chiihtkya-r&jya-pralivlhiipakn, that ii Kstsbliitbur of ChiUukyau 

KOvcreignty. In or itoou aflerllB-!! the portions of the ChAlukyaa 

territoried which romained to tho Kalachuryas wore wrested from 

them by tho Uoy<ii)lnM of Dvirasamudro under Ballilla or Vira 

BalUIik In llE^l Itarniaraita itt int-ntioned a4 gMviTTiini^ at 

capital of Anui^ri and the MahiUuaudale.thvnr K;iiurnli-v of 

Kfidamba family as governing Banav^ t^POT^ Mi^ f tllJgere. 

In the early years of his ntlu Aainaaov wn^snooeSum. He 

conquered the coiiutriiM of Mule, Tulu, the Koukanas, and Ihe 

SahytUlnK, and gained for himwIE tlie title of Tailamana-Aukakit 

or Taitauia'^ champion. He waa attacked by the HoyaaJa Vira 

'RW. 1.211. 

* 'Hki liii^yiU >ltnr tli« tniUi o( thii Btoy. wad ay tluU Bamra wo* ih 
to B Hmo 1« Um UMplo ot SungMidlhwr at iha mMWg «( itio Kri«bD» tun) 




BiilUla (1192-12111 about 
ilwllilla advAiicod affaiDst 
tMWynd attack thokidami: 

2 an J BimttTfai yna taken . In IIM 

Ho WKK at Brut ropnlKed, bat iu n 

wcro dftfi>att>d and tl»tiii' genoral Sohaoi 
wa* sLitti. KKmadev Btrnggled on lill about 120^.' 

Tirft-H^IJAIft wws tlio grandsoQ of VishntiTardhBiui, wto, about 
fii'y Y«ara before, liml fur a Hhort titno orormn the K^aniba 
jirL.viuce of Banaviai. He wwalwi known OMUiridurgamalla or tho 
CoiKjueror of liill-Portu, and was tlio first of the Hiivi«ala family 
wl)o ossnmtKl kingly titles. His iuscriptions are found at UalagAinve, 
Hingal, Annigori, and oth«r places near BaDariisi. Bra idea over- 
coming tlte Kiilftohun* lie (Wfoatwl, witU tho loaa of its coramaDder, 
»Q anny sent agaiiuit liitti by IJhillaiii^ (11S8-IID3) tW founder 
of (he Yidav- dynanty of Uovgiri or l>aulatat>ad in tho North 
Dcccau (1188- 1312). He also defeated the Chola and Pindva kings, 
took Uchclmogi part of the Koakan, and the provinces of BauaviUi 
and I'ltniingal or H&ngal. In 1102 ho bad an ofEix-r with the 
title of Afiili^pradhiiQ or DandandjriLk, Kreyana or Kniga by name, 
jT^vcniing tUn llanavitai 'Pwelve-ihouaand and the Sanlalijfe Tbou8iind. 
lie did not Eubdae the Kiidaiuba micr of H(in;^l until a{t«r 11^6, 
Iq 1203 hi* Oaiubtiutyak KAmiitWbi MnUisctti was govci-oing 
the LSiiaiaiige Seventy and the Nd^arakhanda Seventy in the 
Banar&ei country. Ho had \ftca\ cnpiials at Lakkundi and Annig«ri 
in Dhitrwiir. 

to have beeudm i 
in hU reign wliieii 
reign which lasted till I.;i3, nor during tho reign of his mux&»aoe 
S'-mic ;h. ;»r (121'.*- 12(tS). ia an y slUimpt to rocovor tboJr lost po wer 
tak rixordcd. In rJ77 tfoineih^'ar'a succ^aHOr jiTnnwim b 
t riyd to take Banavi isi, but the attempt vat) 
dofcaled by the Yitdav general S aliva Tikkam a, who is called the 
Mt ablisber of the KAJamba k ings and the ovfrrtbroiver of tlie 
Hoysala kings. After this dofeat no turtlw r notice of the H ytj^aa 
.ooeunstill BalUlaXLI.'s destruction by Malik Kifur ana Knw&ja 
n&H, th.- trenerals of Ali-nd-diu Kbilji of Delhi in I3I2.'__^ 

tbe inscriptions acknowledge no connection, two of 
tin-ir iiucs, YAdav-NArdyau and D^iliilvati-ParavaHidhijshrar, mem 

navaei country, iio naa locai capiiais at i^aicKunai anu Annig«n 

Dhiirwiir. About 1210 Balhlla 11. si^ms to hare be en doEeatea b y 

Uevgiri Y^dav lting' 5!ngha»n It. (1209-1217). BSITIfiiseema 

' ■ *oa^ll ofThe Tunyabh adra. and ncithor 

till 1233, uor in hia sian Karasimh ll.'a 







ivsiri Yik>tA*l 

■ 'Aocenliaf to WUion (Mackoiiiia CoUdcUmi, 6^ luiiier Vin-lbUib nad Vira 
Karuiioii, wtUflb ]io'm«t exloidod over tbe K&mltalc auil lliu wImIs of KAnam, 
Bnobuiui (HI. Slli) reeocdi from ft .laia nvmiuitery ia SiaiiU ui iiMcrijittoii, 
daZ'ci 1 ItMt la 1 t!l ), in «Uiili»MlAjihtr IU}a alSaikpon, th*t i> Sanaa, wtio nwiiiiuu* 
BO aupsnor bat ulua ni> tory hif li tMtt, pralH* kji ToMlier Skri Mjulabiaaia Bulla 
Rii 1 .L^, wb.i » Hill U> liav« bMtawiMl |<r««ii«ni7 nn Ibe BallAla Raja. 

I < KHf ur UhI waale tbu Bojrwla kinuitoni, ilofMlo) and capterod BallSla HI., 

<. «i<l xacked liii capital l>nnuuit(>Inb Tbo Hoywlaa nsnr Mcovtrod tkia 

tldiut. BalUfai IIL WM Mt free aod cudUikvwI to mlo (or a titae at BcUnniL Bat 

Um ktng^Din va* Bnally ■nnentd Ui Uip Mutianunadaii oiDpirc by HnhammaJ 

SqUik (I32i-I331) in I32T. Thu Uuyaaliw tlioa ratirod ti>T<m»iu near Snrinitf- 

Sud vontiaucd to oxcrnio auiM »>rt <i( autboritr for fiftr, or MMrdinf t« 
CWMvcU (Tinncvdiy. ti) ("r miy yearn kmger. Tbe fl«]rMki Iiaro th« 
intcnot tint wboii tboy hit* ..viirthrown by Malik Kifor. thtf were 
hiiiUticf tiMi wonderful]; rich and olalK<ral«Iv oniunonUd tcmpl*^ wUcL are now 
Um woII kaowa iBin* of flatcUil. Compaii) Ki«v'a >ly*ort^ L 'H9. 

Bombay Ou«tt06r, 



auptff vu. 


ivgiri Vidav*, 
1168 -ISIS. 


to show tliat the Yidars of DgTarii wHo, early in the tliirteenth 
cantni-)-, drove the Qoysalas oat of the KantfUak, were of the sanra 
stock ito Ihu RoyMtlfis. A» far as present knowledgo gOM 
tlw Uovgii-i YiiJavN mleil firet at TeneTalagc, whcro in 1189 
Bhillaina (ll8S-ll9:j) was the chief of a ooneidvntble torritory. It 
vras in Lis iviiipi that about )in2 the Uoy«&]» king BalUla deCrated 
the Ytidavs at Lakkundi in Dhim-dr. For some years (!187) bciforo 
thitt dofvat the Ylidara had a rioeroy whose capital was at Aniiif;(eri 
in DluLrwdr, and other iuscriptionx show that at this tinio h« fa«ld 
Kal^gi. Olio of Bhillatna's iuscriutioni) montioDs his emndfather 
Singhana I. aa the founder of too bouac, and reooras that be 
enbdoed tha king of the Kam&tak, probably some auooees against 
the Hoysala king Vijthn'ivnnlliaiia (1137). Of Singhana's »(m 
Slallagi, who waa the tuber of HhilUma, nothing hut the tuime ia 
K'oordc-d.' Bhillama'fcsoQ Jailugi 1. (1192-1209), who, aacommnndor 
of his fnthcr's army was dvfeated at Lakkundi in DbfLrwiir aboat 
1 192, does not aeem lo havo attempted to reston.* Y^dai- power in the 
Karndtak. Uia capital seeine to liaro been at Vijay^pura or Bij&por 
in North EaUdgi, afterwanl» (1490-1^6) the seat of the famous 
Add ShAh dynasty. Jaitugi'ason Sinph«iaII. (1209-1247) grdUly 
i'xtoiidc<l YndaT power. Ije moved biH capital north to l>CTgiri, and 
at i1m> wiiin tiim^ brotijfht much of tho Kanidtak under hie role. 
Among other kings he claims to bare defeated BallAla or tbo 
JloyNalaa. In 1216 he had a manager of costoms, the Mah^pm- 
dh&n MvmmayysDilyaka, in the fianar&si conntry, and tu 1219 
the whole of the Banavdiu Twelve-thousand wim under him. The 
Kiidamba^ seom to hare aided the YitdaTu again.*! their enemioa 
the Hoyt^alas, as from 12l.'i to 1£&1 Vira MallidoraorMallik^rjunall. 
contiuut-d iu the apparently independent command of tlio BauavM 

■ Tha UvTgiri VbUv trt« u> ; 

I. (about I IM). 



Jkitngi L 

Siariuuia n. 




TwelvB-thoasiand and tlio PAnuapnl or Hiiiigal Pivp-liatidro<l. At 
the cloee of Singhana's mf^n (lSi7) his viceroy Hfichirdija, with the 
tiUes of MahtlpradbnD anil Sunn^iAti, ww gov«minff tbo Knmfltak 
nnd other countries fmm IjalcAhiiiealiTar or Piiliknriiiiagani in 
DMrvr^r. Inscriptions show that his territories included Bala^dmve, 
AnivAtii, and YalavfU. SinghaoB was sncctK^lfld by hia grandson 
Krishna (1248 • 12(30), who:w father Joitof^ II. apparently di«d 
during Singfaaoa'a lifetiniix Kri«hiia, who iit aim namvd Kanhaim, 
Kanhira, Knndhara, and Kandli^ra, raled at DeTgiri. In 12-'>3 the 
sontb of bia dominious was under CbaaQdaF&ja, the son of the 
general Vich«n who is recordad as the conqneror of the Rattns, 
Kadnmbas, Pdinilyas, and Hoysutai). Krishna vras succoedvd by 
his brothvr Mahliilov, also called Uragao^rrabhanma. Ho rvignod 
for about ten years (I'30O-1370], and (teems to hare mnintaini-d his 
power in Uauaviii<i and the neighbourhood. In 1271 KAmachaudra 
or R^madev, the son of Krishna, wi-estod the kingdom from Amana, 
Uabidov's son. Hi» inscriptions occur in ssTCTftl places io Dh&rw&r 
wtd iu BalAg&mTO, Harihar, and Uflvangero in Mai^ir. In 1277 
be had a contest wiih the Uoysalna, who seem to have made (W 
kttempt to restore thoir power in the noighbourhood of BanavAsi. 
BAmciiandm is described as seising the goddoifs of the sovereignty 
of the Uoyaala kings, and bis viceroy the TilaluUnandale^TSi' 
Saliwa-I'ikkama is (1277) called the cslabliaher of the Kddamba 
kings and the ovorthrower of the Hoysala kings. lUmchandra'a 
power probably extended over tbo whole of North Ktinara. In 1S97, 
ID a manuscript written at Suvamagiri in tbo Konkan, probably 
Bnvamdnrg in North liatnilgiri, he is styled Emperor or 
ObakraTarti and deserved the title as bis role was acknowledged over 
,the whole of the Deocan,tbe Konkan, nnd the KanUltak. Three years 
before this his power bad been broken by Al&-nd-dtn Khilji, who in 
1294, coming by forced marches from Karruh^Mltnikpur on the 
Ganges, Barprised Rimchandra or Riimadev as he is called by Fertahts 
at Devgiri, took the city, and forced Rjimadev to pay tribute ai>d 
Mknowlodge the snpremaoy of the Khilji Emperors of Delhi.* 
Between 1200 and \'<i06 the Y^davs were not again molested and 
seem to have maintained their suprcmttcy in the south. In 1806 
AJ&-nd-din sent another expedition, undor Malik KAfar, against 
the TtUlaTS and subdued a great part of the Martltha country. 
lUmohaiidra submitted and was continued in power till his death in 
1310. He was succeeded by bis son Shankar. In thesamc year (1310) 
AU-od-din again sent Malik K&fur and Khwfija Uiji with a largo 
army into tho Dcccan. Shankar was ill-nffectcd tothe Mnsalmfius, but 
did notTontnro to oppo«o them, and Malik K^fnr ktaving a force to 
watch Shankar pressed south and cononered UulUU 111. thelloywla 
rolerof Dvdrasaraudra. He returoedto Delhi in i:tll. Next year, 
as Shankar withheld his tribate, Malik K&for rotuniod Io tho Doccan, 
seixcd Shankar and put him to death, and, laying waste Klab&nishtra 


Dtvgiri V Ada VI 
IIS9 13I& 

'AooMdingta Fwulita (Btwi. 1. 310), Rinuiler hxl to Iniv pwc* at Ute coat of 
600iw»ua{pMri(UMl2naii«of<lUBoD>U,nibi«s, vuMaalib. ud Mpphin*, 1000 okum 
cf ■Ivnr, uid 4000 piecea of lUk, boidM K kaiii biX of other preeiou* oomnodltiM to 
oltlcli, ha uya, rcMon (orbids ni tnfivo enm. 

Bombay Gaxetteer. 


Chapter VII. 

kei-giti YiiUvs, 


and tho ERrniUnk from Choul and D^bltol on the coast of KoUba 
au<l Itntn<ij^ri to Mudgiil »ud IMicbur, took up his rcsidoncu in 
piivgiri and renliiMKl the tribute from the priiiom of Telingnon 
and I. be KaroHtak.' Takiag advAiitaj^A of cbe uialurbancc!t at Delhi, 
which followfdtbfi death of AlA-ad-din Khilji (1^1)7-1317), Harapfl 
or HaripA l, RSmcbandruH son.ia-law, drore out mattj- of the 
Habamnittdiin {{iirrisoiis and i-stabbshud bis power ov«r portions 
pf tho former U>rritorit*s of Dovj^iri. In 1318, Mubivrik, the third 
son of Ali-ud-din who had c^tabliidied him»oH on ttio Delhi throne, 
marched against Harapdl, caught him, flayed him abvp. aud set 
his hood OTer the gate of Oevgiri. Though in tho Marathji conntry 
•otav branches of the family puolinucd to bold positions of toonl 
importance and respect, the Devgiri Tddava never again rose to 
power. Iq V^HS Muhammad Tugblik (1326-1351), stmck with its 
coatral position and tho strength of it:* fort, made Devgiri hia 
capital and changed its nnnio to IJaulatftliad or tba City of Wealth. 
Three attempts to force the neo(do of Delhi to settle at DanlatabBd 
foiled, and a few years later (1 250) the Doccan passt-d oiitof Muham- 
mad's hands and formod the territory of t ho BabmaH Ja (12&l>-l-ii)0), 
who soon eBtabliBht-d tlmir power oror' tJjo beoean. With the 
Kamdltak, at Iwist wilh the parts as fur west as the Ktoara frontier, 
tlifl B ^ li mania liad lit tle connecti on, aa thoee districts already uoknow- 
le dgea the o rer-fordahip of the powerful dynasty of Hindu kings of 
Vijayana gar a bbiii tlinriy-six miles norlh-u'cst of BcllArt. 

In the absonoe of eridenco as to whether the Ttidars held tho 
coast of K^nora in tho thirteenth century, the account of a sen 
iavasion of tho Kinara coa»c is of int«rc3t. About 12^2 tho 
aephew of the I'^nd yan prince of Madura ia said to have bronght a 
sea force against K^^ra, rodncod the whole coast to bis power, and 
introdnoed nn addition of tea per cout in the land assessment.* 

The wealth and strength of the Yddavs on the north and the 
wealth of tho Hoysala BnMlas on tho sontb, and tho rich temples 
in Maiaur and i n Dbirwitr which belong to about Uio thirtucnth 
oontary malie it probable that K^Dora shared in the pro-tpority 
which the Venetian traveller Marco Polo describes as marking 
Malabo about 1290. It was rich in pepper, ginger, cinnamon, 
turbit, and Indian nnts, and hod also a manufacture of delicate 
and beautiful clotli. Ships came from many <iuarteni, from 
the great proTicce of Manzi in South China, and from Aden and 
Alexandria, but tho China t-rnde was ton times as important as the 
Irndc with the Ued Sea. The CliiDa ships brought copper, silk and 
gold cloth, sandals, gold, silver, cloves and spikenard, and carriod 

■ In hia ocMnnt nf Malik lUfar'a ooiuincat of Drirannadn, Ferialita (Briggi, lU. 
313'374)iiotiCM tli>t tbeMuMlmin umy piMcil to tho ooaat ukI botlt a onall 
wcaiinc there. H* aihlv, the mnti)ii« renulns enllr« in our di;-* (1630) at Sot BsnS 
ItHno^TBr. CoUmolBn^^ luMs, thl* IwiDtntQttbeltwnB'BOipetn Kiiun,Hiith 
of Got), and not BinMslivar at Adam's Hridjte. But it uppran imin Amir Kbcuu'i 
(laiA) T«rikh-i>Alti (Elliot uid Oowaon. III. 90.92) tfaat UkLk Kifur pamtA 
MvOi to Mwlnrft and ilid not vint the moat <A Kitum. 

> £ltJiiii«t<me's Fltrtorr. 238.240; WOion'a M«ck«iu>e CoUMtno, xcvl. ; WUktT 
South 0( India, L 1 02. Thia rdaranoe MMni donbtful aa aconidlng lo Bklwp Caldwdl 
(Tinnen^y Maimal, 12) Piadya ]>owMr doMyod in tfaatwiUllicoutnfy. 




away conr«« spioM. 'I'lio [xxiple were iilolatora with a laiignngv 
of llimr own, a kinp of tbeir own, and no tribute to pay. It was a 
ffTcat kingdom, I'ut the coaats were infested witli corsairs ivho sallied 
forth in floeta of more ihaa a hundred vc^scIm. Thi-y ttrak their wires 
uid childrt-n with ihcm and stAyetl at sea during the n-bolo snmmur. 
Tn'enty or thirty of the pirat« craft, five or six miles apart, miulo a 
line and corcrea gomething like a hnudred miles of sea bo that no 
merchant shipB could eecapo them.' ^_^^-_^_ 

Thi,' Btihm.'^ni dynaaty which ruled tlio D«ccan from 1343 to about 
14y0 seem n ever to bare extended their power so far to the Mo uth' 
we st as KAnjffa l Apparently during the wbole ot this tirao, and on 
Bt least io IbGo, Kiluara and the Bombay Kamjitak were under <Jie 
ruloiif rvro dynaMtie^ of ^'■iftVTr"IT"'' ^i* Anognndi kings of which 
tie first iaste*! from about 1330 to 1180 and the eoooodfromabont 
l-tSO to 15d0.^ Vijayana^r the City of Victory, originiilly VidyA- 
nagar the City of Learning, stands on the rigfic or AoutJi bank of 
the Tnngnbhadra, in nigged pictiircsqno conntry, about thirty-six 
uiitcjt uorih-west of Bcllitri. It and ita suburb Antigundi on the 
northern bank of the river form one of the finest ruina in India,* 
The umpire, which ih prolmbly tlie richoHt and most powerful which 
hau nihil over the Aouth of India within hiittoric liuio:<, ^nts founded 
by two brotberfi who are generally known as Hakka and Bukla, 
^ey are described as the sons uf 8ang»ma, a prince of the YiUhiv 
1in<^- and luunr race, who is dv^ribed in one insuiripf ion as Sailauka- 
jvitha and whose father's name aeems to It&To bocu Kampa. As their 


Kins* 1 


> Vole'* Matoo Polo, II. 324, 32S. Acoardtnn to ft Cnditaon whioh waa g«iM«al]]r 
bolicred tt Kinumr in tho Mr); part of tlio a!" ' " . nitiiry mvl wtiUii the pocolkr 
arehitcvturv of ('trUin toiuiilMand Uonln <-: ' in S.'iith Ktnara McoMta 

«qpport, a sivai Chiomo tfvel cauM to Wi^l' ri. . . u thv Iwvlftb coatHry ■'■'^ ^o 

Mfilu Mi^tTcd xloag tbi! wliolo w««tem caul, (Tlirw Vown ot Va (inm*. 147 ; 
FvtgBtMon'* Arclutwtiiiu, i'T0-27S). 8uin« MuaaLuiiii and Fact«g«ac wnlurn baio 
TM!u« ivfiuronca toOhincacnl Ch««l lii KoUbn MitlatUosbo in South iuttiii.livir 
(•Ml Buiulny Oauttccr, XI. 4e0,47O}. But uuai^o or tratUliva of a Chboao loltio- 
Blent li» Wnn tiaMd on tliu const <i( N<>Tt)i Kiiiars. 

* Itachanaii (Myaoro, III. 113) ptftOM ». Yaraji ttynasti' at Anoftimrli bctwcco 783 
Mil kSC, umI Mr. Rice Oklj-aon, t 32:^ iloturibM AiMguiidi aa tlw tiadicianol Bile of ob 
oarlf Vn-in dyiiMty of vliom littt< ia knuwu. 

>S'Mtl">t.l (Journal Aautk Sodoly, IttaKal. XIV, 518) ffvm the folJniriiw 

dcacriiiti^ii of tli« VljAvau^ar mlna ; Tlio n'hola o4 tlM eitcaiiva ajto ocoiikm 

b« the nitu o( UiJiiiiBKar on the *o«tfa bank d the Tanaabbwlra, uil of its 

suburb Anugundi ou tbo north hank, i« OMUptod by neat bara filtt and boMM 

of anuut« ami {punitoiilal ^icia*. npuatcd by rocky ImIIih w^ oarrvir nig|od 

vafivyi. oucambcred by pr*ti]<itatcd nuoac* of rack. 8oni«<it tlie larger BAt-bottonMcl 

VsUay* arc irriptoil by aqu4>:lu(^U ft&m tho riT«r, and a|>|>«3r likv ao OMny nrdant 

OoaM in tbU Anbu t'etna •>( t>«ullum India. LolMd a'iiuv pnrU of tlio wildonana 

of Sioa) ninindod ton, but on a far )p«ndcr tcala, <i( thia huddln) aMctnblage M hum 

nanit« Tooka on Ifco banks of Ibe 'LVangabluidn. Tkn (orautiaa u tha Mma, th* 

•oanlioM* o( TfgtUtioii. the arid a«|>»ct n( Ih* baro rcnlu, and the Atacn apota 

inart^ug tbo prMuiKO of aprinci few uid tar butnun in tba doptlw of the *a]l«yiL 

■l^■ r,a-.Tiu':i cituiiti'iii to liQtli Ioailili««. Thv jwaka, torn, and k>gging »ta«io* of 

\: indent thu horiEon in |iKtnTm'iiiu coufniiun, and are Morooly 

iti the more attiSciol ruins of tlia ancitat Hinilu nictropoija 

Lii:L,.;in, wi-.ii'ii arc luually c4>n*tnK.-t*il with bkicks iiuarriod frotn thair 

.iQil via Id gr^-l<s>iinciici« of oiitlina aixl niaauvvnua ol character with the 

lie DiriiiOM and piJkUty exliil-itvd by nature in tliD ui<«ly putaod toiatii^atoDM 

luiMuiT ]>d<*> ""'' *" ™ walb of pMcliciona onboMlal blijcka of t>nuiitv whieh 

_ .i«(t and l«l> l)«T maattve domn and Tid|pja ia natural Cyc)op«Mi oiMonry. 

pter VIL 


earliest ioscriptknis oro found in the north nntl wrat of Maisiir, 
Mr. Ric« thinks they may be dosc^ndud from feu<IatonB8 of the 
Horimla BalUlu; aooording to another tmdiliuu tlit'v were of the 
Kikateya or Waranga) bmily ; and according to a tliira account thejr 
belonged to the Banar&si Kadambas.' Bishop Caldwell accepts the 
aecoad of Mr. Rtce'a tradition)!, that thoy camo from WarangnJ in tho 
NizlUn'a Dotninioiui which bud been t«kou by tho ^fubaniniadHna in 
1323.' The brothers Hakka or Uarihara and Itukkti are eaid to have 
been helped bv a sage named U^hav, who acortnling to one aocoant 
waa minister oi prince Sangstna and according toanothor was the head 
of the great Smiirt inoDOStory of Shringori in West Jliiisiir.* Ho was 
onlightunod enough to see that the only sitfcty of tho Hindu religion la^ 
in the protection of a powerful mouarcb. The Viiayanagar -lOTereigQa 
adopted tho varaha or boar as the emblem on the royal signet, and 
their family god was Vinipdluba, u local Shir, in who:<<! hononr their 

?rnDt8 are signed Shri Virapdksha. In inMriptionfl the epithets Vira 
ratlLpa PraudhaDova are those ooauoonly applied to the Viiayanagar 
kings* who wore known as IUytis,a Boathemform of the title RAja.' 
Haribara was thu oldoxt of Gro brothore tfa« fonrtli of whom, Klanpo, 
oon({nered the Kadamba territories and ruled as viceroy in (he Shimoga 


* Rko'i MfMM. 1. 177, m. 99. ud M*ilru Joomkt ol Literature aaJ Sdi 
1S7H, 141. Itnuy bonottoed t^ttho&naiimiimvsUarAthMMiaBKikiUn, wIki 
(n the Docvoa in 1*74. «11* tha rale* cf BJebaMctwr, Um Kriwltin kiniL M<j<ir% 
JadlA in Um XVQi Ccntiwx. » 

>TlDnav«ll]rUMtnal,Uk4T. Baebanui lUyMM, III. 07) nakcithtMof tlw Ktuvba 
«r*bttplM«d OHte. Uia abwy 1Mrior«,Iir US, IIU) li tbvunwM tbat adoptod by 
KAap Caldwea Thay were tho trtaaiuj- gnaidiaB* dI PraUp^ld^^ kiiw of Iha 
Aikdlira coimtTT, m'^mrKDffJi, who wat ovcrthrawa by the HoaabnAn) ui 1323. 
niajr oanM to Stiri Malta vidrAranfa. a Maha Sviml and elovpntli aiicMa*i>r of 
ShaBkarAohirya, and aakad tia helt>. tic viiitcd C&l aod, according to his oidata^ 
Vijannagar waa bcfau aad iSiii&hcd &(tcr *evcii voani lu laK. Tita pontiff or>nrn«d 
Hakka and RaTii liini llio name of iUriliara kiyani. Tho PortciicuTM hialoriaB 
Faria (Kurr, IV. 390) laja Klnora, properly ChuuAtaoa, bod iio (wwur till Boka a 
abeplMrd bnilt Vijayana^ar. 

* aUdbav waa a tDOMaaor of ^ankiuicUrya and head of ths gcMt ShrinMrt 
■noHHtery in ttw Kadurdiatriut of Maiiur. He waianiaii utgrsatlcaniiBg. Aooonl- 

S' t to Dr. Bamuil h« waa th« *&mu ai Siyniia, tho fun««i oommentatoorou the VwdatL 
Nli Mviorc. 1. 333. 

* Mr, Iticc (Mjraara, I. £24) gjvoa the follawinff tstile of tbo ViJayanaftar kinipt. H« 
iioti-:!^* tliaC aotne ot tho datea arc doubUal anJ that mcst o[ t&oie haaded c&wii by 
tradition arc wroag : 

fifayoM^r Ttay*. l330-tSS7. 

Hanhara. Hakka, nariy^ipa ISSdlSM * 

Hixkka, VIra Bokkaaua 


IWa llAn, Viiaya Rftya, Vij»y« Bukka. 

Matlkkiijuua, vira Mallasu, Piaudlia Oora ... 

Tiru[iikalui „, 

Naraaa, Naiatimlt 

Vira Hanunb, Kartimb H. 

EikhiMBAn I 

Ackjnita Bitjra t 

SadMivk Kara tlUk<na R&ja rogout nanrpa tbo tkroae 

tllM666> ... ." IS42.I57J 

8rl tUnpt Rira (Tiratnala lUja, httitbtrof RiUna Kija, 

1606) " 1374.1587 

Vin Venkalipaii .,- 1587 

* Tbo Ta»il liooour.givina i>laial <rf lUya la RAjar and tbc Telumi plural 
Bayata. CUdwril'i TiaMvaUr, 47. " "^ 

1401 -1461 
U79 1487 
1467- I S06 



district of north-west Muiaur. Tliut Vijayniuii^r power wiw soon 
csiriMl to tlio wenteru ixa»t ia shoiru by the Africaa traveUer Abu 
AbduiUh ^luhamniad, better kno^vB as Ibn Batata, who visited tho 
KiinarH coast in 1$42. Ibu Bntutii camo to tho iHlaud of Siuiltibur, 
anpHrentlyChitiikuI or Siiidikurii, tho modern iSadliiihirgnd close to 
K^niir, which he notices irn^ the head of thirty-aix Inland villages. 
He did not stop at Chitakul, bnt dropped anchor at a small iaiand near 
it, apparently ADJidir, iu which was ii t^rmplo and n n'ator-dstcrn. 
He Undpil OD thu ii<laiidni]d found an ».s<^otic leaning againi^t a urnll 
and phici'd between two idols. lie Hc<em<>d to bo a ^loslvin but would 
DOt talk. Uo next carao to the city of ilinanr, that It HonAvar, on 
an estuary which received largo vetssels. The people were Moslema 
of the ^hiifai or Arab iMtct, famous sm'fightorii, tho nion peaceful and 
roligioos, the women cltaHtc and handsome, ilost of tlwni, both men 
and women, knew tho Kuriin by heart. Tliero were Iwculy-thrco 
echooU for boys and thirteen schools for girls,' Tho mling chief 
was Jamiil-Hd.din Mnlinmmndlbu. Ho was subject to an inlidel king 
uaui^xl Unrinb, thuL i» Ilariup or ffariappn (13M-1."J50) of Vijaya- 
nagai'. JamlU-ud-din waa one of the best of princes. Uo ItM att 
army of about 6000 men |knd tho pcopla of Malab&r, thongh a 
bntTo and warlike moe, feared the chief of Hoiuivar for his 
brav»7 at sea, and paid him fribnto. Ibu Batuta wont on to 
Kalikat and camo Inck to Qou&v&f where he foond the chief 
nrcparin;^ an vxpodition iigiiinst tbfi Iitlnud of Sindlibur orChitttkul. 
They went with a fleet of fifty-iwo vessels and found tho people 
of Sindiibur ready to resist them, bnt after a hard fight carriod tho 
plac« by nssanlK Ibn Batuta startc^l for iloniivar and after a second 
visit to Kalikat came biK'k to Cbitakul, bnt iia ho found the town 
1,.-:.^od by an infidel king he left for the Mitldiv Islands. Ho 
ibes Malab&T from Sind^bnr to Ksulam or Qnilon as all 
nLsipjd with iTcos. At every half milo there was a wooden reat- 
hon<^, a well, ikiid a Hindu in ciutrgo. Ho gavo water to Hindoa in 
's iinil poured it intr.) tho hands of Masalmitns, In most parts 
liLialmAn merchants bad houses and were respected. In all the 
country tbero was not a span froo from cultivation. Everybody 
bad a garden with a house in tho middle and roimd it a fonce 
of wood. Popltf tnirelled on beasts of harden, the king ulono on a 
horse. Traders were carried on men's backs and nobli^ in i^ box 
ou men's Ehoaldcrs, Merchants walked followed by two or throe 
hundred carriers. lluoTtni were unkuown because death was the 
jraoiishmonl of thi-lu^ 

Of Bukko or Vira Bukkaona (1350 - 1379), Ilariappd's brother and 
-" ■ ssor, ilncbauun records an inscription, dated 1371 (S. 1297) from 
[ ura or Kupgiuldo nti'c^ m>uth-cast of Banavfisi in tho reign 
: I > jru Buka Itiija of ilaj<in;irtilt, the Sanskrit of Ane^pindi tho 
i:.i [liiunt Pit,* Another inscnpttou of the same year (b'J7i, S. 1297) 
bmwl ac-Gokam records agrant by Shri Vlra BukkatUya by Uio favonr 

Chapter VII 


< Vale'* Ctdfasf. IL llfi 

' Lw'*niDB«tuUi. ISI. 166. 167.171. VnT« fCalliny, II. 444) MtntiSM^iDdAliaT witii 
ilia II LL-vtoa to be the wine nii tlie l>ortUKu*av Sintakarm that U OiHakixl nuw 
I. > Mr>or«, IU. iS3. 


ChapUT Vn. 



of the feet of Virnpiksha, tlw locul Sliiv of VijnyiMiagar.' Bncb 

record} a tUirO gnnt, iiI»o fonnd Kt Qokorn, by the son of Ilarib: 

Biyp. to 8up{H>rl an iuu.' II1U faiU within the reij^ ofHarilinra 
11. (1379-1401). Ue found a third inscription at Ooknrn, nf Buica 
'R&ya Trilochia eon of Ilarihara Rnyn, king of Hnira, Tulnr. and 
Konkttti,' and another at GfnMii)pfi dated 1-109 (S. 13-22) in which 
hy finliir of I'rwljip Duva Hiya Trilochia, Irinicr of Vijayanagar, tho 
Jain chief of (iersappa granted lands to a temple of GaDi4vnntiat 
Gersappa.* This mention of a Jain nnder-lord of Ihu Vijaynnagar 
kings at Gcrsappa impports a tnwlit^on which KucliaaaR lean>ed 
from iho lirdhmau-s of Bbiitkal, tliat, under the Vijayona^ar kinf^, 
there were local chiefs at Uhatkal, at ShirAli aboat nvo miUn 
further north, at ChandiiTar ubottt ten inilc« awt of Kurata, at 
OcTfutppa, and at Alirjiin, though tJie Brdbuiana mado ont that 
these chiefs were of the Ur^hiuanic and not of tbo Jain foitli." 
Tbeee Jain chiofa wore probably, as in othvr pnrt« of the Vijaya- 
nagar torritojy, styled NAilre." An-ording to MusalmAa accounts, 
about 136H Uukka sulTorcd a »orie.t of defeats at the hands of 
Mnhammad Sb&h Ilahmani (1308-1375.)' 

Ilimhiira H . (1379-1 tOl), the third in sactTSsion and his son 
Dcm Itiiya (l401 - 1451) groatly ext«n<U"il tho [wwer of V'jjayanagar. 
Harihiin^ i» .-uiid to have oouipiered Chola, Kerala^ and Piindya, b^ 
sides by bia victories caiiaing the davH to appear cloudy to the teaiv 
blinded wiToi of the Yavans or MusalnnLna. During these Cwn reigns 
their power oxteuded over the wliolo of Kiinaru. Thia part of the 
Kamatak entirely escaped the bloody wars between Vijayanagnr and 
the Bnhmiuii kings which from time to time laid waste the Iwrdens 
of tho Kri»lma and the Tuugnbhadra. Tho land iwcins to have 
been well governed and priisperous as tho Mu«alnulu historinn.^ give 
wonderful uocounte of the wealth of Vijayanagar at the beginning 
and at the doao of tbo reign of DBva Ray a (1401 • 1451).' During 

t iijian, in. ITD. 

' Biickkiian ( 110) ntontiniuaTVTmaBaeoountaBt in Rin*n wboM rraotdl 
went hack U> (bo waiqnett ol the country hy Harilma lUyaln in 1335. In mmoatt 
of tiie UaUi of tbvMi occauntMit'a mxfi* Six T. Mnaro eipUipa (Ropon c4 3M 
Mar 1600) that tho vatur of Ibo taul limd l«d tha aecovatMiU to t«k« U» Kroat^ 
C«r« Dt their plipnn. Tkaj mm wriltva in bUok bool» which Iwtml mom IhaiR • 
cualuiv i two or thna oopM* www biii>I«, kiid whMi a book brconc worn a (n-xl> vufy 
«>■ takun uid a luemorandum ontsrocl in tli« litli^pog* nivntiaaiiig in Uin >Uiiili>4liaii 
«ra tin yaar iu which it wu written, uul t)ia vMr lu whioh the oriKiiial had Imw 
VTittvo. Mitny of thcae booki hod latulj been lott, but enough mnaiiKnl to Did£A 
conpletn abstraut of the laii'l-rcnt dorina ■»0O y**™. Aibathnot's Lifn of Mamv. 
1.163, •Mjnotr.lII. 170. 'Mj^oi^lli, 174. • M]r»ore. Ill- IfiS. 

• Ric« tMvaarr, lU. Vai snyt the Vijayuia^ar kint-» govcnoi nuilyinic ^utrict* by 
i-hivf* ua]l«<( N.iilu. Biihofi (JUdwaQ (TiiiKit'vvlIy Muiiial, 63-6$) Qoticvi tlU 
Kiyak, wliiuh iu S^iukrit mouu loader or ehiu(, u-u in Soutliern India the liondl- 
ta.rj titt» of aertaia Tolujpi caatM. In Ttlu^ tho nuucnliu« aJnpUir i> urittm 
NJijnMltiudiBTaBilNCyakkMi. Itia tho aamo wonl m lU Malay ilnm Xlyaj- or 
^„'*'"' .*?<*««>*» (HI. tfiS) DOtiota tliat in South KAnara tho VilaTananr ktmn 
aUowod tbo Jala cbiot* to iDaiia^ their awn aflairi. Tfaeae local niKlar-lorda wan 
alao rtjlod Pillg*rt Which iu Tamil u PiUyakii™, laTolnga Ptlfaehhi, and la Kiiuu«M 
PtlMfin. Tiiu won! projwtiy mean* tht, boUitr of a camp or ntOilarT najtt. Biahim 
Oddwcll (Tiunin-dly. CS) notice, that tho Vijayanaflu or Tehign Pilcslr wm 
aapnowd to be tbo lonl of thirty-thnM viltBiRs. 

• Brian' KcriahU, U. 317, SSS ; Elliot a&a Dov-ho. VI. 331 , 332. 

• PuiMita (brisga. n. 3S0) t«ll> bow Fiioz Shlti Bahinaoi (1397- U32). when bo rialt- 
•d bla lattMr-inbtw Dcva lUya in Vijayanasar, found tbc rood tur aix uiUa oataldt 



the reipn ot Deva RSya, Vijaranagar was visited by two atnuigers 
Kicolo Conti an Itattan, who n-aa ia India between 1420 and 1440, 
and A1id-cr'Tt.-k«zitk, tltc unibtutsitdor oE Uiu Persian kingSfaith Itukh 

Ch«pt«r 71 



toifio Icnig"iiFTwilikrtt who was in Vijayanagar iu 14-^. "KJcolgCunti ift i ^'JJJZI'^ 

reached Heli that is Moaiit Detr on the Malab&i- oodiPTRnHim"^ I93dT«S0^ 

ibore went ^00 miles inland to Vijayanaffar or Bixeneeolis. The Sieolo Contii 

city was sixty miloa roand and was itaid to contoia W,<K>0 mea 

«blo lo b»ar itTm». The Icing had 1 2,000 wives of whom 4000 wont 

ou foot and served iu bis kitchen, 4000 went on horse-back, and -1000 

wtmt in liitera. Of the litter ladies 2000 were choeen aa wires on 

condit^n lliai thoy would bam when tboking dtnl.' Niooto was 

much impressed by a great car-[estiv«l. IVo chnriobi crowded 

with prtesla and dancing-girlst were dragged along, people throwing 

Ifaemselves ander the wheels that they might be cniahed to death. 

0th>_<r8, and this was esteemed a higher Sacrifice, drew a rope throagh. 

their bodies and bung~ from the car like urnaDiont«.'^Jjd^.^V, Atd-er- 

jjaznak, tlw Persiau ftmbaswad or. reached Vtjayunagar from Man- " 

galor. On his way he nasaed throu};h Bedimr whose houses were 

Vike pnlacos, its b<;auties like houris, and itt) teinplos and other 

buildiuffs marvels oE »cutpture anil luiiutiug. Ue found Vijayanagsr, 

where be arrived at the end of April 1443, an exceeding large and 

popaloua city, tho sent of a king of great power whose kingdoui 

Htrelcheil from Ceylon to Kiilbnrgn iMid from Bt*iigul to Mtibtbar. 

Moat of the laud was well tilled and fertile and ibere were abont 

.300 seo-portH each equal to Kalikat.' There were lOUO elephauta 

sad an army of over a million men. There was no more absolute 

;fu4 iu India th»:i the king of Vijayaougar. The city had seven 

.fortified walls one within the other. The first or outmost circle 

enclosed a space eight mUes (i para.»angt) across. Between the first, 

second, and tliird circles of wall were fields and gardens, and from 

the tliird to the suvcnth or inmost circle the space wiu closely 

crowded witli marketa and shops. The seventh or ceutral circle 

was on a hill. In it was the palace of tho king and fonr markets 

with a lofty arcade and magnifiovut giilWry at tho bvnil of vaeh. 

IHto markuls were broad andlong. There were always sweet fresh 

flowers and the different crafts baa Boporato qnarters. llany streams 

flowed along polished and level stone vliannela. On tho right of 

the palace, which wiut tho Ioftic«c building in the city, was a pillared 

hall where the minutor did justice. On tho left waa the mint 

with hollow cliambers foil of masses of molten gold. Opposite the 

mint was the pulico office with 12,000 sf^ldierit. Behind the mint 

wa-s ft market 3O0 yard* long by twenty broad, where the dancing- 

^ii-1.1 lived, very beautiful, rich, aud accomplished. The kiug was 

exceedingly yoimg, of a spare body, rather tall, and of an olive colonr. 

Doring Abd^er-ItaKEak's stay at Viiaynnugar.thu brother of the king 

killed many of tho Icadioguobles and nil but succeeded inas&assinating 

of UiT uity-fjitn Kpt^Ail with cloth of geM. T«Iv»t, atin, utd oUmr tkli »lattt. Tlie 
twi> pttiics* radi- IwtKfii ranki ol liontiiul boyi and girl* who watci) pUts of gold 
■od tiitet OuwcnutyT tli«nr himdianilthr«« th«Bi tobeptlwrodbjrtlwpMpteL 

' MBlnr'alndUuiUiu .XVthi;ontiiry,in.C 

-' Mi^r'ilnduiatbeXVth C«utDry, 1II.S8. * Ullkit ud Ookmb, [V. 69>, 103. 






1 330 USD. 

Uielcinj;. Tho kiog sat on a throne of ffotil inUitl witli jewels sod 
walla of tlic throne room wore lined wiin plitlus of (fold, During] 
of tlio time AbJ-er-Bi*z»ilc wax thcro n ChriHtmn ■■ ti "" 

Tlicri> WM II vroiiilvrfiil fi-tittTiU nt Dnsaro tiruo or M 
[September full-moon. The great plain near Uio city "na tilloil ■ 
enchanting pari|ion& covorvd with iiiosl dvlicale and lastrful pin 
ofuniniHlx, nnd there wtuonopilliuwl umiuionnini' Atoms liifjur 
king. For threw duyx, with tlie moiit ^rceons dinplny, dandni^ 
ilauced and sana, fireworks blnzod, HQa (Jiowmeu and jtij^ 
performed wonderful frata. Abd-ur-Raxzak loft \'iiftyanaK»ii' 
the fitli of Novonibor 1413 nml reached Mnnj^lor on tin' '23n' 
the KOiau tnouth. It wiut iuiposnible within n-iLHOiiiililc *ptu.i! toj^ 
no idea bow well the countr/was peopled. All llie pcplt^, high i 
low, eTon the workers in the niarket>placcs, wotb jewi-U and 
oraamcntK iu thoirenrs and round their nocks, iu-tn», writtU, 
fioffon. J^'roin Mangalor he went to the port of Iloutvnr or H 
and there arranged for a vea&cl to lake bim hack to Persin. 
Blarted on the S8th of Jannarj and reached Ormois on the 22iul| 
April after a voyage of sixty-five ili»y«,* 

During the reignB of Dov It&jtt'?! tiocooMors MallJkitr j i ina (1-; 
Ikio) and Viru^ kulm (MG3-M71)), the power ot vijayana( 
Kreatly ilooliocd. On the coast their greatest loss was the captnnt 
Ckwby the Muaalmtes in 1470 .' PoriafHy trade wfts dijitribul 
amongtho difrorent Eriinara ports, but, after IJic MntalmiUi cooq~ 
trade wn« oonipelled to centre at Ooa. Id H79 the old Miisa 
traders of llontivar mi^atod to Ooa and were so important aa i 
tion the nen', now thu uld or MuMilniiln, town of Goa waa bj 
to receive tlK.-ni/ Aecontiiig to tbo Kiit)»ia» traveller Athaoaq 
Nikitin , who watt in the Doocan aboot 1474, the king of Bij 
atUicked the very powerful Hindu prince Kadam and took 
oapilal Bichenoghur, a vast city surrounded by three forts i 
crossed by a river. In the ca^rttiro 20,000 i>t-opIo wprokillcd.'^ 
W(i!< piirhajw iu con.-'i.'((iii!nc« of thu ill-forliino of Mnllikiirjiiua i 
Virit[Hik.itia tliat in 147!) the old family was sot aaido and a i 
dynasty founded by Naraaa or Narsingh . Acoording to one accoi] 
ifarsiugb (147D>1487) was the ataru of the last king Vinipiiko' 
•ccordtng to another noconnt he wa^a chief of Tvlingittin; 
scoinling to a third of Tulav nr South Kllnara. Ue ix said to b| 
been a Yiidar of the family of ICriehna It&ya and the son of .Shuklu 
and Itukkauui. tlis oonquest!* extended over the whule of the iwa 
and he is said to have founded Seritigapatam in Iklaiiiur. Nnmingfa 
succeeded by Vim Namipg h or Kar^mgh II. who ruh^ fmm I 
to l&OSaud from whom the early I'ortuguoso cullod the whole 
Bouthern Intlia the kingdom of ftai'singft." Of Naningh Dncltwa 

> M*>c<r'a IiutU In Ilia XV'tli Ontarr. 4|. 

> mU H<S DowRcm, IV. IU31S0 : filAJor-* ludU lii tlia XVlli CvnluiT. ni. 1 ^ 

> Rrtf^g*' Fortibt^ iL AUS. 

* CocuinonUriw «if D*lboqa«fi)iMv II. xtAx. Acocintiii^ to Futin IKtrr, VL 
Cos IwlotiffMl to tlioUocwtodloiiAvkrIirfon) it wulftkoa by Iho Uftbiiwok. 

* Majpar'* loHu tti tlw XVUi CVntury. IV. i9 

* II U doubtful wheLhH tliiN *«« t«a ral«i« oC Ilia name of NarMi^b. 




woords tho following grtiuU from Kinami In tlio t^nijilo of 
Dlwlrvaliviir, about nix iniUia wouth of Kmntii, in ^^\>'J (S. 1-122) a 
(:o))p<>r-pIalei prant by Deva H&ya Wodeyar Trilochia which ia said 
to be a DDiDuof tho Vijajauaftar kin^ because they ^oremed the 
Teyufftut, Tamils, and Kuni^tttkos ;' Etlso in tho t«inplo of DblLrci^hvur 
ID loUl on ordi'r fromTrinelm Kolra Xiini.tinglia Nd^uka, kinir of 
thix^ci seaa and of Ancf^iinili to UcraraHU \?iMleyav to grant lands to 
BrAhiimns;' also in the same place and date, A grant by Solva Dera 
IWvu Woduynr Rdja of Nagarthat ia Viiayanagar, Haiga, Tiilav, 
and Konkitiin. At Bi'ldam or Bodniir lluchimim ahn found an 
foscription dated l&O^ (S. 143!)) in th« rt'ign of Jebila Xara> 
«ingha Rayn, the great king of Vtjayanagar in which Kedali Buavapa 
Ai«i Wodoyar was appointed fiayada of Barkara with orders to 
restore the lands of the gods and of BrAbmans.' It svoms also to 
Mvebeen during tho roign of Narsingb in 1499 {.S. M22) that SadA- 
*hiv N&Tak . lhi> fomidvrof thofiiinily of Killdi, tltkon. or Bednur was 
;'I:n-l'i1 in power on the sonthem bofdera of Xorth K&nara.* 

Daring tho reign of NnrHingli II. an erent occnrred which deeply 
affwtixl tho fiitnro of the Vijayanagar territories on tho Kiinara 
coast, V£j|£jjdj|Gjynj,»ighl<j<l Mount Dcly in South Kunara on tho 
S6thoF Xuguatl IDS.* On hit rutiirn from the .MalaMr coast, wbicli 
ho had boon forced to leave before tho proper season, Vasco i^ Gama 
etoppt^lntthc ia lands oS KandApn r now named tho St. Mary Isles, and 
with tlic approval of the p«oplo, whoso friendship ho won by (he gift 
of shirts and other articles, set up » cross .and called the island KI 
Padron do ^ncta Maria." Ue next called at Amidiv and remeuned 
there from about the 2otb of Xovember to the l6lh of Dcajmbcr. The 
I'orlugneso werG greatly ploiiscd with Aniidiv. Then) wcro good 
water-springB snd tlio upper part of tho island had a fine atone ciatem. 
There was also miicb wo<k]. The only person on the island was a 
3Iuf«bu^n beggar or Joffi who lived on rice and horbs which ho received 
from passing boats.' WTiile tho Portoguoeo wore on tlio islund they 
"were auppliml with fish, fowls, and vegetables by fishermen wlro 
Kved on a rivi-r about ft mile dLitant, named Cintacola, that ia 
Obit akal. now SadAshivga d. at the month of tbo Aliga or KAlinadi 
~' 'ITic news that Portnguciw ships wciv aiichonwl at Anjidi7 
i along the coiwt. From Hotiilv iir aoorwiir uatnod Tiuioja, that 
ia 'liinnmya. came witb eight Ixiais covered with brauclies, so that 
theylookedlikoa floating iiiLtnd, iu the hope of surprising them; but 
bis boats wore met and scattered by tho Portuguese artillery." Wheo 





T ' 1 (DntTtiliMi PaJaogTAphf, 59) CMika on TimpUulu Uia Uit o( tbe «Mrlior 

> t<i 149(1. liie PortstTieM blMortui Puu.y'Miix* (Kt-rr, VI. 300) m^ tlio 

Dtnrpod by Xsreiogfa, alter vliosn tbe city wm <alU>t N'aitin^ iB>tMd of 

c, Itl. l&l. <My*on,IU. IIH. • Uymro. lU. loa 

' ^'vtan. IIL 2M. 'ThtM VoyngiM of V««i> lUUkniB, Uix. 

''- ' Mobrds ia Kerr"* Toyagoi, U. 3S5. Tlio St, Mmy l*ka uro about troDty 
until lit Bbatt:!!!. 

'.anhi-ita'a (iilirr imount u ^ven vndw PUots of IntoTMt, . . 
L ^.co .li fluna'a Tlitwi Vorngt*. M2-Si4. 
■Tltriy Vi>}.i^-.'i<>l Vu.Mi ilu'iimiia. 214. CMtanbeiU kftyl IhMa bokta brioogMl to 
'th« ZuBortii. Kwrr's Vnysjpt, il. 33fl- 

lBomb*7 Ou«Ue*r, 


IhapUr TIL 


news of tbe stranfTe ships roochod Goa, Sabayo, that is Toaof AdO 
Shib of BijAftur, but it mw inoru probably tho Sabayo's local 
govvrnor, ordered aMuaalmdn Jew, who was at tho head of liis navy, 
to take some boats, Gud out who the stranf^ers were, and if posaiblo 
bring them prisoners to Gos. The Jew hid his resseU near the 
mouth of th9 KAlinadi. Bat tho Portiiguoso woro warnod by tbctr 
(riends tbu Hindu 6sbcnnen, and wheo tho Jew in u Hinnll bunt 
passed their ships as if by accident and hailed Ibem iu Casliliiiu, thev 
wpeared to be delighted and persuaded him to come on board, 
wlen the Jew was secarcd, Vasco da Gsma flof^d him for his 
trea^ery, and than with tho Jew's help dostroyod thcGon boats and 
carried biin to Portuml. where he was baptised undur thu naios 
of Gaitper da Gama.^ When Vosco da Gama returocd in 1.j03 ho saw 
near Anjidiv some thievish craft belonging to Timmaya of Honirai', 
a great soa-robbor who pnid part of thu plunder to tho king of 
Genappa who ruled the country.* 'I'ku pirato boat« wore purxued 
into the Hon^rar rirer. On entering the river tho Portognese 
wero attacked from palisades by small gnus and arrows. They iorced a 
landing, and the people flod luavJng some vessels on the beach laden 
with goods wbich thu PurtugueMO burned. Tlivy then wont on by 
another crook (o Uon&vartown which was large nudba<l many fighting 
men. 'llii^ty fell on it, and, aei tho people fled, burnt the town and lul 
that was in it. Next day they reached the jKyrt cif Bhatkal. H«re 
were many Moorish shipis, bvcanso this was a gront pliicu (or loading 
ric«, iron, and augnr, wbich wcru Bcnt to all parts of India. They 
found cannon planted on a wall upon a rock at the bar and the people 
threw stones at tho »hip8. They pushed on, and Uading drove tho 
Moors from Aome wluirfs Icariiig behind thcin large quantities of rioe 
and itugar. The Portuguese rctuniod to their b<»t« and wont up the 
river to tho town. On theii- way ih«y were met by an envoy from 
thti Bhatkal chief who lm<l Iwea sent to declare his master'swillingneas 
to Hubmit to thu Portiiguoso. D&Gama said that he had no wi^JO: 

"t l 

■Thr«o Vorages, ii\, 248, SS3. CMtiwhcdaV verrioN ia •ain«whiil itiffaraot. 
According to him Vaaeo wm aalkore clouiiiig tlie iMttom of bi* abip wbm tlw 
atrangcr arrived. tbcMne kiidembraMd tbem all Kod profcMwd to be sn iuliui 
ChriBtlan. Ou|Mtr Mcmt to have oonw hick to India witli Cabral iu Augiut 1500. 
&M K«it'( Sof^gcM, II. SfTi, 390, 4i>5l Aorarding to Varthciita (ISOTi, BaJfnr's 
Kdilioii, IIS) tlia caittain <if Goa ntihii time tnM a Main*l<ik«, tliai U a IJrcck cr 
Circimlan U luuilnuui of Chnatuui birtb, and WO of the nnitan w«r« MaiiMlukea. Of 
th« oonditloo of tho pcojilo the only raiorcuce tbat haalHMn tfwiod in thv aocraitt of 
tlio Ant Toyago u tfiat tho Moot RMrrchnntu wont rich, but Uiu poopin of the ununli^ 
liadn»prolIt«tiaMme,«titTciiaaxhV>koqitli«inbLf<t. Three Vojap«. IH. ThH 
•ppliod to Uablxlr rathor tliaa to Kilnara. 

' (laiptT Cotvea (TlinM Voyages. SOU) calla Timmara a focciga Moor. Ho teouta to 
bavo lioen a Hindu. At the lime <A tli« arrival uf the Purtugneae trailc wi» aeudi 
tr«abled bjr piratM. 8oaie from Goa, taken by the Portu^-une io UD8 at Chilxkul, 
lad JBvduw, long aworda, large bncklcn of board rovcteJ with hide, vcij- Ii(^i 
and lont bow*, and broad-poentod caae arrow*. Tbr«« Voyagca of Vmco da OamL 
WL Othon fraoi HoaiTar in th« taano foar am dcMribcd aa omamcntod with 
9a(ft a&d (tnaaM UatincdniBaa and anunili^ trmnnota, and fUlod with Towon. 
Ratr'a VoyagM^ It. 3ST. rurtliM eoutfc, 1h« piraWa <A Poroa aa Dm Malabir ooaat 
inlI>l4h»<lsiDaUT4M«lsaaDeditttW(llk«btigurt(u«*«atilyrow*0. Thoy w«oi wi|h 
boiTM anil arrows asd aa oroWdml ronad aay Klii|> Uiay fouMl becalmad, tlkat tkoV 
walk it eunrndtv by shooiiMamiir*. Thejr took tk« v«m«1 aiid aot tlia poopU aafa 
on ahoM. and wtiat they itoja U>ey ahMvd iritli the lord o( ttiu Muntry. Staulaj-U 
BarboiB, IT. 




hnnii tbi^m tmil vonld inat:« ii ln:titj'oii foiircontittiuns:tiiBt UiQoliiflf 

Said tribute, did not tmdu in {m^cikt, hruu)j;bl no 'I'tirks, ftod had no 
cmliniira with Kalikat. Tbe chief said he could not pay a aton&f 
tribntv, but wotild givu a thonsand loads of cotnmoQ and 500 Imwm 
o( fiao nco » \'CKr. Ho cuuld givo no nioru hocnuso ho was a tenant 
of the kin^ of Viiayanocar to vrhom Che country belonged. Whca 
Ba Qaina was satisfied thai these statetneotB were true ho received 
tho rioe and continiRvl tho troaty.' In 1503 Dom Praui-isco d' 
Ahnoida^ tho tiri»t I'ortugiie*© vioftroj, built a fort ac Aiyidiv, sot a 
BEffRmof eighty men iu it, and left two lirij^iliiici to prf>te<;t trade.* 
While AlmciiiU was at Anjidiv building the fort, ambassadors came 
from HonAvar bringing prvsente and a friendly meokge from tho 
ohief. t>ercrai merclinnts uln> waited on Lim, and Moon brought 
presents from Chitakul or Cliitaoorn, wh(,-ro ihn Bijiipiir kiufi^ hitd 
ktoly built a fort and garriaonod it with 800 men. From Aniidiv 
Almt-idn wont to IIonAvar, and being iU-received, attackoa it. 
The people dofendud tfacmaelvcs brnroly and dis>i'faHrgGd prodigious 
showers of arrows by one of which Almvirla was woumlud. Itoth che 
town nnd tho ships took fire and the Portuguese (or a timo wore 
mudi (roublod by tbe smoke. Loiironco, the Ticoroj'n son, who was 
sfterwfli-da (1508) killed in the gi-cat fight with the Kgyptian and 
Gujariit tlmiti^ at Choul in Koliba, made a circuit thrcni^h tbe woods 
to get I>ehind tht- lonn. Ho came ncross n dotiKhmi-nt of the enemy 
and was on the point of being dufmtod, when his fnther came to bis 
help. Timmaya, the governor of tho city and tho owner of several 
afaips, oame out and tnado cxcnifes for his chief. As he was a man 
of graceful loanners and appuarance, and as ho engaged that bia 
tnasl«r shoald become a vaaaal of the Fortugnese, ALmoida agreed 
to make a treaty." During the same year (1505) an ambassador 
Irom Narsiti^h, who gtyli>d himself kiag of Icings and ovor-lord of 
tbe kiiij^ (if Honivur, rcachi^d tho Portuguesu viceroy at K/iimnur,* 
The vin>roy gave him n prompt audi4.-nce on board one of ht.t AhipH. 
The ambassador said that his master was anxious to ooma to any 
ogreomi'nt which would favour trade between his Hubjocts and tho 
PortuguwHO. He guTO the viceroy leave to build a fort in any 

Strt of his dominions except at Bhatkal, because he had ceded 
batkal to another. Finally, to tighten tho bond of union botwoea 
Lira and the king of Portegnl, ho ofFt-rvd his tiistsr, a princess of rare 
bcAuty, iu niiirriugu to Iho prince of Portugal. Tluao words were 
accompanied by very rich presents.' 

Ot tho di-itrict of K£nara and of its over-lord Narsingh of 
Vijayau^far, the Italian traveller Varthem^ who waa in Kkuara 
about 1503, gives interesting parHSolMS? Ho mentions that 

, Biatory. 



> VaKtxIa Oaoia'a ThrM royaffm, 3I0-3I3. 

• ('MtankMtBuiKoiT'iVoyagM, vl.Ttl. Tlic u»rly Po«t i^n —e Bm» faaad AaMt* 
■ most uuovuaiunt «t«tiou (ur wiU«<hn|{ aiiil rulittiiis. DvlaBs ste (IVMi bumf 

A.ii lii-. * K«rr'i Voy»nw, Vl. Ba 

' AcMtdingtoCUrdinAl Lnii (Oa. PortugutiM, LAhon. tSIS. L 66) Ibo VijayuM^ 
AinljuiwdaroMiic to Aajiclir. But two uialiUiiM h« not likely to havu b«oii Mat. 

• Oi. PorttuJMniL. II. 130. 140. 

• VwtlMnui^a datei an diOcult to foUow. Ur. Batet Hxm Ua timo ia EAaaia *t 
ISOfl, p. 177. 

|Bombt7 Oauttfe 



' Chapter Til. 

Usu ISSf). 


Centacola, that is Cltitakul, hail a pagan lord who was not rory rich. ! 
In tho city were niuny Jlooriah nierchanbSi and a grvul qnantity ol | 
cow-b(>cf, much j'vx, and tliu ti»uul good Indian fruit. Tltc pcupTo 
wero tnwny, nnd went naked, l)arefool> and bareheaded. Tho lonl 
waa subject to the kin ^y of Bathacala that Ja Bhatka l. Kest to 
Chitaknl was AnzetHv or Anjidiv, an island half n mile from tho 
mainlitiid and JnhahitiMl by Moors and pagniut. llie water wiu 
cxc<!iloiit but the air u-ait not wholo:toiiie, nor waa the iBland ferlil& 
There waa a sood harbour between the island and tho mainland.' A 
day from Anjidiv was Onor or Ilouivar wh(xs« king was a pRffon and 
subject to king Nursingli. Ho n-as a good fellow, u grc!»t f riuud of 
the PortugiieM*, who went uakod exc4-pt a cloth round h)t< middle, and 
had seven or eipjht ships which were always cruiaiog about. The 
air was perfect and the people long-lived. There were wild hogs, 
t>tngM, wolves, lioim, and many ntrango birds, and many pcacocka 
and pavrota Thoy had beef of cows, that is red cows, and sheep 
in abandance. There was a great deal of rice, and roses, flowers ana 
frnit flourished throughont tho ycnr.' Bathacala or Bbalka) was a 
Tcry uoblo city, fivn days diiftanl from tho Duv<»n. It was a walled 
city, very iMMiilifiil, about a mile fiv>Hi tho ftea, along a small river 
which was the only apiiroach and passed close to the walls. There 
was no80(i-]>ort. Tho King who was a pagan was subjtH't. ti^ king 
Nantingli. The jwoplo were idolntors after tho muuiier of the people ; 
of Kalikat.' There were abo mimy Moori:$li merchnnta who lived 
according to the Muhaimnadan religion. It was a district of grotb 
traflie with qiiuntitics of rico and annndatace of sugar, OH[wcially of 
augarcandiea according to the Italian manner. There wero fow hnrsea, i 
mules, or asses, bat there were cows, huffahx^, sheep, oxen, aOd 
goat«. There was no grain, barley, or vf^etables, but nnts and fig« 
after the miiniier of Kulikat and the other usual excollcnt frtiitu of 
India.* Varthema went from Kitminiir fifteen days eaft to Biniuegar 
that is Vijayanagar. He describes the eily m belonging to the king , 
of Xarsinga very large and strongly walled. It stood on tho sido I 
of a mounljtin with three di-elcs of walls, the outmost circle ecTQtt I 
miles round, "llie silo was bcautitnii the air the best ever seoi^ [ 
and round tho city were hunting places and fowling places, ft 
seemed a second paradise. The laud was rich and thera fnk \ 
much trade and every dehcacy. Tho king and all his kingdom wore ' 
idolstora, w<irit!iipping tho devil in the same way as the jKxiple of | 
Kalikat. He was tho richest king Varthema ever heard of. HmJ 
BrAhmans »»id be had Jt4000 (/'ar.^io* 12,000) a day. He waa : 
always at war. He had '1(1,000 horsemen, whose horses were worth I 
JEIOO to £266 {PardaoH aoO-SOO) for horees wore scaire, 400 { 
clepfaaotfl, and some dromedaries. Ho wm a groat friend oE tha j 

■ Ba^r'i Vnrtbdnia, 120. >VArtIi(una, 121.132, 

Balhocala or Kli.-itkal. 

' Hoilfp-ra Varthema, 119.1301 &(r. Bni)|^ taliM thwv daUila oi nii|>l>inj; to 
lUiikul, tluit U Kinrlr. It U true ibnt Vaitbonia, who ww tikvalling sontli. cn niinna 
lialliMaJa bcjoro bo iiKDtioim Clilukn), ADjiiliv, or Hoaivnt. ll u almUw [!i>t bo 
ntalua tbo ehief of Cliiiokul xiiblnt xo Uio ktitg or Bathacalft. Ktill (Iid want o( :. i-m, 
Um mlh) up Iha river, tbo wtJItnl iuhv, tim llkoiow t« KalikiU, am) lli« tJw- .Uya 
fron tiM Uetcan. all aiiit Dlintlmt, Md do not auit UAitkut oovc new K&rwiir. 




Christtaas, tmA Uie Portneueeo did him mncli hoBcmr. Ho woro a 
cap of gold brocade, and nnea be went to war a quilted dress of 
cotton with &a over- garment full of proldon piastroa &Ddhung with 

i*owe]s. Tho omamuntd on Imji horsu werv wortfa moro tban aa 
taliim city. He rode out with three or four kin^, many lordM, and 
five or ttix tliousaud horse. The men of conditiou wore cloth of 
gold on their head and a short shirt ; thoir feet were bare. The 
Common people wore naked oxcopt a cloth round the middle. 
TravuUing WM cvcrvwhcre safe except in some places from liuns.' 
In his review of India at the time of the ostablisbmeut of 
Portaf^ese power on the KHnara c«ast, Faria moDtiona Onor that is 
fioiiiivnr and Baticalo that is Bhatkal. Ho also mentions tho river 
of Cctitaoola that is Cbitakul opposite Anjidiv.* 

In 15QC the Snbaia, Uiat is Ynsnf Adi l Sh^ (1489-1.110) of 
Bijapur,* sent a fleet of sixty sail against A njidjy nnder a renegade 
Portugnoso Antonio Fernando, who had laKt'n tho Musaliuim name 
of Abdalla. Tho Portoguvso carriMOn, whu!<o commaudvr wba 
Pkssaaqta a noble Ocooese, tnongh iU-e({iiipped and taken by 
surprise, defended tho island with aadi gallantry that Abdulla with- 
dnjw. Almeida, tho PortoynoM viceroy, Rdeing how liiiblc it wn» (o 
attack and how large a garriaon it required, ordered the Aujidiv 
fort to be destroyed.* In I0O8 Portaguese ships arc mentioned aa 
going to get cloves at Botioala or Bbatkal, a lortross ninety miles 
south of Gua.* In thi« year the Partaguese were tlircateued by the 
joint fleets of Kgypt and Gujar&t, and they are said to have owed 
to Timtnava timely news of the movements of the Egyptian fleet. 
Towards tao close of 1508 the Egyptian and Gajanit fleets defeated 
tho Portugucae at the moiKli of tho Cheul river. Though 
victorious tbey anffered severely, and partly from tho Well-founded 
Buspicioos of tJte Gujardt king that the Egyptians were likely to 
prove not less dangerous enemies than the Portuguese, the fleets 
witbdrvw to I>iu and in Fobrunry 1509 were totally dcfcut«d by 
the Portuguese vicenjy Dora Luiu d' Almeida. In reward for his 
faithfoljiess in warning them of the movements of the Ej^'ptian fleet, 
tiiu Portuguese agreed to help Timmaya to atbu:k bis rival tho chief of 
nfaatkal. Wlieu the Portuguese reached Uon^var they found tlint 
the ijuarrel was over and their services were not required. King 
Itarsingh was dead and his son Krishna (1508-1542], after hu 
installution, had come to Gok am to wewlihimaelf against g old. Ont 
of nwpoct fortheir overlord tlio rivsl ohiefK had stayed their quarrel' 

Krishna Rity a succceJod in 1508 and nilod apparently till 1542. 
Ac<-ording to one account he waa a younger son, and according to 
■mother account an illegitimate son of Naraingb. The mother of 
the elder son is said to hare persuaded Narsingh to order Krishna 



Vijij'"''»«»r 1 

l«W- lASO. 



1 IU.Jg«r^i VortliQiM, ISS-13I. * K«tT'* VoyisM, VI. SS, SO. 

' Fnria Iedcw tJait Um <mgfia ctf tba All Adil till* a*b«yn, Uut » Bttrki. wm San la 
V~' '1 wbero Yuanl tha iMiadw «•■ bvooulit uii. Kmt, VI. 130; Moitan) Brwri' 

' ' ^^ituboda ID Kurr, VI. 9; Bkl^iu. OH, 00. InUieTbrM V'owm ot Vuco 
i^Gaait, p. 231, a laying o( Aliuaiitk'* it ^MtAd, 'I boUt the cutk ot aluuiur ui4 
disnuntlcj Anjidiv.' 

* OpnumaatkTiM of DslboqDtfqns, II. 5S f lb> Mjuk'* Hidory. 

s 81«-14 

1480- fsea 

ITrUbMi firfjro. 

RAja's doUl), but tiU life was sared by bia tntlier'a tuinister l^mmn 
TUJA who«e talcuU aft«nrardx added greatly to the success of 
Kj-tshna R&ja's reign.' 

Of Krishna IUjr's rulo in Klinam Bucliaoan records tliu following 
ioacHptiuQi! : A stone grant fimnd in (ioknm d»tt*il 1.319 (S. 1H2) 
by Batnnppii Woderu* and Vijayappa Wodeyar of Barkaru, feuda- 
tories of Sri Vira Krislma Rd-ya of Vijavanagar;* ao iuscriptioa 
at Baidara or Bednnr, dattd 1523 (S. I44d) in tho titno of 
Devaraau Wodeyar RAja of S<it)gliit»pnm, tbo hod of Sanga KAya 
Wodeyarj an undcr-lord of Kriitlina Ji^ya, the chief of rdjiis in wealtD, 
a kinf? equal to Parraeshrar;* a grant to tho Tillage acoountani 
of Golcani dat«d 1529 (S. 1452) by Mab&mandaleahvar Krishna 
Devarasu Wodoyar, king of Vijnyiinagar, Haiva, Tulava, and 
Kunknn;* at (lokarn a copjier-plate land graot dated 1G27 
(S.1450) by Krishna R4ya* and in ISaU (S.1462) at Dhireshvar 
alwut nix miles south of Kumta a grant by Krishna Dovartwa 
Wodeyar Trilochia.* According to Ur. Rice, probably at no time in 
the history of tho south did any of it» pohlical divisiouH OK^nal in 
extent and power Mw Vijaraattgar of Krishua Riya. About 1520 
ho soTOfL-ly defeated tho Mubammadans, and for long after tho 
defeat a go od u nderstanding prevailed bi-iwccn tbo courts of 
Vijayauagar and Bijiipur.' H« kopt poiwciwiion of all Uio country up 
i n tha Kp ahna ; ouctwards he captured Warangal an(r~ascended to 
Cnttack where he married the daugbter of the chiei Qe was a 
great patron of Sanskrit and ToUigu literature and had eight poob» 
at his court.* BitsiiU-s being a Kucix-i>.-;fiil warrior Krishna is believed 
to hare made an excellout land revenue settlement in Tklaieur and in 
theKamdtak. Buchanan mentions the tradition,* and, in support o£ 
it, records that rovenno papers in the possession of a Brihtnaa 
aoconntaDt at GokAm showed a rcvonuq _ aettlemoa t in lands n«tt( 

> Ur.IUM(Uy>': r -r-T notIooiHaMrie«B<llA«altyth«t to Krfafcaali i TMimlM 
*I1BH tI ftttTI^'' ' liwun. Bo tMOua to InoliiM to Ui* 0|aali>a uat IwUi 

nuawnMrtoKrUi.:... .^....x. AooontiBctoDr. BarnFll, Krubiui'irctfnnJedin 1530 
toA Aokrnta ralnl fruni IbM to ISIS. C^ldwcU'i Tiniierdl^. 4S. Oat of Bitnhuian'k 
uucriirtiaiu siv«D iu the text, U accar*to, ilian thM Knuluia vaa tuUngia IB30 
(S.mJ2). •■ llyno™, Iir. 171. 

■ Mnore, 111. IOOl Sknghitanamti tbuRKwIim Jliiilwali,>bonttvdr«inQaiCHtcf 
Blutknl. * Mytoin. 1117171. * Myio™,!!!. l«l._ • Uj«o«. IU. 16f 

tMOViirtlMKrMto^UooiRaclKil, tlut lalUtetiur, irhicb BijApnr had tnkpii (rum liint. 
AdilShth nnu! to ntiero RAicknr, bnt w-a* >l«(o*tv<l uid fonwdto fiy, fort)' I'oKiijfnvM 
is hiannnylightiajiwiUigrmt T«lo«r. KrUliBantoprwwdthonege b«t irri[tiii<>*u«- 
dCM tiU Chri«to|ih«ido nqottnxUiauil twcatr FMtngn«*«tanMint£lMnv. Fii|uarado 
•akodUMluiigiflia mid^t utanipt to Mnnlt Uw (orL Kriahaanbo tgneA uil Iha 
mcond bmmH being wrti buk»d br tfao Vii»7aiM^ trooM, wm noMMfoL 9M>a 
sftTi Ailil!>liith Mint an qibImmj to KriahaM-io, — hmg tor Uio Ti»«to»tica «f ptwnMO 
ascl plaixlor KrwhMrio •greed on cooditkm that Adil ShAh wonld Mknowlcdgc Ua 
•uprcPM aatboriljr •■ EBpernr of Kinara uid cnino to kiM hit fool Itita degrading 
couditkin vnu) MMpt«d bat it* parfanaauca wm deUved. M«uwhtl« Vmj dc Mokv 
who ooiDnM&ded ia Go*. lakinK adnataHe «( tb« dtclbe o( Kjtpnr powor, took fat 
ct tbo conntoy nsor tbo Uh of Go*. 

■ Rico, I. 230 i TinatnDjr Xtimnal. 48. .AoMrdinji, npMrcntlj loiiuKiriuUaiu <Ri««'a 
Hymn. L IOOL Kitelina conqaeml •■ far aa Salaotia. TU* anart awau tbu PortnEnaia 
po m aalcuna in Qoa. CJm SAlaette fomwriy incladcd a ntaeli laavor tn>«t of Inoil tlUB 
itaowiMlndea X>r.O. Da Oua^ BnbaloTp.Uatll<. 'IkiyMini, L SOS. 




)iirj&n nrliich, Moordiog to tnulition, ^tcd from the Umo of Krishna 
KAya,' An iiuter ip ^jgn nwtr Bitlj ^^ iimve. across thu Muisur honlur 
from Danav^i, rooorcls that tlie governmeac Ut>iiinuil.t from the 
cumn try between Nagyr Mid Vered a had boon settled by a Jain 
oBiwr durinp the reign of KriabnR Bfiyaru.* Mr. Rico also notices 
tluC tliu Vijayanagar kings introduced a rogalar syatvm of land 
rerenue iuto Maisiir/ and fmm tlio iuquiri«s be in^tle on tnking 
posse^iuon of Kiltinra in 1 701), Sir T. Munro came to the conclusiou 
that nnder the Vijayana^ar kJD^ Kdoara onjoycd remarkable 
prosperity. Land was vnlaahte and mnch sought iifuw.* l(r. Rice 
quoteti from a paper in tJio Uuckoakio Colleotion tho following 
itccount of the revenue inana^meat of the Vijayuingar territory : 
To improTo the revenue the Government advanced money to small 
landholders that ther might add to their stock and spread tillage. 
Tliuy repaired ponds and water-channels and du^ vrulls. Tlioy 
granted luasos to heads of rillngcA and helped them to induce people 
bom neighbouring st&toa Co settle and till waste lau<ts. The growth 
of articles valued in trade was encouraged. Seoda and plants were 
procured and tho people were taught how to grow sngnr, indigo, and 
Opium, leaders were encouraged to settle by the grant of adrancce, 
and in tJmca of peace the state cattle were u&ed to carry grain from 
ootlying parts to trade centres,* 

Though at first he Bueme to have been less well disposed to tlie 
Port'Ugucso than his father, Krishna {Uiya maintained friendly 
relations with the Po^uguese. It was beyond doubt greally owing 
to Piirtnguese hor^s, weapons, and artillerymen that he was $0 
fioccessful in his wara with Bijiipar, the deadly enemy of Portuguese 
power. Towards the cIoho of 1508, the year of Krishna leva's 
snccGs&ion, ihu gntt AfoD90 IJHJIwaujjK|j|e) the conqueror of Go4^ 
OnnuE, and MaJacea, and the''1esSbn»Iior of Port«guose supromuey 
in the eastern aoas, came to India. Almeida, the former viceroy, a 

rt warrior and^over of power, was very unwilling to make way 
Dall>oqn«ntne and h« did not actually become viceroy till 
}4oveniber 1^00." Hoon after his arrival I'iumaya of IloiuLvar 
.waited on Dalboqnerqoe and tried to indoce him to attack GoaJ 


i4&e- liso.] 

ISOS.lStM. ' 

1 Under tUi Mtdemmt govtmaifait took <ai»-balf ol the Mtiinatod produea of 
aai4«tu and Mwfourtli u[ rios Umi. Tliar« wm* •liop-tUMidaaliaiiM-taK. Price* 
•oeniMl to bATe Ixaa nnofa the mrnn »t lli« tiuw uf tM MIIbibciiiI «« they wora iu 
1800. Buoluoiui, nt. ]il,172. * BucKtuMa'a Mywon), Jtl. 2M. 

> Ricr'i Myi^T*. 1. 4;L * Mnaro \a Booini of Uovanuu, Slot Uay ISOO. 

* HtN'ii Uyu'io, I. 479 -480. The Unth oj thi* Mcouat nwy p«(li«p« Iw ilmbtod. It 
aaamxcl.M:!; t'<i-i>n««po«'l towliat Hiitiop CaMwall daaotibM ('nnaoreUy Uannal, OS) 
tiw h^iciiiniiiii; of tho pnwmt omtaiy *«d UtrilwtiaK toM •»!¥ nilor Ui* «likntctori«l)ai 
atxl xtina of * moil &igli»h OoJUetof . WhsUiar RUbop Okldwell ia oorrMt or not ■■ 
hia «i«tim»t«of theoopapMi, Sir T. MunroliM ifaowo Imyonil tloabt (LUo.I. CS) that 
vm- moderato ronto were uitrodacod into KAa»rs ••irly in tlm (oorlooath nnluty 
■nd were no* ruMxl till «JtM th« ot«rtbn>w of VijurAiiaaar powor. Tho Kin»i« 
laba ■man to have boon tUod ipeciaUy low bocMue of lb* diAcully ol tho nnnlry, 
b^MUaottrMn hMdilurtoni. and tho tarhahmcvonti people, la tho neighbooc 
brad ol Viiayanwur tho Und rate* w«r« muoh hiriiar (Uunroa life, I.S3.M). 

• Vua. in Korr, VI. 1S6. 

» Comi. IWK 11.53. F»ti«(Korr, VI. 129) dMCribaa TimiMn M * iwwcrful pirata 
irtiowu anxioaa to be friendly villi th<i I'ortagMM bwnniM beliadboon ai>uUed of bii 

[BomtMiy diielUer, 


iter Tn. Al tbe close of 1509 or early in 1510 Dnlbognorqae sent two : 
^^- sadors to king KnEhna at VijayauAgar, Frey hair, a Fmi 



I smbos- 

friar and Gas]«r CliaDoco, propoaiBxr aD offenaiTO an<l defeBsiva 
league againat Yiwuf Adii Sb&h of BuApnr, "offering a monopoly of 
the hnrae tra^Jo betwoon Ormuz and Bhatkal, and asking leave to 
build a fort at BhatkaL* 

Id 15)0, n-lien Afoow Dalboqitorqiio was at Miri&n on biu way to 
Sokotra iu tbe bope of destroying the power and trade of the IVrks in 
tbeBod Soa, be was mot by Timiuaya who dUnaaded him from goioK 
to K«k tlio Moors ai Sokotra when bo bad them at hand in Gon. 
f QStif Adil Sbih waa dead and Goa was dead with hiui. The plactt 
was not strong, tho defondera were few, the I'ortugueao floet could 
oasily pa«8 tin- Qua haras there waatweaty-onyfcctof water at high 
tide. In ooasequenco of Timmaya'a advice Ualboqaerquo changed 
his coune and boT« down on tho castle of Chitakul (Mth Febmary 
1510}. Ab tl)cy Were casting anchor Timmaya camo witb thtrteea 
tamta and a htrgo body of men from Hon£rar. Timmaya renAweJ 
his uHDurance that the king of Ooa waa dead, tho place poorly 
defended, the garriaon in arrears, and the people discontented, 
Dalboqiierqne called his captains and they agreed that Goa should 
be att»;ked. Timmaya sent men by land who fell npon tho fortress 
of Cliitakul in which waa a oommandanl and a body of ini^u. Thia 
fortro8B waa on tho bank of the river which diTided Hond.var from 
Goa. Tbe garrison fled and Timmaya's men threw down part of tho 
fort. Bet firo to the bnitdings, and mrricd off some pieces of artillery 
which tho Turks bad placed there.* On the latof March (1510) the 
Portuguese captured tbe fort o£ P aijim close by tbe entrance 
of the Goa bar, and two days later tlte town and fort were 
surrendered without further stru^lo.* \Vilhina year or two before 
its capture by D«lbo<iMorqae the strength and importance of (■<« 
faiwl grt'ally increased. According to the Portuguese tnivuller 
Uoarto Ijai'I>oBa, wlto was minutely acquainted wihh the weeb coast 
of India tetween 1600 and 1514, tbe Sabaynr Delcani, thai 
is Yns nf Adil SbAb (1*89-1.^10) of Byipiir, was very fond of Goa 
and at ouu tinw ibouglit of making it hi.s head-quarters. Under 
him it was a great place of trade with many Moore, white men, 
and rivli merchants, and many great gentile merchants. To ita 
good port flocked ships from Mecca, Aden, Ormuz, Cambay, and 
the ilalab^r country. Sabnyur Delcani lived much in Goa and 
kept tlioro his captain and men-at<arme, and without his leave no 
one went ont or in by land or by sea. Tbe town wna large with 
goodly buildings and handsome strocta and a fine fortress. There 
were many mosques and Hindu temples. Aft«r the defeat of the 
Egyptian fleet ut Din in 1509 Sabayur called all tho Knmis, that is 

^Cten. Dilb. n. In.i 0^ Port. ML », Mr. TiitA mU* OMpw, on* of tint 
■wbaMidwn, « eonnrtcd Jaw ot BkalkaL If thia ia motmA be pnbalily wm Ui« 


Jcv admiral of Go* wlio vm tklua hy Vaaio da Gnma ia 1499 

> CbrinliAA 

nndcr tbe lunie of Oaap*t. (Sm abore ^ 103). To the eoiulitiiiM mcntiMiKl in Uio 
text Mr. Mkck adda * province that Knalma aboiild ibow (aronr to tlw ChrintisB 

*C«n, Dalh. IL 86. 

> Farim b Kerr. VI. 129. 

• Com. D*lb. II. 69, 01 ; Faria in Kerr, VI, igi. 




Turlca nntl MAroclalces, to bimand troat«tt tliom tvitb grest bononr.* 
He hoped with thuir belp to defe»t tho Portugauso. AIocli money 
waa collected, great sliips and handHouie Europenn-Iiko gnllcys and 
brigantines were built, and mncb artillery of brass ana iron was 
prepared. When the prcpairstions n-ere well advanced they set oDfc 
and took all notivo cnift that plied andor a Portngnese paas.^ 

After tho fflirrender of Qos Da]bo<|nerqne made liberal arrange* 
menta for the land revenoe, reducing the amount by fifty per cent 
and entrostinf? the collection to Hindus under Portuguese superri- 
ftioo.* In Ajtrii liv vont Diogo Fcrnandog do Bcia with 200 men 
to rebuild CliiUikul luid rcmftiii tltcrc. Dot Uiago found the fort 
too ruined to be hold and went back to Goa.* Ifetore two months 
won) over reportfi reached Goa that Adil 8bfib had collected a great 
army for tbq rfipftf flfy of Go a and that the advance guard was 
almtdy clom at band. In May 1510 tlic main body of tho Bijtipur 
army entered Goa torritory by the pas:^ of Agttahi. ' The fort was 
attacked and aft«r a siege of tweotyt^eal^sUalboqQerqne was 
forced to withdra w to hie ships.* 

About thi« time a iHter reached Dalboqncrqno from Icing 

robbed him of Goa anil hy wo-t delighted that his friundH tho Porta- 
^eae ithould hold it ; that he meant to help the PortugucHO to keep 
toe place ; and that he had totd the Gersappa chief to give the 
Portugnese any assistance he could. Tbe Gersappa chief declared 
his readineRS to help tho Port«gtt«« with bis own Dody and with all 
tho riMtourccs of his kiugdom.' 

Timmayn had hoped that when the Portuguese took Goa thoy 
would hand tt to him. To ibta Dalboquerque would not agree, anil 
though he treated him with coortotiy and mado him the chief man 
in the kingdom of Goa, Timmaya wna dimppointud. And when he 
saw tbutaauoonns the main body of the Bij^pnr troops entvrvd 
lioa tlio Portuguese had to take to their ships (2 0th May ISIO ). he 
began to doubt whether he had been wise m allying hiiusclf with 
tbem.^ lie wrote to king Krishna to say that if ho brought a strong 
force he and not tho Portuguese would be masters of Goa* After 
nbniidoning tho fort of Goa the Portngneee spent the rcst^f Juno 
audportofjJtily in their shipe in the Goa riv er. "OnTEe 2Ist of July 
Dal boquerque attempted to cross tho bar; but it was still too 
stormy and ho was not ubio to leave till tho 1 5th _of. August."* At 
Bunset, oa tho day they fltart«d, the Portuguese wcro cboerod by 



IBumi, propcrlf kn intuiUtttat of An*t«1i*iii At>» Minor, in thi« omo i« MMn«1nko 
MtlMr thio Tork. Tbctu ward tUirojieMiii in tlio E|^|>tij>ii Uevt al Din a* ttia 
FortDinicic tooai boolu in LaUo, lUli«a, kod I'ortngBciH. fliria in Korr, VI. 110. 

•Sunlcrt BariKM, 74-77. 'OonL Vh.\]>. II. 127. '0001. IWk II. 135. 

•Com. t)^ 12$. Aooordiag to FaH. (Kvrr, VI. 133) oo« deUoIitncnt of tha 
Bijitparamj mucamiBUulcdby th« moUiBruid womMi of the Biji|iur kiug who 
.aultiUinnl thmt lnti>ni out o( tho gtinA of 4000 pmtitvtM wbo foUowod Uio anuy, 

• raria ill Korr, VJ. 133. ' Com. Dalb. II. 1». ■Ocm. DUk O. UKf, 106. 

* Cera. Vti\k Ui. 34. f Com. Dtlb, IL suni. 

IBomliar Gmrtt ews 


USI). (5sa 



felling in with a f re ab fleet of fivp ves aelB from PoHngal, and to^tlior 
anchored a^Apjidi v on the lY^A agmt,' Dklboqiienjue mailed on 
t o Hqi^ w on tbo 19tli~ Xt Honiv-ar ho found Bnwt VJeira, the 
oBicer he bad pUiced in oommasd of ChitAkul, who, »-i he coald not 
return to Uoa on sccoDOt o£ the fiii&par arm;, had made bis w»y 
by land to IIonliTar. Timnutj-a, who wu also io Honivar, came 
on board with thu wulcomo news that as BOon u the Doocan army 
bad withdrawn from Goa the people of the coiiutrv luid risen and 
driven out the Hijdpur posts. Dalboqaerciae aailed on to KAnapji r, 
promusing to return and once more drive the Mosali^^^oSEai 

In September ao envoy was eoat to BhatbJ to make a treaty with 
the chief on two conditions, tlie piwiiiDnt of a yearly tribnto 
of 20OO bags (84,000 IbsJ of rice, and ieaTo to bnild a house for 
• Portnguei«t« factor.* The envoy was alao ord««d to deliver a 
letter to Ttmmaya telling him that Dalboquerqne was making 
preparationg for the attack on Ooa, that with the help of Tiwmnjra 
and of the chief of GoTHappa he was confident of succoiw, 
and that ho sent two Porto^uene offioero and some Portngnem 
soldiers to onpt^ii and support the IlindiiH who were towage war wiih 
Goa.* Ifourenco Moreno, Dalboqnerqne'a envoy, foand the Bhatkal 
chief disinclined to accept Dalboquerqao's proposed treaty, saying 
that he could do nothing without the \iMve of the Vijayanagar 
king. Timmapt and the tieraappa chief, on the otJier hand, were 
bosy making ready and intenued to help the Portuguese in their 
exiwdition against Goa.* This news reached Dalboqucn|nu at 
Kananur early in OctobtT." When preparations wvru complctt-d, on 
his way north to Goa, Dalboquerque cikllcd at HunllyAr, and waa 
there met by the chief of Gersappa and 'I'itnmaTa who, according 
to one account was heing mamed to the daughter of the qneen/ 
Dalboqaerque explained to them his determination to regain Goa 
and expected Timinaya to acoompnny him. Rut on their way 
north at Anjidiv they found tbat Timniara held bock.* Towards 
the end of Novemb er Dalboquerqne eii!i ■ Goa river and by 

tho a Stfi of the month ha d dr iven the Bi : x)^_oqt of tho city 

a ndUla atL* When the city sabmitted it was strengthonod with « 
. castle and yielded a yearly revenno of 20,000 ducata. Iliurc was 
moob trade with Mal&bitr, Cheal, D&bnl, Cambay, and Diu, and a 
large tavfflc in horaeis.*'' la this year, apparently after the second 
conqoeafc of Goa, Mertao that la MalhAfrfo. the chief of HonAya r,' 
was pasted by a younger brother and retired to his uncle at Ithancal. 
I>an>oqnorqne upheld Malh^rnlo and sent nliips to bring him from 
Bhntkal and mim to meet h!m at Cintacora tbat is ChitakoL" TbQ 

> Con. Didb. n. 109-SOO. Another kooooot (Ditto, teavii} mvb thsf rotind le 
9 Cum. Ditb. ILSDl.aoa. ■Com.Datb.UI.398.S2;. «0aB.D4lb. IL SS6-SSa. 

* Com, Dnlh. 11. 211. Tbeao jirtpnatJiiM mmu to Imv« bMa lor the Ixoiilit at 
KriMbtuuAy nob «( Dslboqucniiic. * Com. Dulli. ILoxivi. WI. 

' Om. DalU lU. 2 : Foria m Korr. VX 130. • Com. P&lb. III. 3. 7. 

* I'iaunaya oaiao too ktn to U: ol wrvio*. liUcUiarrio, tk* ii^h«w o( tiic Hoolnr 
cbici, who WM in conunaDd at Uuvt veMcl* of TiMunan'a, Kraatly dutiniraidiiMl 
huHM^r. rma in Kerr. VI. I4ti, 

" fitauky'. Bm1»«, ;i.n, .a Coia. Drfbi IIL 28. 

brother triad to stop HalhiliTio on Iiu way st Coribnl, perhaps 
Kadvad or Kilrwtir, and at ^nkola, hut foiled.' At tioA, on his 
ttgreeiD^ to pay £30OU {Pardao* -JO.OOO) a year, Dall><K{Hor<|ne 
sppoiiiU'd* Afnlhtirr^ manager of the Goa territory.* Before tJio 
cfoae of tlio year (iblO), fJalboqnerque roceivod l etter a from Fray 
Lt ua at Vij ayanatfar. He had been vroll received by all (.-xcopt by 
the kiogl Ue foood the king collecting troopx and inUMuling to 
march toirards the west coaitt, appareiiUy o n the adyJoa of Tiinin «T> 
and the G oraappa tjh wt, who had written to eay tiiat if the king 
brought a slronff force he and cot the PortuKne»e might hold Goa? 
Tho icing and his adrisers seemMl to incliuu lowiirdiianalliaQCOwith 
Adil Shall. At least they wcro unn-illing Co ooroutit tliemsetres by 
an alliaiiee ivith the I'ortiiguc«o. On hecu-ing how matters etood, 
Dalboquenjue ordered Fray Luis to return to Goa. He opened 
ncgoti ationa with lamail Adil Sh^ (1510- I53A), as his object was 
to ituw disHcnsion among the nativo chiefs by offering each of thetn 
friendship and a m o no poly of tbo horae trad e. As eoon ah the newa 
of the second capture of Goa (25tb Noveniber) reached Vijayanagar, 
the kii^ sept ambaas^dor B to Goa. Dalboqucixiae refused to receive 
them saying that as ho bad do answer to his vinbassy be oould come 
to no tAnii!<. Hi^iiring from his luiibassadora that Dan>oquer<|ue bad 
made fiieudly oHera to Bij&pur, Krishna at onc e sent a freah emla asy 
to Dalboqaen]ne with power to conclade a treaty of friendship and 
arrange about the tndc in horsea. Tho amba^odors bronght word 
that Fray LuJJ! bad been kill ed by a Turk and it wb« reported tliat 
Adil •Sb&ti bad ordered hi a murder.* (talboqnei'qQo received the 
ambuaaodors grodoasly and coacluded a treaty with Krishna. 

In tho following year 0511) . when the affairs of Goa were in 
order, Dulboquorquo s«ilo<l lor Malacca , and on the 2oth of July 
1511^ capturc^d itiat famons port, ttien one of tho chief cuotrca 
of trado in the easL In Dalboqaerqne'a abaence JUa*^" A dil 
Bh&h attncVcd Malh ArrtJo. the manager of tfae Qoa lands, de^il^ed 
hini, ud him and Timmuya to fly to Vijayanagar, whero 


. .,.; receiveil, Tiinnuiya soon after died, and Malh^rr^JL 
chief _ o|__ Uondvar and remained staunch to the 


0." The BijSpnr troops coutinoed to invert Goa till 
^st 151 2, when, on 

_ I palboqu erqne'a retoro^frooi MaU oca, 

they wuro "driven out of tEe i\>rtngaeee ferriloty.* ^^'Iiile 

DuboqQerque wa^i absent in Malacca ( 15H -15 12] an ambassador 
came f rom Vij ayanagar with Gaiiper Chaooca whom DallHKjnerqne 
bad BOnt there jnst before loavmg for^alaoca. The ambassador, 
finding Dalboqnorqne had left, rotnrned to Vijayanagar. At the 
chMe of 1018, when tlie affairs of Goa were setUed, Dulboqnerquo 
once more sent Gasper to king Krishna and asked him to grant a 




' C ini. TbIK in. 27. 

' I ' m. Dilh. 2T-2!i H* I« styUd ^varnor ol the Kc<]iii1)«re«, apparently fit th« 
XA;l.u-;;n« or Gomm*o Riniltka who Ib uioUinrpaiMgo (D>lt>. IIL 21} ars dcKrib«d «• 
prtiicviy nun uiil eapUiai o( HimIoi. Aooonlutx to Fwi* (Kerr, VL 138) Tinmya 
WM ratlin Kovornor and MiiUiarnta wm hit i^puiy. 

>r.r:i. IblK U1.3B. • Ocnn. Dalb. 111. vili. ud S3. 

'r,m.I)»lb. 111.188. 

' Cuoa. IMh. UI. 9M-!»3 and xliiL j Fuia ia ¥Mt, TL 144. 

• Con. Dal^ UL 120, 134. 

[Bomlit; Oaiette«r» 





faoDse in Bbatka], promising in return to send to YijaTaDuar all 
hone» thnt cAnie to Goa. Afunso did not trust in we king of 
TiJHywMigar, Wl he liiul fsitb in tlio chief uf Qorsapim, nod hftd bomi 
told by tJia king of Portugal to atrive to ke^p oq good tonus with 
Uie Tijavsnagor king as ha waa a Hinda.*^ Three days later an 
•nboasy came from Vtingnpur. that ia Bank^par ia DhAcwA r.' to 
OODgrntQlnk' l)ullx.)iiucrqae ouhiR sucoeMSnUSSTTIic amDasBadoni 
brooght sixty beautifully tranped horses and asked that tliry might 
have the manageoient of the landa of Goa and that they might hara 
SOO horses a year. DalhotinDrqite gare them the horses because the 
lief was a usaful ally as his land was a safe road to Vijajonagar 
~ hLt people ivere ekilful saddl^makers.* 

About the time when Fortogneee power was firmly established 
in Goa, the Porlugucae traroIW Doarte Barboaa gave the following 
account of K&iiaro and of ita owr-lora ttic king of Norsinga. 
He calls the coast of Vijayauagar the kingdom of Tulinat that is 
Ttdavniid and deecribea it as containing many rivers and sca<porta 
with much trade and shipping and many rich murcbacta. He 
mentiuuu four plaow on tlio KAnara coast, Ciutjicola or Cbitaku l, 
Mergeo river o r Mir jilnj Honor or Hon^v ar, and Batecala oriJhatteal. 
ChHakul was on tie north of the river AJiga> that 'is the 
KjQma^ which sopnruted the kingdom of De caoi or Bijiliwir from 
too Inngdom of yaraiii'ga'or Tii'ayiitia aitf. " wsnaliifl WO IT (6rtresa 
at the mouth of the nrer on the iop of a hill. It belonged to th» 
2ftbayo that is Adil Shih, and for too dufonce of the ooantir it 
was uways guarded by hono and foot soldiers. South uf the Align 
in Vijayanagar or Naninga's territory was tho very lai-go river called 
Hergeo, vtmch produced a great quantity of common rica 'I'ha 
lilalab&rs camo in their boats bringing coco&ntit?, oil, and palm sngar, 
and taking the cheap rice, lleyond Mergeo, on another river, near 
the sea, was tho good town of Honor which the Malabo called 
Povaran.* Many SfaJabdrs came bringing cocoanats, oil, and palm- 
molaases, and wine, and took away tho cheap brown rico. Thirty milea 
farther, on another small river Dear tho coast, wiis the large town 
of Hatooala, that is Bhatkal, of very great trade, inhabited by very 
oommorcial Moors and Qentiles. Tho town titood on a luvel populous 
country and was without walla. There wera many gardeuH round itj 
Tory good estates, with fresh plentiful water. The town paid a yearly 
tribute to the king of Portugal. The governor, named Damaqueb, 
probably Uharmakirti, waa rich in mon^ and jewels. lie culled 
Btmself long bat he ruled in obedience to his ancle the tiug of Narking, 
Many ships estbored from Ormas to load very gootl whit*: rice, sugar 
in powder of which there was much, much iron, and some flpicoe and 
drugs, of which myrobalans were the chief. Formerly many hursM 
and poarla came to Batikala but they now went to Qoa. In spite 
the Portugucao aome Hhipit went to Aden. Tho Malab&ra brongfai 
cocoaants, palm-SDgar, oilj and wiuo, and some drugs ; they took rice. 


* BaakSpor b alx mtlM Motli-aMl of Sliignon. the lifail.nauten <■[ tba Bonkipur 
sub-diridoa ol DUnrtr. ■ Cou>. Ddb. 111. US. 

* TJiat u FoDavur. U ud B ohangg acMrdiug to tli< uiul Kiourcc rule. 




■sugar, nml iron. Tlioro wns mncb nulc of copper which w»8 ns©(l as 
tnoney ami ntmle into cali)n>qi* and other pnns, und much futlu of 
quiclcBilver, veriniilion, coral, alum, and ivory. DueUiug was very 
eomitiun. On acconot of anything they challenged one another, 
and tlio king granted them arms and a fiuld and fixed a tiinu for 
killing each other and gsivti each a sopond to hack his num. Ilioy 
fought bare to the vimaI and below the waiac wrapped many folds 
of Cotton cloths tightly ronnd them. Their arms were ewords, 
bueklcrs, and daggers. Tbcy entered the listfi with gr«at picasare, 
firat saying their prnycrs. In a few {msw-s they killed each other 
in the preaenee of the king and many peoj)Ie, no one speaking except 
the seconds, each of whom encooragea hia own mau.^ 

Inland tho great range of hills was fidl of wild boars, largo doer, 
Ifloparde, oonoes, lions, tigers, boars, and ashy nniuals like boreeii 
probably Wim bull!?. In the hilly pitrts were noveral good villages 
with plenty of water and dcliciooji fruit. The unlaud plain waa 
fertile and abandantly supplied with many cities, villages, and forts. 
There wa» mach caltivation of rice and other vogctabtos tind many 
cows, hnffaloea, piga, goattt, ihvep, nKMta, and small ponies. All field 
work and carrying waa done by boffaloes, ojcen, asees, and ponies. 
Almost all the villages were of Gontileti with u few ^(oors, m 
some of the lords were Moom. Bijftn«<iaer that h Vijaynnngar waa 
on level gronnd surrounded by a very good wall on one side, a river 
on a second aide, and a mountain on a third side. It wns very 
largo and very populous. There were many laTgo and hnudsonie 
palaces and wide Htroots and square-s. The king, a Ocntile called 
Baheni, that is Kdyaln, always lived in the city.* Ue lived venr 
Inxariously and selJom left his palace. He was nearly white, welf- 
Mado, and had long amootli black hair. The attendance on th« 
king was by women who all lived in the pidaees. They siang and 
played and arnnited the king iu n thou»ind wuyet. They bathed 
daily and the king went to see them bathe and sent to his chamber 
the one that pleased him most, and the first son be had from any of 
tbcin inherited the kingdom. Slany littunt and many horsemen stood 
at the door of the palac«. Tlie king kept 1>00 elephants each worth 
1500 to 2OO0 ducats and 20,000 horses worth 300 to GOO ducats and 
eomo of the choicest worth 1000 dncatB.* TIio king had more than 
lOO.OOO men, horse and foot, and tiOOO women in his pay. The 
women went with tho anny hut did not fight, but their lorera fought 
for them very vigoroufily. When the king, which occasionally 
happened, weut in person to war he camped at some distance 
from tho city and ordered all people to join him within a certain 
: or of days. At tho end of tho days he gave orders to burn the 
. city except bis palaces and some of the nobles' palaces, that 
uli might go to the war to die with him. Among his knights many 

Chapter VII 




< Stanlcr') BuboM, TS-SI. 
» Rlynlti u tlw Tclugu (own ol the T«mU Eiyar, tlw JiooarUic nlnnJ o* Riy or 
VcR. It •mmt h) oipUln Moor'i tcnuurk (Kamtivc, 163) that tha chief of Attcfnadi 
I n (i;90) ca1Ii>1 KAypfl. 

i(>M«'a (luoit U proWMy Uic |olcl Pudao or PagOiM. COMpan Bftdgtr'* 
• *nHi-(iu», 115. 

Cliapt«r Tn. 



IS 14. 


had como from difforent part^ to tako sorrioo tmA did not eoase to 
liv<? iu Un'ir own ei-wds. In times ot pWiW! tliP city was fillisl with 
an innimicrabte crowd of nil nittions. Tlicro were very rich local 
Gentiles, laauy Uoorisli merchauts and trader?, and an iuiinita 
number of others from all parts. They dwelt fieolj and nafelr in 
wliat creed tliej choee, whether Moor, Uhnstian, or Gvntilo. Tho 
gOTcmora obserred strict jtutiro and thiTO waa an infinito tmdo. 
Ureal quantities of prc-cions Ktouv« pourtMl into Vijayanaffwr, jeweU 
from tVgu, dbuiond^ from the Deccan and aUo from a Vijayanaftar 
mine, and pearls from Ormuz and from Cn«l in Soath India. iSilka 
and brocades were brought from China and Aloxandrin and mncb 
KOarlct doth from Europe, and tlipre was a great import of eorsl, 
ooppor, qniclcsilver, Termillion, saflrou, rosc>water, popper, opium, 
sandal and aloewood, caiuphor, and mask. The Gentiles of tho city 
like the king were fair, well-proportioned, with good Portuf^iiiuo- 
likv features and long smooth black hair. Among th» rich, ihi: men 
won) a cap of silk or brocade, cloaks of cotton AtuD or Nilk, a short 
ehirt of coLton silk or brocade, a tight waiatcloth of many folds, and 
sandals. Theiv bodies were anointed with wbito eandal, aloewood, 
camphor, musk, and saffron ; their car«, nwks, wrists, and fingers 
wtT« covered With jewels ; and thoy were followed by two |<agea, 
ono tarrying a sword, the other an umbrflUi of «ilk with gold and 
jiiwcllod fringf-s. Tho women, wlio were pretty and of a grand 
prceonee, wore a robe girt round tho waist and the upper oud 
drawn over the shoulder and breast leaving ono arm and >huuldur 
bare. Tho head wjw baro and on their foot were wuH-worked 
leather sandals. Their hair waa oomb«d and plaitod and in it wore 
many flowers and scenta They !iad numbers of jewels in the aoM 
and Pfirif, and round the neck, arms, lingers, and waist.' 

When I'ortitgue^e power was finnly egtublishcd a tribute in enun 
was yearly levii-d from th e gmall comtchJe fs. The river ' kul 

paid 4O0 to &00 bales of rice : the port o f Airrak ona two Lult-. n.-rth 
of flol^f tpi. 800 b^es; the river of Ankola , 700 hales; the river 
of Mi™. 500 bales; the river of Komluitem that isjj^ypta, 200 
bales ; th e chief of T^y gj^yar 2O00 bales, and the ciuocn ot Batik ala. 
2000 balea^' For some years bt-foro J.itO the ( innsapw queen m-tfms 
to have withheld h^-r inbuto a:* on thu 2nd of XoTSmu^^^FTEat yew 
the viceroy Don Estavao da Gama made a treat y with the iiueea wbp 
agrcetl to pay 2000 bales of rico a year and 8000 bales for put 
tribute, ^he also bound horwelf iioL to export pepper.* I'wo yuan 
later (1642), the oueeii of Bha tkal withheld her tribute and tlw 
viceroy Do Souza (LiilS-llilS) wasted her territory with firo anS 
sword.* On Kri.-«hna's death in 1542 Rama IWia of Vijayaiiagnr, 
probably the non of Timmariija Krishna's minister (150S-liJi3), 
asanmod control of the kingdom, though ho oontinnod to carry im 
affairs in the name of Sadiishiva ll&y.i, Kri^ihna'a son or uetihow^ 
whom ho kept in confinement. Him lUja wo^i « strong and ablo 
nilor, whose anxiety to reduce the power of BijApur led him iq 

■Stoulcy. M-dS. 

' Subudiiw Piua»I1ut«ti«dji India rortueae*a : Lialmn. ISG8, P. tl. HC-tM.. 

> 8ulMti<Ii<M, 1 1, as; -SSa. * Mi«kb«'» LMikd. 1. dtx. 

1S47 to propose an alliance with the PortuguoBO. TIio great I>om 
JoHo da Castro , who waa tlioa viceroy, on the 17th September 
1647, received the Vijuyani^pu- umbnasador Prarcao, perhaps 
Parshotam, with mucli ccronion^ and an allitmo o was oonctudcd 
betwoon the viceroy aiid Sad^bivrto king of V ijitj-anngnr.' Tho 
provisions of this treaty were that the Fortng " ^ arod Feraiaa 

and Arah horacg to VJ iaTanatrar and shbuVi i . i t ioTs^Teo to 
■>::. ........ ;:iL_^r\... ^^= " tiot aiiovmm toJa a 

mapgr thaiia Btmlciirnir 

that all f^raiu thai came 

I ooaotry 
for export to Brtn<ti>, now in SAvan trAdi, should tw sent toUonivar 
and Anki^ la. wIhto were Fortnguoeo factors, and nhould bo sold to 
no ono mit to I'ortugiioso traders ; thiit ihe king of Vijaj-anagar 
ehotild prevent saltpt-t ro and imu passing through Oholy tluit is 
Hnbli to the BijSpur ciMintry, and send it to the Portuguese factors 
at tionAvar and Ankola ; that the king of Vijaj-nnagar should order 
that all ihe cloth that now camo from b'\x country to Biinda for 
export should bo brought to the Portugneaa factora at Honiivar and 
Ankoia, and should there he exchanged with copper, tin, coral, 
vermilhou, mercury, and silk from China and Orinuz, and with other 
inorehandise from Portugal; tliut if any Turkish ship cauu to any 
Vijiit'nnagar port shelter ehoold ho refused, and that if any ship 
entered it sliould he captored and made over to the Portngoeee ; 
that the Portugncse and tJio Vijaysnagar king ithould together 
doclaro war on Adil Shilh; that if land was taken between the 
Saliyildris and the aea, and botweeu Btfnda and tho river Obilakul 
or Senlakorn, it should be given 'Eo'flle "Portugnoso In'canse ihia 
territory formvrly belonged to Goa ; and that all other land that 
might be capUin^d should bo given to VijayauJigur.* 

0( this SadishivrtiT, tho snccoBsor of Krialuuiriya, no grants ai^ 
recorded from Kinara. But Bqchaitan f9and at Gokurn, dated 
1649 (S. 1472) by SoWa Krishna Devaraan WoiU-ynr, tho son of 
Be^&ivalWya.andkiogofVijayanagar, Haiva, Tul»v, and Koiifeanft, 
the grant "io a Gokam t«Tiiple of laud in the Goa principality, >u the 
Aabtagram of Sashisti.^ He also records in a temple at Banav&ei 
-an inscription in the reign of Venkattidri Dcv Mah&rdya dat«d 1&51 
(S 1474J,* and in a templo of Dhdrushvar near Honivar n grant 
dated 1557 (3. 1-181) of Solva Krislina rtevarafni.* After the death 
of Krishna Kaya (1542) the power of Vijayanagar rapidly declined, 
tiad^ihivn, the son either of Krishna KAy or of his colh'agne Aehyuta, 
and hifl descendants continued nominally to reign till 15711. But 
thoy were nodor the power of R4ma RAja, who is supjiosed to have 
boon tho son of Krishn.'v RAy's Brnhinan minUter, Timina Rija. 
At \'ij«yanagar there was bitter rivalry between Ram K4ia and 
Tiraniala lUja, the undo of Sadiahiva. At IwhI Tirimiala waa 
defeated and cominitted aoioide, and &&m R6ja seiwd the suprouio 

Chapter Tn 




Da CaMro, 


' Oa PortuguwM, n. tiaSO). 25-aSL » Swbmdiw, II. 2K1, 237. 

* SlyMTc, II 1. ITO. A«liUgriia U AiktAKnr. oao ol Um 6v« Porliuiwao divinoits 
or riucfa titiiAlt. It liM tu tb« Bontli o( SUmUa ud wu eooqwna hi 1TC3 br the 
foTM^we viceroy M&noiJ <jle Skldaalia ile AtbaowTniiin tnsm Uu Soail* chM Savb 
InodJ%di«luv. Dr. G. Da Cttnlia. • Myasn, Ul. KH. * Myaon. lU. !«*■ 

h»pt«r TIL 






[Bombay Oatett«er, 


power. Ho was an able raler, but bis arrogsuioe bron^bt ou him 
tho onitod Htrenffth of the fom- Masalmflii powers of Bij&pur, 
Golkoi]<lA, Abmajosgar, ond fiedar. Thia ended in 1560 in tbo 
complete overtiirow of K*m ItAja at Taliko t. tvii niiliw sonth oi tho 
Krisitna ncnr liiiicUiir, wbicli waa followed by tho capture and sack 
of Vijayanngar, when bootv was obtained anjiicient to enrich erwry 
man in tho victorioua army.' Though the overthrow of tbu power 
of Vijtij'aiiagar was complotv, tho jcalomy of tho two Imdiiig 
liDBamiiii confcdomteo, tho Hijiipur aud the Ahmndnagar kin|C^, 
prevented citbor of them from annexing any part of tbo conqnervd 
territory. A year after the battle, Tirumala RAja, tlio brother o( 
K^m IMja, retnrwKl to tb«i vupital. Hot failing to rcatort! it, he 
retired to Ptfnnkondii about 1-10 nii)^^ to tho Hmii h-eaat.* YenkaUidri 
the other brolhor i>»ttibliahcd bimseli at Cbandragiri in tlte Mst or 
Madras Kani&tak. As late as \b~6 eranta continued to be issued in 
Uie name of th» nnininnl sororoign of Vijayanagar.' 

I" .1567. tw . ifUr its sack by thu fuur Mnsatmin kit^ 

of the J^ix'ouiJ, Aluuiiduagar, Bedar, tiolkonda, and Bijiipur, toe 
Vcncliini Iravelle r Cajsar Frederi ck visited Vijayanaflar with »umo 
horse men.hanta froHrBJJST^ff'cording to Frederick, tbo ooantry, 
for thirty yenrs before ita conquest by tlio Iktuitalmaua, had been 
governed by thrco tyrant brothoraRjirorij, TinimarAj, and VenkatriT. 
They had boon captains of Uie former king Krisona (1503-1542), 
and kept hia son tho rightful king (Sad&shiv Itily) in prison 
showing him to thu pvoplo once a year. Of tho tbrc« brotbcra 
Kdmr&j sat on tin; throne and was king, TimmarAj was the civil 

fwvemor, and Venkatniv was the chief oaplaiu. At the battlo of 
'aiikot in 1565 Bdmnti and VenkatrAv were slain, and Timuianli 
escaped with tho loss of an eye. The wives and children of lite 
Ihny; hrothcm, with the prisoner king, Hfd from Vijayamigar before 
ttie KfusaluiAus arrived. The ^foora staved in \'ijayanagar for six 
months, searching under houses and in all places for money.* When 
the Masalnuins were gone, 'f iuimavAj came back and began to ro- 

> Rloe Mnore, I. 2». 

* Wilka' ^tj-wrc, 1. 61. rclagonilA U dcKribcil \iy lh« Itnliui Irai-dlor ICicoto CpdU, 
in 1430, la a ray noUo citf eight day* lr>iRt Vijanuaffftr. Mftjor't lulut ia XVtfa 
Ootorj-, II. 7. 

* Itica'* Myiraro, L 233. SMUahJv* wm meocMed by W* am .Sri Ranp . M»d 
OODtlniMtl to rale for dght ncocMioiw, shan llM>y fl«(I fttScnn tli» lifoftttM i<> Ua 
rdklkait »t Clxuulngiri. Six ftan Ul«r, m t'ttMtdngiri vaa UkMi hy tlM 0<>1k otfU 
wmy. ho flod to Sivapfui Ntynk «r Biiilnur wliu ^vo him tlw ^tH.'rti.... ni o| 
Skkntfpttta*. Anothitf nicnilM-r ol tho tuniXy cnolinutU to rule >t An<'. "<a 
tbo nvwf from Viiaj-kiuistir. till tbcy wurv it«troj-c'I 1^- Tipn in i . ■ ■.■■« 
klfMrc, I. 2M. Moor In 1T!M> (N'untivu, IBS) notion thot Ibcro vm atUi & tufva- 
BMitatiT« of tha old tunily nt Anr^Tinili. {<«■ below p. IIP. 

'IKtlia offoctottlulHiUlwvd'AUkfftlhc-PoHugacic hiatoriui Flui».ir.8«a (Korr, 
VI. 433} writM t Tli« Inile ol ladia {ii \S6f, wu ndnodd f> n ^«rf Inw abb liy tbo 
dcwdating w«j- between Vijayaoa^ and tlio AluutlBiAn kiog* ol llm T>n''-ii) Tho 
Vijayaai4i»r kins, who wiu then tiuiot}--u> yuan ulil wm at fint (u>-' < m 

thoood wu d«liiatal mid ilnin. The MiiialmilnB apmt 5vo months up; 

Vi]ayan*|[>r, thaugh th« sattvc* fasHi i>rvv)ciui|.T corritd awnv 15-^0 < 
of meocf nod j«w)<b, worik abovaBhuiiiIml miUioDaof gold. bnitiN : 
wkiohwaaofiiuatimaUe value. Inhii ahmc of the plundur Adil t^hiUi g^i iKuniTninn 
Mlaigouaaoidinar; <gg widt Mtotkcr of ritr»on.liiiiuy ■iiu tbongh nnallvr aa/i 
otber l«wcla ot prwUf^ua vain*. Tho viclon partitiuiKd Uk domtuaos of tho old 
king anKmg tii« koi and aephow*. 




people tlw city, tomptinK mcrchiuils by the promiso of grmt prioos- 
Frodwrick'ft business iu X'iJAyaiiagar was over in one month, bat no bad 
to »tay seven monUis (December to Jnly), becuose the country vtva 
lull of tbievea who ranged up and down. Tbo son of Timmariii 
had put to dcnth the prisoner king, nnd ilio barons would not 
ncknowlcdgo him, so the coimtrj- was divided and lawIoiH. Tiin- 
tnar^j's »tju liad retired to tbo castle of Penegonde, eight days 
inland from Vijayanajjar. Vijayanagar though empty was not 
destroyed. Tho ciix;uit of the oity was twonty-four miles sad 
within tho walls were cortaiu mountains. The houses worn standing, 
but in parts of the citj there was nothing but tigom and otfa^ wild 
beasts. Most of the noasee were plain with mud walls, but tho 
temples and ptdaccs wore of lime and line marble. Of all the 
kiiigii' courta rrt-derick Itud twia, tlu< Vtjiiyanagsr pelaco was the 
fitii-st. There were five great outer and four smuli ianiT gut«e, tho 
palace was well guardedaod the city safe from tJticvoii, the Portngneto 
mcrchautfi sleeping in tho streets for the great heats and never 
gultiugany hami. In July, Frederick and two Portugtie»o merchants 
detenninea to start for Ooa. The merchants were iu piilaiuiuius 
or little btt«rs carried by eight b«»rvra, as the Venetians cArry 
barrows. Frixicnck was on an ox of oommodioue pace, and he haid 
ft »eoond ox for hi» victuala and ba^age. As it waa winter (July) it 
took them fifteen days to get to the coast, and the placo they reached 
was not Goa bot Ankola in Kiinara. Hcforo he had (fone much 
ntoro than half way, Frederick lojsl both his bullocks. The victual 
bulhick was wcaik and conld not go; the riding bullock when 
Awimniing across a river fonnd an island with grass in tbo middle, 
and ri'mainod there and in no wise conld Frederick come at hira. 
•Su ill )it.'avy min ho had to travol seven days on foot, fortunately 
fiuiling people to carry his baggage. Tho jonruuy was fall o£ 
trouble. Every day they were taken prisoners by rea-sou of tlio 
great difisension in the kingdom, and every morning (hey had to 
pay a ransom before thvy were allowed to leave. Another not less 
grirn'oue trotibio was that when tliey possod into a new govcmor'H 
lands, which they did every day, they had to get new mouev, as 
cfich local governor though tributary to Vijayiumgar stamped bis 
iiwn coin. At length they reached Aukola on the sen, a country 
of ihe qncen of Gcr.<utppn, tributary to Vijayanngar. Olio of his 
c(iuu)aUK>ti.4, who luul notlimg to lose, took a euido and wont to Gon. 
Frederick and his other friend stayed at Ankola where they were 
joined by another horse merchant, two Portuguese soldiers from 
l.'iyton, and two Christian lottcr-cnrriorB. Tho whole party arranged 
tu .■it;trt ctigoLhcr for Goa, and Frtileriok wont with them in a very 
j'li u- palatKjuin ot cane with eight bcarora. In one of tlie canea of 
h't'-- |xilanqnin he hid his jewels. At the mountain which divided 
Aukola from tho Deccan, Frederick, who was behind the rest, was 
ii'.r.-ii-kud by eight thieves, four with swords and targets and fonr 
wiih bows and arrows. Ilia bearers Bed and the robbers rifled his 
palanquin but did not find thu jewels. '\\'1ieu tho robbers were 
gone, tho bearers eamo back and in four days carried him to Go*.* 

Chapter^ TI 


Cxnr Frederick in lUkJuyl't Voy*gD^ U. 34$, 349. 


lie PortosncM, 



For »boat twenty years aTtor Dora Jotto da Cwtro's treaty in l54i 
no reference has been traced to any nnfriciMllinoa between llio 
people of K&nara and the PortogucHO. In 1668 or 1369 Dom Liii« 
Ataido besieged luid toulc Hon&v-nr and built a fortress on tlie 
Uonirar rivor.i In 1.109, aocordinjr to Ferishta, the qneeo of 
HonAT ttT made a treaty with Bijdpnr and tried to take tbd Poriugneee 
forF%nt failed.' in 15"U, as part of the greai leagne of 
Ahmad nft gftr Bijitpnr arifl' BiJikat acaiaat tfy^JHBff B^ u was 
agreeiifC li'SBiittparslionld yet Oo».Honiyar.aiidB arkalitr. Tho.tinoen 
<« Gor8appft joiiioJ theleagne and declared waraffftiast (ho Port uguojte.* 
In the nixtory of the Poitnguese in India there are low mow 
brilliant aad euoceasful achievements than itascjirenhu'it defence of 
Cheol sgainsb Ahro ad ni ia a r^ and Pom Laiz^eAtoiJ e's" defence <A 
(alBPWS"na> Bijit pu y r Thongh no hard pressed in Goa tX>m Lnis 
mw aule to send snocoor to Hoiutvar and the attack failud.' In 
the folIowinR year when the BijApnr troops had withtlmvrn (nun 
Goa thu vicuruy brouffht a flwt to llon&var, destroyed the Kalikal 
and Bijiipiir Hbipit, aud sacked and reduced to ashcft tlio l/^wn which 
was then rich and {wpnlona. The fort aftor being bombarded for 
four days capitalated, and George de Moira was left to garrison it 
wilh 400 men half of whom were Portngnese.* During the attack 
on Bou&var, Dotn Lniz, vrho wait a man of dnuntk-sMi oonmge^ 
Htilcd in a bngautjnu Hcntt'd on a chair with a famons harper beside 
him. When tbe balls began to whistle pai^l his ears tne harper 
stopped, and Dotn Lniz asked him to play on as the air was exoellonb 
One near him pntyod him to take care of himself. If ho wore slain 
all would be lofit. 'No such thing,' said tbo viceroy, 'thero are 
men enough to 8ncoe«d me." 

In a Portnguesc map of about 1&7Q. publifibed in the second 
ToLnmo of the Commcnturcs of Dalboqaerqne, the only places marked 
^ the Kinar. coast a«> ^%^\^ SJmiM I^JHalll'* ■^"'^ Pg 
Barro'a map, about l.'iflO, shows only AncnidiTa and Satccaila.' Da 
Barroa describes KAuara as beginniug at a riror callod the Aligk 
which runs west from the Sahvfidria, where was a fortT«s3 called 
Chittjkula or Sintaknra which jutted out opposite the island of 
At^idiv,* South of Chitakiil bo mentions Ankola. E^rapan 
(AgnJcona), Murgen, tlie city of HundTar the head of tho kingdom 
of Batekala, and Batekala.* These citiea wore subject to the kincr 
of Vijftyanagar, a powerful king who next to UahAdur of OujarM 
(1526-15iJiJ), was tiie richest ruler in ludia. About 1581 ihci-e aro 
two references to the pirates of the RatnAgiri and tho MalabAr coasts 
who with varying names seem under a sncocssion of chiefs to have 
continued to harass trade. In 15S4 the pirate chief ot SanKum csbvar 
in RatuAgiri was bo tronblesomo thai itjjftpur'aa'g' tE^Portugucite 

' InrtiucoM lie Mfttiiuax Alomi, Nora Ooa, IMS, ft lOl Brijup' F^rUliU, m. 

530, SSI. AaoordiD^ to Farubta tbo PortaniMM b*d a doot ol 130 buI ud 3000 
UiiroHWu bMidM aativca, - Brij[|;i* PcddiU, UI. MXK fiSl. 

» K«ri» in Kerr. VI. 427. * Fi*i» m KerT, VL 487. » O^PortwcowM^ VI. lOS, 

• »Knt in K«r. VI. 45. ' Li»bon BJiUon of 1777. 

* Jtooulat <k £un». f int Doo. P. II. 98, UOrau 1777, Book UC. Outw. 1 mmI 2. 

'DKMlai, IL gi». 




Q ombmcd af^in^t In'in, Bij^pnr destroying his iiuid force and the 
l'ortngm:«c Iuh ticot of pinit<j rc-Mi$vls.* Ontlu) Malabar coast, nuder 
n Muitalmfiu captaiu Kliojii Ali, tho Najers did ibe PortuRiicso much 
injury. Tliey nmged all ihe coast from Ceylon to Goa four or fire 
beats together each with fifty or sixty moo.* 

Towards thts cIoho of tho sixtocnih coatory (1500) Jean Huehcs 
do l.iniscb'jt montious a I'ortwgueee fort at UoniiTar,* It yielded 
much pepjwsr, 7000 or 8000 Fortoffueae auintiiux a year, which 
was held to be tho best pepper in Isoui. Ttid ruior of tho country 
was the quTOP of Batika la. Shu arranged with tho factor who 
livod at HwnAvar, but the pepper had always to be paid aiz 
inoniha in advance, Rico also grow in abandauco. For the rest 
UoBiivar was seldom visited except vrhcn tho ships were lading. 
Tho tmdti was formerly etosll hut of late had i»ormM>cl. In 1699 
Fiiiku tirovilc, in tho Memoir which supplied tho infonmition ou 
which the Bicasures of tho fintt Kogltah Kaat India Company were 
baaed, meatiooa ibe queen of Batikala selling great storo of pepper 
to the PortugnosQ at a towo called Ooor whioh they hold la bur 


The rurtuB 

1'fae great league against the Portngoese in 1570 ahow^ that 
Ahmsdou^ and Bijjtpiir wore ablo to ororcomo the rivalry 
which hau saved tho ViJHyanagar dynasty from entire dt-stmction 
afUtr tho battle of Talikol. I n l.'i7:t t heir advance towards friond- 
tincas went fnrblier, and they agreed that Afamadna gar should 
conquer oastwan isand Bij^ipur aouthwnrda .^ Bij Apur oaptored Adiini 
near Bclliir! and lis sn promiM^Ts"MiurrT' have beon aclcnowiedgoit 
alonj; the wn-^t coast from Uoa to Barttalur in t^outh Kdnara." Thia 
is supportod by the agroemen^a^wiuy nolitrod between Bijdpur 
and the (ineon of Gorsappa. But thoagb they may have rucoivod 
tribute, tho lucul ovidonco soems to make it doubtful that BijApnr 
troops M-tually overraa aud held tho ooaat ^Hiitricls of K&nara 
biifon! (he beginning of the seventeenth centnry. The local Hindu 
chiefs ciiDtinne d fora time to ucknowlcdKC the ><tiprgpy^__of the 
Vijaj;aiiayai- Icitigs, By dogrecA tlioso of power and energy set 
aside flie ^hnduw uf coutrol and declared thouisolTus indopundout.* 

eou -16711 


ituii* tinMdSWq 

■ Cam to Kerr. Vt. 463. 

* Balpb Tiuh in lUklnyt'a VoyagM, IL 309. Pynvd do UnJ > {««■ yoan IM«r 
vrratc (lOXI) : Doring tbo aix utKUMT monthB the HalAbhr pirate ocooe not to roMa 
attoeking PDTtD){u«ao and ladiaa boata. Tbry an grral fi^btvira and Wt th» 
PortaiiniHa (ifUiur tllan Ilia r«ilt«lM«»o boat tb«m. Voyuo*. So. 

) Navi|iatk>n, 'il. I'liu dunoBt fiigliali cwtain Davk about tho t 
■n<nti<«u HnnUvHr a* a ciiivl place of irade. \oy*gia. ISO. 

* Bniuo'* Atiii.tlK nf titv But liida Comnnaj-, 1. I2JS. 

* BriKl»' Funtbta, III. I3S. ' Kioe's MvBOtn. L 339. 

' Bu.rT>Hiutii (M}raurr, (II. 1251 nMiue* Ihat Ui« Biadsa piatx tbo fall ot Vijaya* 
naipr Invut^' y(«rs liter tbiui tliu MnnlmiuB. that u abcnt IW4. A Vifayaiiaar 
Tixni^ cuotiniwd at iStHn^p&tam till l6tO(Ilioi>'B Mfiotv, L234), and ttin Ikkanor 
Bi.iliiar chiafit v«ut oa Bt)TiDg tboniaelvM under-lorda of VijajraBagar till a.lKi(il 1G$0 
, 213). A KpreKDtativeof theold VijayanagnilUagaoontuuMd tolx'UI ainall 
nr rawad Anraundl till imot the etatf- o! th« dKhUsath «aMury. Ho waa 

_^ ly known in uia Dfccao bf tbv littu o( Knjril. They had ■ nint al Anunadi 

tntd a ywuly iEunme of aboat £SS.000 (It*. S,50,000|. Th«r vent Mwl tu pomob a 
i'-;^i*.fT of tbo rcTolution* which ha<t happvned within tho limilB cf their (onnar 
sKi['ir«. Uoor** Namtivo, 183. Under tbo aamu o( Alpataa, ap}iar«ally tho <Hjt 

[Bombay Oasett««r, 


Ch«pter VIL 


Of the local families vrtich roBo to power in KAimrn, one, the 
Sgada or S.adha tliit-fs, wuro in th<^ north of tlio distri^-t, ami two, lh« 
Join cbiff vt llh^tkul ikiiJ the Lingiiyiit c bit^f of Ikker i, were in the 
south. Pn>b.iiily fnjiu ahoat 1570 tUo Sonda or Sudha chiefs ptud 
tribnt© to Bijftpiir.' Bnchanan gives an tKconnt of the fumity of Ibe 
Sudha or Sonda chtof, which ho rouc-ivcd from the priext of 111* 
Sondn family. Ho correctly describes it as true but inaocsrate.* 
According; (u the priest of iho Sudha chiefs,* in the time of tho 
Viiajanagar king Krishna Rayacu (I60S -1542), upland Ki'tnara 
beloQfied to local chioftaina of iho Kadamba (amihr wbo woro Ju)h« 
by religion. Krishna's futlicr, who wa« long ctiildlesa, prouiiced tho 
fiucoc»«ion to Iii.t sistor'a .ion Araappa Jfii k. Afterwards, wbeu sona 
were born, Krishna made Ar^ppa roler of Souda.* He ruUtd from 
15 55 to lot)6 , coDtinning to pay allegianoo to tlio diifuntixl priucos 
of VijayaD&gar. He in described oh driving put the Jai ng and 
bringing H*^ g BriUimana, from below the oahyitdria, to occnpy 
waste lands. Coc ^anMi rerorda two granta of this chief; One on 
a stone found at Baoar^ dated 1578 (S. 1501], in tho reign oE 
Imodi Arsuppa N^ika of Sudhn;' tho second on a etono at 
tho Toribidi niona*t«ry at Souda, dated 1592 (>^ ''I'.i styles 
Araappa Riija of Sudha by the appo i ntm ent of S- r.'abha 

Venicatappati. who is girea all the tiUes o^ tho VJjnyunagar sove- 
reigns." For three more micceesioos tho Sudha family continuod to 
hold aa fcudntoric B or N^ks, pr obably of BijApu rmtlier than of 

AMpiQitl WM ilr«crili«d tij Entinitt alwut 1790 M a nambor ol rmgeti Ml* corcnA 
wiUi Uariplua^ It lia^l bMs racloanl hy « w*il mhoat tight ruIm ib cinmatforvaoo, 
f!«r«nl Ufvel* lliitty to totiy-Ava ywitt wiAo could ba tntMcl, mii)« of thcni grotraig 
rimi. Tlivr* tteiw * UBnalwr at «tr«*ni« the rcmiiiia of old cunalt. Emmitt bUo noticu 
vulBtda ot tlia liu« o[ vslb • ])av«d nuid, m gMemf, and Uonple-croiriicd bilU. 
ThatD ranuna in KcmnaU'a ajiiiiion BM17 bavo Men part of the aiicicDt city bdiI 11m 
ntoway may have bdomged to the oannoct ring of wall which acccnling t« Prtdcri^ 
Bad a arooit of twcdt^-Mnr mile*. Uoor^ Nimtito, 180, l$9. 

■ MAJor Munr«'ii IctUir to th« Madnui Doud o( Bonauv, SIM Uhv ISCXk 

* llftot% in. 21}. 

■ Tho soada "■■ 9ffH|ft hraily b** u ■ 

: IbkkU AratSiM Nilik 

RimcbAndrn KAik 

, Itocnoitli Nilfc 


MaAh liiw* NAik 


' SadiabivIUo 

Boiwa Liiijn Riya 

Imodi ftodibhiT Ran 
* WilAon (51acli«tiiie Ciinoetios, New K>)iliou, U2) nrfcn U> llio tk-ndji diicla 
Wuiich or Ih* Vlja^MMDor king* who tHtUhxi nt 8am<Ia kfUT tli« doiriiftll « 
ViUruuigukiiijiaUMit l.'Wa ■ HtKhxnan'* Mjmvi;, 111.2^4. 

■Myxint. in. SIS. TIU UTtM villi Mr. Hioi'* li«t ot tho Viuyitnunr 
<M]rwn, I. 231) is whkOi VaakatapPfttl (Umvvd* iu IQV7. 

Konkan. 1 



Vtiuj-aontfar. It wms . apt till the jg oay o f Bijj^p nr power in J07I- 
tlml 8«U«hi T cluingbd 'tfaia dopencloQt title of Niilt irito JtA^^ 
ll vna dnriag; tlie rule of Annppa,. the first Sadba chief, that, as 
hoB beea noticed, iu cnaseqaiinco of ao agreement with AJimadsa^, 
Bijipnr capturod Adoni near Boll&ri and taminj; wuat spread tneir 
p()W(;r nioug the cout from Gott to Bwkidiir in Soiilh KAaara, 

?.. . i.i: 1.1 : I &i L_ U__S_ ..,,1 V .1, L'/^, ■■ 


1600- K70. -I 

luciiiding the proTJnoea of Straff nr, i jfl mlifc '">'! f^orth ti^itnara.' 
The Soada chiefs, whc»o lauda lay eatirely abore the Sahyttdm, 


probably coutinuud to pay tribnto ; bat the eoath«m chiefs eetsm 
luivi) succeeded in siroiding tribnte. In the HOiitU of the dislriob >'' 
were two rival faiuiliei», the B^^m^Vode^^^^^^rkala in South 
Kanaro, and the Koladi, Ikker^orTS cBnr*3SBS*on y'p3t Maispr, 
Acciinltrifj to Buchanan, the Byraeu Wodoyara o^ Karkala repre- 
iwtitiii li m BalliUa kJatra ;* BCCoTdin^ to Mr. Eioo thoy btilongod to 
tlie Humchft dyiiaaty ;* and, uoconliu^ to local tradition tho fouuder 
of the lamily was a dancing-girl, who so pleased one _of the 
Kadainbn kings that he grauted her the land bet j 
andjD^ttdjJj^jJgJlja r- -": rf Houilviir. Accordin'ff to a fonrth 
acconot titey were d< 1 fri>ni Jonaditta, a >(orth Indian 

n>fii;^<>)> or mendicant.'' llit; traditions, though thoy differ aa to 
th'-ir origin, ngroo that the Inet of tho family had »ovcn diuighbora 
each of whom was called Bairn Devi. When tho chief die<l hia 
torritoiy waa diridgd amon ^ his seyen _daugbtcrBj and Kri.-ihna 
RAi of Vijayonagar (1508-1542} is said to nave remitted their 
tribate bcciuise thej were ladies. On tho defeat of BHiii Raja of 
Vijayanagar t he Byraau W odej ar8 seem to have at ono e thro wn oS 
thoir alle gianc e. a« Buclmnan reconia from Bhackal an inscrrptioa, 
dated \bbti (S. 1170), in which Biura Deri acknowludgee no snperior.* 
'('•I ■ u I deal daughter livod a t Bhatlc al in tho i.'xtrcm« south of 
.N.[l!i Kl&nara; llie second liiarhuu a descoudaut of Itchappa tho 
Wo deyar o t G er eap pa, who 8C«ms to have been the tributary ohieE o{ 
Hi^ti^i ihiflnftrroge produced only one daughtor^andas thoothor 
■i were uU childtoax, tho < hmghter of tho tJermppa ch ief 

s.-ii i ne heir to tho whole poaae^tonV of tbe Jia rkala family. To 
theae she a dded Uy git. Mwt dimag the latter p>rl of tho Hix(«onth 
ountnry niled from Kumta to Barkur in South Kiinara williout 
Hok n o w I ij di/iu>;iin?THporK>r.' j . ^ . . j 

The Hrats and the destroyers of the Bbatkal Jains were the 
chiefs of l^jglft^ in north-weat iHaisar abont twenty miles south of 
Baniivaai. About 1560 tltej moved ten miloA farther sontb to 
I'-''-), and again in 1639, as their power increased, thoy went 
twenty inilufi fiirthor uouth to Bidam Ha lli, the Bamboo 
\ ;iiage, also called Bidiinur or B»diiiir, on the bonier of South 
K&uara, well placed for trutlo neai' the iloaangadi pas s.' - The 

' ri-.'-liBuii, UL 217. Mr. FlMtflnd. Aiit.V.306) tiMioaiftp«iito(B Sudhipar 
'^■>ghll, which he iiUotilMs with ftirawiithNiyak who govBraail .Snilhipim 
>'i]ayaau»r in ISld-lSSe (S. IMl-lMl). Vii>y«iiiwu <BW* Ma«ji IU}t»nr. 
v. ,lkii'S^^ofli»liii, 1. 40. > llyaoK, UI. iSe. 'My*on, II. SM-arn. 

' Kk^, 1!. 353-nT.t. " MyiKini. til. 134. ' ttiicluiMa'* M>'v»u, HL 13^-lfW. 
■ Km'a Mnara, IL 3S3. BeilnuT liul loog bMn ■ vU«« ol imporUncv. AlMi.«r- 
BkmJi. th« P«nMU inibiim'toT, duvribn Bwbiitr in 1M4 m * oity vilh hovmt lib* 
palaooi aiiid bawitiM 1ilc« koutW- It had a tampJa with vondotful Nalnturv*. Elliot 
and Domoo, IV. tOI. 

n Sltt— 10 




|Bomb&7 ^' 




founder of the Keladi hmily m said to have booo m Mnl aT* _ 
called Bbadraivn, who dbeorored a ireasaro, aaotiHovd two 
bis slaTDs, and bnilt a fori.' In 1560 MaJara Gaada went 
VtjayaD*gur luid guiuod from Sad&eliivs Raym tho title of S&d^ 
Nulc nod tlie grant of Bnrkur, Mangalor, imd Chondngo^ 
Rortli-we«t Maisur.* Soon after 1560, Soddaliiva's Bnccessor 
his cspitel to . Ikk eri. For a time both in Sonth and iu Ni 
Kinara tfao local Jain chiefs were ablu (o hold thvir own. 
lut, appiireutl; in tho oarly years of tlio sof-bntocuth oen 
Venk ataima NiJik . who is said to hnro bc^n hvlped by a revol 
iEenaH^ukSj attooked and defeated Itaira Devi of Bhatkal 
OorM))I». Almost all tho Jaios of Hai^ aro said to 
perisl^d.' Accordioff to local acooanUt, in 1008, iminedii 
aftur the dufeat of Uaira Devi, Veukatappa was allacked I 
Bijitpur forci', which be is said to have deloatod, and by eei 
C'liaiiditvar Ju tho north of Hoo &var, prorontod from paniag aou 
ot Jlinan whoroiheT bnilt a wtrong cwtlo.* There is a looil 
that til o AfuBaliuina were led by one SarpaDinalik or the Snako 
a fatod child who ^t his namo becaiiso be wns once found a«l 
in the forest gtiurdcd by a cobra. Thin favourite sign of futuru 
giViilnew seems to have boon nppliod to tho Bijil|nir gi.'iioral, wboM 
titluSberif-ul-Mulkleotitwilf tobv t<vi.ttc-il iotoNitrpaDinalik. Ve 
ap^ of Ikkeri continued to ntyle himself ibe onder-lord o 
Vijayaaftgar kings lung after the decay of their power. In 161 
protected the Vijityauagur viceroy wlu) was driven oab of S«ri: 

Sntatn.* In lllltj entries in the Kflnam accounts show ShiVi 
ti'iik ndiling n Uix of tifty per cent to the former 
Iu ]<>'I'J Voiikntappa roBWTed nis capital to .Badnm? and u 
the &nmo time decWvd himitolf indeponaorit'' Ac uaA tiuiu 
management of tho stato wu in thu hiuids oE Shj 
man of great talent, who sucocodod to tho chiefship in 
eontinuoa U> govern till 1(170." Uefora the close of liis reign 
nddcd to his doniinions tho whole of Sonth Kfinara a nd Ni 
Kitn ara np tothe Clnngtrali riTW ^tl wciwHe ot Min&ab «vin)t 1 
surrviKitireU tij Uic trwiclu-ry oi its Moor governor.*'' Ho was 
diMtiii^^'uisbed for the oxiTullcot rvwtiiiu rugutntiunK which ho int 
ducL'd." During the greater part of the svvcutoeiitb coiitiiry till 
dooay of Bijipur p owor. tho lowlanda of Einara, between IiJUtI i 

* Rloo'a Uyaoni, IL SS5. AMoctlioc to Miothw sccoiuit Umto wom two 
Cbavda Okuatt and Bh*dn <1auHB who (oiiiiiJ a Hag \a u uit'i Mat, u> olil : 
miiIb tr«Mnnh Uk*. 11. S7V. Jui> •(Vi>uuU makt iha (ouodar t. Klonot' 
Ilandis foMllv. Bha, II. 3U. 

) Rlw. It. 3U. II«oli.ituui(Mr*()r«, It). SBMIacd WilU (Sixitliuf lo-lia, 1. W| 
1IV9 iH. H£i) M Uiu dutc u( tlic (ouuiltir ot tliv (ajnil}-. Monro. LutUr Iu BiiatO, 
llsy IWXf.pMH. K, gin* IS8T m Uia lUteoI SftdiUliiv Itkftgnat of KAunt. A< 
to \VUL» (L 34) tlM (ouiidtr wm a rich (unwr wbo wu HiBda govcnur of " 
1 060 Mid throw off hi« allaglMra. 

•BuchMUii.lll. I.'M, llJOHidm: Msniu to BtatJ.Slut May ISOOl |Mn. ft. 

*B<MhMUii. l]L 173. 'Rice, U. 3U. < Wilka' South ot India, I. 

' hic», II. »76 ; Wilk* (SoDtti of ladia, I. S7) mtka Uiit lfi«a i BuuhMian (I 
ni.-J34j|>iveil«M (S.lfilW). Cubu (trauk ot tktlliar ooDtiMieit to b» mIM 

• KtM-a tayarr. I. 24S. •Bnaha'inm. III. )?? and IU : Rioa. I. IS7. 
M Biuhaiuii, IIL in ; Pitot-i EaM India aad l'<nM. I«3. » K«rw. 1 4W. 




I6S0 'irjjln, and between IfiflO and 1672 as fnrsonth 

*a t il ' .^ ^ ■ '■■ r, seem to have beea on^efr Biiitnu r rnle; 

Accordiog to a Smdu chrooicle futind by Bacbanaa in a village 
acTOuntapt'a records, Slwrif-til-Mu lIt, (liif ii ijilp iir govern or of Pbop dft. 
tiviUibliahed Bijfipor powftf iw ftir soiitli iis the Mirj^n nvcr and iLnre 
built a Htreng fort. According to this sccoOBt the MusaJmilns licld 
the north of Kinara for aey eaby-h yo Tflars.' BochADau notices 
that the land n,U» which wore in furco nwir KArwAr, when 
tho EoRlish took possension in 1800, had been introduced by 
SJieril-ui-Molk the governor of I'honda.* About 1650 {U. lOH) Uio 
Uosalm^s are said to havo introduced a rgrenne aet tJement in the 
districta of MirjJin, Ankola. Pfaonda, ffiJiTrfr, and Siy eabvar, 
which was in force in I»(A) niicl 'K. M^H y'U faiifl to 'likvS^ t)€fln 
tJie chief port in the Bjjiiiini" king^pDiX~During tho Bcvcnteentli 
neutury while the MnRaliiiiiiin held the notth coast districta of 
Etoara the tribatury chiefa of Honda seem to have been allowed to 
mio ondiatnrlied above the Sali Ariapwt, tbe founder of the 

family, wna sooceeded ITy hia bvu - .-: ;:;liaoilr iii NitJk in 1598. On 
hifi death in 1618 (S.1541) RA mdiyHlra w»a succeeded by his Max 
Sagonrith, and he in 1638 (5.lS6li by hie son Mitdhav Linga N&ik, 
who b ocamo a lyingaiy at or Shi Ui, and goveniod (ill 1674 
(S. 169/j! J>nring the fijrat half of the aevcnteentli century KAnura 
M far south aa Mirjdn continues! under Bijapur, managed partly 
directly jiartly throntjh hvivditary vasaala callou dfudis. of whom the 
dwciia of Souda amlof KArM'tlr were thochitif.* In 1037, after tho 
£^t of Ahmadni^ar and tho favonrobk) treaty with the Moghola, 
BijfijMir pr««8ed its conquests aonth, and chiefly by the vigour and 
laleot o f ^hiil^j i. ShivlLji'fl father, overran the east of Maisiir and 
_forino3 it into a pnnvLn oo.^ 



1600- mi. 




In 102.3 Kiinani wus «&it«d by the Itfllan trftTcller Dela Vall o. 
Hondvar was a small place more of huts than boa»es. The tort on 
ft rock was held by the I'ortagoese, Inside the fort were horeea, 
gfardeus, and well arranged quarter!, itnd there were fine Ktrce4« 
Trith a lar^ square where ttie people of the town toiik ehetler during 
tiines of siege. There were fcwoohnrcliee, ono to St. Qithcrine tbo 
other to St. Antony." There was another big city of the Br^bninns 
within gunshot of EonAvar.^ In 1028 the ruler of Uonfivnr was 
Vcnkatappn Ndik. Ho "bad boon a noble of the Vijayanacar 
iri'-f lorn and was now independent He had subdned many otner 
. ^ and even defeated the Portugacee. So powerful was he that 
lui: i'oDtugnese determined to send him an otntismy. The ombflfisy 
started on the 14th of October 1023 and was aooomponii-d by DoU 
Vallo. As the Portagnoso wore on iwd timns with A<lil Shih. whose 
land lay between them and Vonkatappa's territory, tho ombaesy 

'Thedeldli(rftl»»WB»y-ftn>y«M»i», thirtT-6ve >i«n *( IkaraUdm. lilrty 
yum of moAiM iMotOtU, cm* 7«H Wtd a hall ol t, tMnJiir. *ii<t thort ]«Rodi ot Icadn* 
«hn n» noitiDBed by luwno. Bnohonkii'i UyMTD, III. 17% 

- MvMti!. III. lltO ; ooiniMve III. 214. 

■ .Mvwre, IIL 173. Budiuuui notica that Haidar r««nmiMlan« WlolUiagruitoii 
uiJu koja. odd tbat Tipu wtiail om th« rtat. Dittv, 

* OinHF** UirtoncBl >'iwiih«M. 3i, 37. 

> Ktoc^t Mysore, I. 237. ' UvU V»lk>'t UtMn. III. ISZ. ' PeU Valle, in. Istt. 


Bombay OaMttoer. 


]lChapt«r Til. 


JMa »'«/&, 


wont by «oa in iri^ntos. They took irome Itorsca with them for 
aale.' Tboy landed iit the mooUt of tho (leraappa river, and with 
sail and oar passed niao milea to Gersapps. Thia had onc9 been a 
ftinionH city, the E«Bt of a queeu. the toetropolis of n province. Tho 
hi«t (guccn lind innrriGd a foroignvr of low birth, who ytn» uugracious 
enougU to t<«ke tho king<loin to himself. Tlio queen iiouffht help 
from the I'ortuguesc, but they did not help her. The Dusband 
I'-titlod in VoDkatap])a who seised the kin^om. The city nad pulaoo 
liail fallen to niin, imd wcro' ovorKrown with treoH ; nothing was left 
but some peaaaoU' huts. Ntiiu milo8 beyond (icrsapm tlie conntfy 
WBE tnMt pleasant, witviug laud covered with lea^' tore«ts, croaaetl 
by bvaatifnl streams, whose shady banks were greon with bamboos 
and gay willi llowers and croepvrs. It was tho most boautiful river 
Dola Valle had evcrfloen.* So famous was tho country for it« pepper 
that the Portuguese odled t he queen of Geraappa Kainba da limenta, 
t)iv IVppcr Qneen,* The asc«fii of the tJabyMris wiw fairly easy 
through braiutifiil thick forest with strcfims, horbagi>, and flowers. 
At the top of tho hill was » narrow duor and h (ortniss with bastiuiu 
and curtains. It waa onco called Gurvkotiv and waa now known aa 
Ooutiulanagar.' It was in the charge of a Musalm&n officer of 
Vcukntoppa's, who as a great favour had been allowed to build » 
mosque.^ Tho embassy reached Ikkcri, then VenkiUappa's hoad- 
(innrters, about twenty-five milossouth-omtt of Geraappa. But ihoir 
iouFDey was fniitleia, as the cliief refused to receive the amfaaseadors 
becMiso tho Portugneae had not sent hhipe to buy popper.* Though 
their emhawy wiu refused in I GiS, the Portngaese wore ublo to obtain 
a t.rftnt;v|n JfWK\i IQpf , tmil^r which, busides tho gnuit of the inland of 

tort of Uarkalur in South K&uara, the Bednur or 

am king allowed tho tellmg of timber, took off dutjos at IXuniivar 

and on the export of pejiper, and agreed to pay tho Portugaosc 500 

bales of rico every year.' 

In 1638 tho Kuglish, who hml Ihk-u cAtahliahed in Surat ainoe 
1612, opened factoriee at Kirwir_ and at Bhatkal. Those 
(actoriea were founded by WeJdol of Sir \Villjam Uourton'a 
company.' In 1C41> C ourtea 'a agent at Kurwitr offered to sell 
tho ^tory to tho prcsl<3ent of tho London Oiniipany at Surat, bul 
tho offer was declined." About IG.iO, Sehullzon, a Dutch writer, 
describes HonArar as once celebrated for trade and ship^nog, bat 
now mnch wciakoucd iis the Portugncso had drawn all the tnido of 
the c<ia»t to Goa.'" 'ITie Portuguese power in Honiivar ha4i fallen 
off since Clio wrival of tho Duttih about 1600. They had siitl 

■ Veto, Vkllt^ ni. 174. ) Dnik Tall«. til. lOCl. * DcU r>IIc, m. IBS. 

• DoU Vril^ lU. 200. » Dola VJlo, HI. 903. 

• I>ol> VgJI«, III. 100. PcU Vftllc dMonliM Ukuri u in > boMitiful pUio mth tlirM 
(ortiGod cst«B and tbnc dltuliM. Then) wm an onttr «»U, odIv a douM bMnlioo 
toiic«. liujd« «u a stori* null but wuak. Th« ptbco waa laM to b*v» MjMnIa 
fortiGutioni. Tbc town na v«ry Urgi: but had not mMiy hoaaea. It waa laid wA 
in brood ahodf atr*at«, and there wars many pooli of watte and a few growvu, 
DltU.. 2M. 

' laitmcdo, p. 6. ■ Rnica'a Anaola n( Ibe Rait liKtia Cowpaoy, I. 3(7, 367. 

• Braea'a Aiiaala of tbc Eaat India Ctwiidnv, 1. 419. 
>* SdinlitMi'a Toj-ivw, Aiw(«(d«n, isfs, tW, ICl, 





two cburcbcs, ono dedicated to St. Antonio and the other to St. 
Ciitherine. Many Purtugucae auuad»» or Huttlors, licenvllynmrriud 
nii-ii.livtxl ihoroiugrvnt luxury'. Tlie town coDftUtcd more of butstlian 
ui liuuti-.H. The »amii writer described Batikala or fihatkal as formerly 
independent but made tributary by tho rartagnese.' He notidea 
that large aunibLTH of the Kiloitrosu along tho oo«Mt had allowod 
thcioselveti to hv bftptUed and iuHtructed in Christian dootritiv, and 
th»t thcro were many churches and conrenta.' In 165H, the Beduar 
chief with the help of tho Dntoh, drove tho Portaguoso out of tho 
Hon&var fort.' In ItitiO, ucoordiog to Balduias, Kiinara waft rich in 
rico und otlici" product! and had a healthy tiiroog ;x!0p!e capable of 
ikiiy kind of work.* The boundary between Itij^pur and Shivappa 
Ndik of K^ara was the Uirjan river. Ue notices Cmtapor or 
Cbitaknl as a QLijApur town clexo to the »ea ; he deAcribea Aniidiv as 
full of woods and baslt and oxtmordinnrily rich in fish ; Honavar 
and Btintlcal were the only towns of inipurtaoca* 

In 105:1 K^trw&r appears in the list of tbo London Company's 
factories," and Ixjfore 1660 tho K&rw&r factory had greatly prosporod. 
ThefincHltnuKlinaii) Wt^tern India were oxporUxl from KArwdr. Tho 
weaving counti^ was inland to the east of the SahyMris at Uubli in 
lA^rw^ and at other centroH where tlio company had agents and 
omployod oa maoy a» r>0,000 weavers.' Betweon I662 and 1664 tho 
inland of Aojidiv was held by the strong Engitsli foree which had 
bci*n sent to receive Bomba y from the Portugnese. As the Portuguese 
refused to give ap iJomt>u,y tho English were forced to retire to 
Aujidivand t])oru in nWut iwo yoant (1<j02'Ii><>1) tho unhcalthineBS 
ol tho climate reduced their nunibora from 500 to 119.' 







1665, under their great leader ShivAii (IG27-1680), tho 
Manlthiis appeared devat^tating in Kflnam^ Mtor making a mid 
b y i-ca on narknlt ir in South Kinnru, Bhivilji diamisaed the greater 
[Kirt of liiM i\is-i- at Qokom, Booured the country, and exacted a 
tv>Titribution from Kib-wAr , towards which the Eugliah factory paid 
£112." Ho did not then take possession of any part of the diBtrict,"' 
After Bhivnji's mid tho factory at KiirwAr Kccms to have been chised 
as it is mentioned aa being roestabliRhcd in IG68." In 1670 tho 
whole of tJie Knglisb factory at Bhatkaj . which had been »tnrtod only 
in IfiOS, with a strength oi eigbtooa KlngUsbmen, were atU4;ked and 

> Marnnox Alonia, If o 


' ScbnltMi)'* VofngM, Amstaribm, lOTO, ISO. 

* fktiBlbon'i Votwcs AnwtcnluB, 1676. KXX 
' Fryer'a Kul ludu osd Pcnk, ft?. lutntoeu d* 1 

IS56,9,I0l TlMT<iiiattVoyiuia,V,a«l)Mri:Tli«r«ar«duUtyl 

t!t« fort ta ranck bcttur thaa tlia town, Tfcb i» MHoewMt dilKonlt tu «xpUin •• 
Tbcvunot'ii details ccoankllybckinft to aboat 16CU. Like tjulmltna li« nuy rtlorlo 
the PortugonM Unoholit*** wbo rcnuiiud after tli« Pcrtuguwo bad kNt tho fort, 

• Malater anil Conionndol Ooaat. Amatenbuu. 107% 68. 

■ Malaliir and Curoaundal Coaat, AnwKnUm, 1078; 98 ; BaldMU (n CbnniluU'a 
Voyaita. 111.357. 558. 

• Lowc'i laduQ Sivr, L 91. It bad hoot doaod in lb« prsvioos year. 
Tliiu9Ut«;'i Xow AoMUot, L W7, Haaultoa (Ditiu) Mya th»t abowt IGOO 

KinrM vujiiltuwlaadthewtaviuKaouiitry laid wmhilnr aUoabal army. This 
Men)* tt' l>v « coitlaBaa with Shiviji ■ raid an Hiilili id 167X. 8m bdow p. 126. 

* l>i>Ull« aro dvnn awlcr Anjidiv. * Grant J>n(r> ManUhia, 01 note. 
" Unut Datri MuUliib, W, 91. " Bruoe'e Aiuulv, U. 202, 






killed by U>e people wbo were enraged beoaiiao a bnU-d og belouging 
to one 01 the foctors had killed a sacr&d cow,' OTSSnTSOth 1071. the 
F ortagueao ooncludpd » trroty with tbo Bcdoor o liiol under whicntbeT 
woro allowed to oalitbliitli faetoriw at Hon^Tar. at l^rk ii||ir in SoatS 
Ktoam about twenly-five miles south of Uoafirar, ana al Man g al or 
on tbe MaUbtir coaet. The cbi«f also agreed to pay a yearly 
tribute of 1500 baioB of rieso.* Under n TtirUior treaty oo the loti 
of December Kj22-J^^ PortugDe«e were allowed to ouild factories 

Kalj^npgr in South K4nar«.» In lti7 2 Alildil Shdh of Bij^pur 
died leavi^ do heir but a child Ramud ^hikandar. Takiog adrantago 
of tbo discord at BijAptir, Sbivljii »&nt ao army into the rich 
nanu^tnHng dietriota of lUtarwSr, mclced Uiibli, and laid the 
oountry waste, dsRlroying everything which he could not carry 
away/ Sbivitji also incited &U the dependuits of Biidpar to rebel. 
In July 1078 the PbanidAr or govonior of KiirwAr reroit ed, Heised the 
tnbordinalo olticvr^ who weru loynl to Blj&por, Bttaok«d the Diwds 
who wouUl not join hint, and laid iuegi> to tiw English luctory, 
because the factors would not snpply him with ammotution,' 

About the end of KoTomber 1673 tho well known English 
traveller Frver visited tho Kjlnara coast on hia way to Bombay. 
Between HEw^^Iaads near Bhatkal in tho soutb, ho i^iw mr 
ekulking Jfalabir prows waiting their booty." Honltvar, in hilly 
barren land, was divided between the Dutch and tbe Portngnew; 
It had a castle without soldiers and a town with poor bnilaiDgs. 
The Gostlo hud boon built by tbo Portugnow and soiiwd by tho 
Kiinnreens witli the help of the Duteb Dctween whom and tho 
Portugals the town was divided. The Naere bacl no footing in 
HonArarand tho Koch's not much. Many of the people bad received 
tbo Chriattan faith ; those who had not woru ttie most impiously 
religions of any of tho Indians, being marvelloasly conversant witli 
the devil. The people had good laws and obeye<I thum, and travellod 
without guides on broad roads not along bye-jiathn as in ]Ualab£r.^ 
Fryer went op the Mirj&n river in a vessel rigged tike a brigantine. 
Hirj^n was in the same dominions as Honavar but was only the 
firagments of a town. On lauding Fryer was welcomed by one of 
the Gentilo princes of MirjAuj who, like an Italian prince, was QOft 
aahamed to be a merchant. He was seated under a nhady tree on 
a carpet spread on the sand with his rotinuo standing around him. 
ile was waiting for the prot«ctor of K&naru, for the lUia of Bodnnr 
was then a minor. The protector eame anon with lords ** 

) Bni«a'« Auikla, U. SOZ ; Ibmiltoti'i ^lew Accosot, I. S6T, 28S. 

* InrtniMM, p. 8. * iMtniccM, p. 8. 

'Prvnr'sRMt IndiAuul Penu,98iOraie'aBiatixioalPng«ieDt*,M i Blp 
eu ; tiraat DulTii MnrdithA*, 1. 18& 

*Onne'> HinUiriual Fra0n«nU, S5-38, 4IX 

■ EmK Inditt and I'vnia, 57. The tULkbir pintet, be my*. m« tho wotst 1 
vnthMOOMtgdagin fleet*. Th«y an tct ont byUio aroat nwn Mhocv. (IMtt«^S5)i. 
At K* ncttr Gob Fitm im« ftttMkod by % Iwr^itoat ol Mal^itr pttUc* with abont 
■Ixty Qglitiiijt mca bcaidM ttnnm who throw >tluk pots and (1m*1 ohuabcn lod 
amall Kbiot, flvng •UoM, and daiud lomji Luiom, oad wore wilb diffiMlty drivMi off 
(Ditto, lSI,laSll '^Pryor, 67. 





guards armed with swords and gsaaUoto, partiRatis adorned irith 
bells und fcuthera, as also were tbc horsea tnat carried bis latcarry 
or army nith sack trappings ae the finest tratn horsos in Englnnd 
then wore. Tbe protector, rowed by a gun^ of tbirty-aix in grCat pomp, 
vontured off bo eee tho English ships. Hi:* iimeic was lond and witB 
koUlcdrams nuwlu n uoiac not unlike English coopers driving home 
ho»]M oil iheir hogaheada. lie weut aboard two or three ships who 
entertained him with thuir gnus and choers prcscnling him with 
scark-t clolb.' At ilirjiin, pepper, mltpetre, and betelunt were 
token in for Surat. Alter tearing Min'ttn Fryer's fleet met the 
Kerenge, an English man-of-war pink, with twenty-two guns and 
seventy odd men, commissioned trom the President at Bombay to 
scour the sosm for pimt4.-!S. A little further was Anjidiv, an island 
fwatoA for tho bnrial of some hundred Bnglifibiiien. KArwiir, with a 
hillv and indirfert^nt woo<ly B<hi;re, with iiiletii scattered to and again, 
had been the chief port of Bijilpur, a perfect monarch who hardly 
paid tribate to the Mogbal. I«tely a grand traitor >Sbivd^i, carrying 
all bof'iro him liko n mighty torrent, ha*! bocomo nui^ter of it and 
of all the country to (Jujar&t. Hhiv&ii had well nigh forced the 
English factory at Ktirwitr and had done other ontrnges on tho 
English. Flo wa^ everywhere named with terror, T\iv pewpio wore 
partly Afoors partly Gentoos. 

filiivAj i continued liLs attacks on the Bijdpur territories in KiiuaiB. 
Ilis first attempt on the important hill-fort of Pbon da ^led.'' A 
flocond assault was more successfnl, and by 11)75 ho bad gained 
poss«s«ion of Ankola, Pundit that is Pliouda, CndonUi or KAdni, and 
SemisMr or Shiveshvar. In tlie same year ihe town of Kiirwiir waa 
burnt becanwe the c-a^lle was not enrrendered ; the English factory 
was taken but no violence was done to the factors ; and ihe country 
as far as the Gnng&vali riyor bvcamc subject to Sbivilji.^ Tho 
queen of KAnaift, that is of Bednur, scut gifts to 8hiviiji, prayed 
for bis protection, agreed to pay a yearly tribute, and allowed an 
agent or r*i/;i7 of Sbiv&ji'e to live at her conrt.* It was liclicvcd 
in 1077 thitt Shiviiii intended! to taku Bodnur and add Eanara to his 
oouquosta but (hu lotontion vms never carried out/ 

In October I Gl't Fryer paid a se gQad , vi sit lo E^nara. He came 

from Bombay with tbe ctief of the KSrwdr factory. On the way, 

tifiir Riijapnr in Ratndgiri, they passed tShiviji'a navy thirty xmall 

t ve»solif, theadmiral wearinga white tlagaloft. AtKArmir 

L f of the factory and Fryer were met on tho ri^-wr by tho 

' PoVs !*»¥«]», 57. 58, 

* rii'~'>)<tji ija thu PhootU piM in the »oatli<cait cnraor of Ratiitf0i4 oomntada «iio 

' roulm int.:) North Klnom. Khiriji tttookcd it tDMan;kr<$TSanil>(targf«*t 

Lit thuoaJ of A|>riL wbctbor by tra«cb(«f, waantt, or ■•rt«Bd«r i* not knovn. 

tjrtcv 1 MutorkaJ Pntgmonti, M. lii lli&S it «m attockeJ xad •onrkriy Mum 

hy IVm Fr*iiei« de IVvora, tiM! Pmiagai^eViceiof, tha'.Stmbhifi bad the (ito moved 

two luitea t4 the wHtl!' •'- "'••!> ■< .<-:.''i \F»iUn|i:»(). Oimc'i UiBtoritokl F^kgiaaiti, 

VH : u^!ae\h 17*™K ■ : ■2]r,. 

', 170. Orm> : : •, lU) iMfii MirjiUi, but the Bailnar cUat 

boil ttlrly C'XilIHlKd U|l tu UlD iiwiK^VuIl. 

•<fruit Unir, I- 1H3. ' OniK'a nirtoriwl FragnwntB, SSL 



(Bombay Ofttetteen 






governor with two bargos, and on lAiidino: were weJconkod hy thfl' 
urdnaaco of tfal^ EiifjUHb Uousu. The KngUfh IIdiiso was <m vi ana 
of tliu rivur nbouc ihree mile^ from iU tnoatbi' Hurvoyin^ n plcHHaiit 
i&Uiiiil irt^xikeil with rame. It wo» in a dolic^to mtad tlmlaoil of 
Catteeo E^uire, to waom it h&d lon^ iieforo been ^pon by the king 
of UiUpur.^ The house had only lately been boUt It was a gtatoly 
mansion, four squjuv, and guarded by bnlwarks at the cumnmiuliuf; 
Donors. Two year* Iwforc whvn ShiTaji attacked the pliice th» 
bonso WM not finUhtxl, hut, though the tnwn was burut the 
factor* were able to defend iliemselves with the help of a i^mall 
pinkorguuboat. Since Fi^or had been at Kiinvnr in 1073 Shiv/iji'it 
power had greatly incnwtM-d. Besides the Ktim'ir eustlo, ahuuc threo 
miles np the river from the English Huutte, he had taken Ankola, 
Puudit that is Phonda the cbinf place of Bij&pur power, Cndorah 
that ifl Kadni on th« K^Iinadi about sixteen milo« ouat of KArytiTf 
and Seniisaar or 8hiveNhrar across the river from K^w&r, all T«rv. 
Btiong plaoea." Stiiv&ji bad a governor of the town of K&rw&r ana 
a commandant of tho castle, and over tliem the superinteadeot 
of a flyiiig unny. ' Almost all the placea of tmst wor« in tbu 
hands of ItnUiinituH who acted neither for the public good nor 
for common honoaty hut foe thi^ir pn\-atu interest only. They 
asked moroliaiilH to come and settle only to rob them, or 
tnrmoii thuui on tti'<couiit of customs. Openly they wore mighty 
ECalouH for (lioir innflter'a dui>!<, but, in the comer, they took mom for 
tfaemnelvcfl than for their master. Jt vrsus a grievous losa that so 
much of the cooat had hllen into Shiviiji's power; where Shir&ji 
had (inythiug to do tnulo was not likely to settle. Taxation had 
been much milder and the people far more comfortable under tho 
king of Bijipur. llio Bijiipar regent had lately Iieen ui;:<a«siuated 
and a« botli Sbivdji and the MoghnU wore bidding for the 
kingdom matters wore likely to fall from had to worse. Shivuji 
had been aided in the oonnuest of North Kiinora by tho d«/"i or 
lieutenant of tho'(f#'ii who hud Ixx-ii the local Bitii^iiir goTemnr, 
^Vhon Fryer retichod KAnviir, tlie dahi diagnstea with ShivJi^i's 
treatment of iiini, wuamoring about the country with a force declano); 
he would restore his former miutor. He attacked Shiv&ji's giuml 
in Kirw&r town and forced tliem to retire into tho casllo. On huth 
BidoA the fighting men were miserable souU for soldiers, like old 
llrilous half-naked and very fierce. They marched without order, 
witli a loud noii<« of music and a tumultuous throng. The p<'ti:,Ii', 
uum women and children, witli whut httio subc<tjtneu tliey hiid, ili--i 
boloro them and sought shelter under the guns of Lite tlngil^h 
ilnilM). It was pitiaolo to hear what the people suffered nnder 
Shiv'iii'i r^lo- The dfmi4i hud lands imposed on them at double 
(V, '. tatoH.and, if they refujied to tiikuthDiQ, they wcrucarried 

I,. i:iiiu»ho(l almoat to death, and most inhumanly racked 

■ ■.lilt, 1. 2es, 

I . t" $ir William CuMrtm \>y wliow Conipuiy tbo (Mtory 

' ". , I' !&.'>) Krvur Kty* Puadlt I* Iha diiet lircnKitli uf Bijitiiur. 

W *N «**»«*■'" IK" «)i''l*"* (rf Oiu l«« oounfcty IwyeoiJ Ktrwir tvUuwod. 




nntl (<"rlHroH till thoy confoRswI where their weftUli wns hifl. When 
f ryi-r waa in K^w^ Sliiviiji's ofEcerB had several UnthmaiiR iu linitx> 
whom thoy drabbed on the shonMers to ostivmu nn^iah and tore 
thc-ir ik<sh with rod-hot pincers. The Dea^iit in turn did the same 
to tlio Coinhieit. 'llic granc fiah prejod on the little fi»h both by 
land and by seK bringing tbetn and ihoir bmiliea into eteroAl 

In Febroary 1676 Fryer with ono of tJio Kitnrilr (actors started 

on ft trip to Qokam. Near AnkoU hill, they experioncod a 

lively portrailnre nf Holl, aa tho forcat was on Sre, apparontly 

pnrpoeely bomty because it had Bheltergd tho rebel J<i/pi. No food 

WTM to bo had. Throogh thu ini<|iiity of tha daici, iho people of a 

fishing village whei^ tho Iravellers had meant to rest., woro loffc 

withont fish, boata, rice, or net«. Fryer and his frionds spent the 

tiijfht ^tin^ under a mango ti«o and by daybro-nk made for 

Ankolii. Hwro thoy found the market half-burul and the romnining 

ahcipti ten&ntlcsii. Shiv&ji hod not spared the town when ho touk 

the coetla whicli was a fine plat^v and of goi^A form comroanding (o 

tho river Gaug&rali, the utmost cxt«iit of Shiriji's power aontJi- 

warda. No provisions were to be had, but on the strength of some 

game which they shot Fryer and his frieuds walked to the Gang&valt 

rivor. TTioy were ferried over and spent tho night in Qon^^la tnat ia 

Oangfivnli. Tim waa tlio fint town in tho country then called Cnnatoc, 

though formerly the Konkan op to Gujarit had been so called. 

Tho people looked cheerful and lived in poaoe nndcr a quiet govem- 

taont. At tiokam thv p«rty changed their Knf^li^ih dross for 

Mobammadan. Thoy found a gretit festival, inimenBe crowdi; o£ 

people, and rich offerings. Tho people annoyed Fryer by the 

oarvlMsnosH of their behaviour, neither regarding tho novelty nor the 

gaudinm»uf hi» Moor's clothcx. From Uokorn tVyor tnivftlled over 

a rocky barren hill toTndera that taTadnattbemoutbof theMirjiin 

^ — From Tudera they went in tho Company's barj^ or btiloon to 

i:t wher« tht-ir brink Bunyuo, a young spendthrift whose father 

was l&teiy dead, treated them to dancing we nchea. From Mirjitu they 

rptumed by boat to K&rwir. At Kirwiir no beef waa to be bought ; 

-ime n-os abundant, and tho English hw-tors went to tho wood^ 

: limes for a week at a time. Tiw^v lived on fish, water-fowl, 

ipeacocks, green pigeons, spotted deer, Mtabar, wild hogs, and aom&- 

•'■■"- wild C0W8. ^'igera and leopards were common in the wooda.' 

spent tho rains of lli/C at Kiirwfir. T)ie chief products of 

'untry were, rice, nnt^hni, millet, hemp, turmeric, gingttr, and 

' les. The soil waa good, yielding two crops, one which ripened 

[itcmbcr, the other about Mnrclt. The *.!eond crop wns fjmwn 

yreftt. pniuH, water being bronght along guttera. Throiif,')! the 

^rrany of ShivSji thi-ee-iiuartci-a of the land was nntillod.' ilicrft 

was not mocb trade at K&rwar and the factory was decaying, merchants 

Iwing out <3l heart to buy nod mU bvoanae of the embroils of the 

oonnlry. Tba state of the people was wrttchod. The artisans 







'P<7«, 146-117. 
B 816-17 

'rryor, mm. 


[Bombay Quettwr. 





could hardly l!vo for tlio Baninns who ground tlicir taotm as tbe 
Dosttis groimd thu ixvcas of ilic basbaudmea.' 

Sondft wa g fiunoua for ita pepper, tiie b«8t and tW d«M-o«t in tin 
world. 'ITie chief lived at Sonda, baing tribatarjr or rather feudatory, 
bound by tttlegianoo uh well us piirso to tho princes of Bijdpar. The 
Sooda RAjft's peppor-ooontrj wa» eKtimatod to yiuld a rurt-nue of 
£1,000,000 {Pa^iu 30 Ukha) of which he had to my one-lialf to 
Bij&par, Shiriji somettme« sharing tho tribute. The Sonda cbieE 
had 3000 borso and 12,000 foot.* In tbe iK>atli of tho district, 
aooording to Fryer, tbe liinita of the.^gda|j£j}ower were along llie 
abore from the GangdTali river to th e Zampr|i|in'| fflffntnr of tho 
MalabArs, and inlnnd up to tho popper moootAins of Sonda and tbe 
procinclB of Siirji KhAn, porliiipit the Af UMulra/ui governor of SA%-Bniir.' 
Prom Fryer's details it aeeitifl that shortly after bis aooef»>on, Sbam- 
ithankar o r SoroaaJrara ttAi k. Shivappa's snccessor, was mnrJer gJ 
Ij^TiTs nobles.* Ha waa auoccodou 
Bjtav:inpa Xdik w ho se motjter w as ma ^ ^ 
ttie auUionty of one 'I'imi or 'fjnuiiaya N&ik, ' who from a toddyrnan 



bad by his viinniDg policy more tban tmeprowess and valoar rai<ted 
himself to bo genorol and protector.'^ Tbi a Timi Ntii k, aboat lt>74, 
made au agreement with Sarji Kli^n, a Bij&por prince, to attack 
Balil Kh&n, the Biiiipar reRont. TLey advancea north,but were mot 
by BuUI [Ch&n, and dofoatcd, andTimiwasalain. Tho Bodnur nobles 
confessed that this was a puni!<hmoQt for killing thuir lato chief* 
They vowed allegianoe to tbe young priafi«, and irausaoled oU »tlrt« 

ilfaBrft \n b'ft Mn»i* ' 

In 167 4, M^ dhu Linga N.4ik, tho chiof of Sonda, died. He was 
BucooedoJ by Im son Sad^shw, who niled tilljt>!)7._ SaUiShiv, wbo 
was the most vigoroUH nilcr of his family, aeema by 1679 to ha?« 
spread his. power to ifao avtt, as in that year tbe Eirw&r foctoa 
complain of the exactions of tbe Sonda cbitif.' Ho was saccosafnl 
in bi8 contests with SambhAji (1650 -1690) , and after I OS.") seems 
to have ceased to pay even n<j m itiaTal legiance to tba }kfar/ttJi<ls, and 
nnlike hia predo»%aorit to have ckimod tho title of rAia or in- 
dopondeat prince. lie divided bis territory into Uplftuil or B ^ 
GlUt and Lowland or P ayan Gh^ Sonda .* 

In 1676 thoKdrwiir factory Bufferod &om the exactions of fche loot] 
chief.' In 1678, on account of tho noocfisity of ruducttons, and in 
1079, bi-oausA of tho loviea of the Portuguese and the Sonda chiof, 
it was determined to withdraw tho ustabUahment"* After Shiviji'a 

of tfao 

> fVyot, 103. ' Fryery ICS. » FiyCT. 182. 

' Baeh«BU (IIL 137) name* him Somoiltlkani ud ealU hnn ■ nui 
ohAnutvr. Hv wu kltl«d ia ISTO. 

• Ffyor. 162. • Prj«-, 163. » Bruco'i AwmU IL 42I.**S. 

* Under i*U 180S, bnt the pu*«ntph U » luminary of wvenl ymr*. Grant 
(UanUUf, \nt myt Om tUtdi td KArwAr continued iadepcnikut and ai usual - 
>acb cironinttMieca •Moincd tli* till* u[ tija. 

' Btuco'i Aitiub, VL 399 ; Omw'a Hialorical Fnu^naata, 209. 

■* Bnoa'a AodoIi. 11. Ol miiI 413. At Ui« gcuMal rodaetiain in ICTd the Coort i 
Diroctun w«Jv-ed that Kinntr imd Rijjpur in Ratadgjri ahonld bo rcj ^^-r-ntjii 
natlvaagant*. 1*t.-'. ImlLui Nitvy, I. RS. ItudanMffl If UiMWfnlcjs »^r,B 
o«. Ownpart Unm, ii. *21, 4J», 44S, 47*. * 


jfteftUi in 16S0, hie (ton SamUnji (1(>80-1C90) wa* iiblo for u time lo 
Keep liiit KAnara pysweasiona. In Jfi J^j Saiabli^ji iimn-rijlletl with 
the Fortuyaea e. and determined to take the iHlaml olADJidi?. But 
the Porta^csc vicero; threw into the islnod a etrong deLachmcut of 
troops, ftnd thv llnrlitlilU were forc«d to wiUiJmw.' 

After thd Eailuro o£ Sanibbdji*!! attompt on Anjidiv tlio i^oiiU^ 
chief, though nominally a feudatory of Saiubh^ji'a, openly joined 
the FortagaeEe. Sambbiiji in pvrKou Ii-d a doUt-bmcnt agunst 
Sotido, bat ftppnrvntly without etftioL Id 16BA tW Portogaew 
stirred the Deo^a of Sonda and lUrw&r to revolt and hel{>ed theui 
w-jth troops.' Ssmbh&ji was too much occupiod with the Emperor 
to talco iQudi Dotioo of thuir prooeodings, and from that time all 
nll^iance to Stunbbliji aeema to Iiave pca»ed.* In 1681 and Iij82, 
aepart of the Boheme to improve theposition of the Eogliah Company, 
.Sir John Child, tho IVeeidoat at Snrat, was ordered to restore the 
Kiirwiir factory on a larger «cftlo than boforcv' In 1083 tho iovost- 
riMi-ttts from KArwar n-cra coDsiderabla^ In the following year the 
riri'lish were nearly driven out of Kfirw^. The crew of one of two 
I viMselti, tiie Mexico and tho China, which had coma to Kirw&r 
. argoes of pepper, stole and kilioil a cow. 'Jlioy were mobbed 
the people, and hring in defence had the miufortune to kill two 
The peofdo eeuKd the peppor and in apitv of offers oE 
r. :i woro 90 onngod tliat thi^ factors' tiven were in danger 

aud Lite Uouso seoroed likely to bo destroyed. The preaouce of the 
Company's shipping prevented an attack.* In ItiS? Bij&pur waa 
I by Aurangsob, and with the help of Lho SJtvanar cniof (ho 
Ji .; lutltt pronipLly etitabli!»hed their power over the Kilnarcso couutry/ 
both tho chiefs of Sonda and ot Bednnr agreeing to pay tribate." 
' rding to Wilks, in 1700 tho Moghals hold tho KarafUak and all 
'lila Gh^ or country above tho £Sahyildri:« with Stivannr as 
LliLiir capital* 

In 1695 tho Italian traroUor Otfmolli Careri p(u»od through aomo 
of the terrioryof tlie Soudachielj'wiiiJin lu^ inldiy names Sondttkirani- 
koraja. lie was lord of some villages among the mountains, bat 

' OniMi'i Biatorieal F^^^■lta, III. ' Onne. lU. 

> Gnat Duff, L 2K, give* IGSt m tbc dat< »i which Sunbltlji's aaiireaaoir in 
noitli Klnon ojune to kd and. * Bmoc's AnnaU, II- 46a 

" rHrtAila «ro given oiulotTnidc Orme'i ItiiWicat FVagiii«iit>, SD9. 
• r.iotiin to Surat, 18tJ!i September IBS* ; Brac«'i .innAli. IL M5. 
- ,\ci»tilmt[ to OmM (llutarickl Fragmeati^ 144) Uubli in DhdrwAr mrrtniloroil t« 

a M<<:;hn]f<4aciii !(»<.">. 

' \\ ilka' Sooth al ludi*. T. 3ie. Wiltu {I. lOO) notices tbit AvtuiftU'li (lunuliBd 
tbc lltilnur chtof (or MttiQjr on a throne, andiullcd him Amiiulirorluiillonl. Miiiiro 
ia Board of B«vDnHo, 3laL M.iy IMUO, W-M. The dftt« kt wbich tho BcdKiir chk( 
Iweiui to yay tribute ■nniiu iliiulrtfiit. Wilka in nba pMni[* (I' U) Ri'" ^0>M 
«»I i.i saollwr II. SIS) liV.Ki. Th«Mo(j:ttaIacatiibli*faod thcsuclTMinUMmrbotwoeo 
1031 bimI II)9S (WilkK, I. lei). Titoir Cwul-quurterv were at SJra In the north of Um 

t«uv>EKy<. au.) 'i^n coaliotnil tlwii hoiul-qiurter* till it wm loet t0 the UMithU ia 
757. |{W» MYimro. II. 183. 

7 2ia IiilGa5th«It«ltt|Btravcnerac(neIUCM«ri(CliiiT«hi]l'«Tnireila,IV. 

S' liondii flirt iu tbo hwiibot MogtudaKadUioiroonnttyocimiftgclotetoGoA, 

1' .2I(]) dMcribua tlio SubhA ol Pbond* aa diKming the poor coootiy penpln 

■,v (nttawa aoiattimw i<ay thoaMMila of rujiiKa. In tbo cxtncts (KUiiott 

. VII. V»] of tlin 31i4 yaar ut AiiruigKb'a rdgo, that ia IfiSO, B«a*r la 

dtMiiUd M the omionl o( llio K»iuitak fUU. Thii anut b« Ikidui «t Bwbdu. 



1670' 1097, 

Gaum I 

[Bombay QuctUot, 





BtnelU Ckurri. 


(ribntnry luid 8nl>ii>ct to tlie Great Moflhal irlioin ba was oWgod to 
serve in war.' Tim cooutry was ezcwclinglf diffioull to truTul in nod 
fall ot robtxin.' Thv c-lik-r Uvud at Sambrini aboat seron miles ftouth 
of Hnlijiil. It had a good market aaA an earthsn fori with walla 
soren Hi>aua high. Tlio chief waa said to make £30,000 (Ra. 3,00,000), 
out of this one vilUgo, whicli, says Caifri, shows how cruelly tlio 
idolators uiid MnnlmiiiiR opprc^tH tlio people.' In 1690 the KAnriir 
^tory xeoiQ to haro l>eea prosperoua. In tbia year a direct tradtJ 
was opened between K&rw&r and Gugtand, perhaps owing io tho 
extreme depressioa of lloiuhnty in conwK{ucn<^; of the failure of the 
Child*' solienoe Co act indeiiendenlly of the Moghal Govenuneat.* in 
lOftO. Ovington remarka that io KSrw&r deer, antelope, peacock, and 
wild bulls and oowa wcro almost the daily furniture ottho factor's 
tablu br»u)fht homo by tho moK^nger^ without ntiy fnrtbor expeuno 
lluin that of powder and ahot.'^ In \&ii the chief of the Kngliah 
^tory was held in great respect by the leading people of tbo 
neighbourhood whoa with his followcn ho started lu hunt. A pack of 
twvitty Kngliah doga, good for game, waa kept and ea<:h allowed two 
pounda ot rice a thiy at the Company's cost. One day within tho 
apaco of two hours more than twulvt- dt-cr, two wild oowg with their 
calves, and four or fivft hogn, ^vnro killvd. At the cloHO of the day tho 
chief was led homo by tht> whole company, which included most of 
the people of distinutioa in the neigbboorhood with their vassaU 
and sorrunts, who at tho factory gntv made him a comptimont and 
doparted. So great waa the fameofK^rw^aK a place tor sport that 
two yoaqg men of high family, a (Jormau of the bouse of Lenilxmrg 
nnd a son of Lonl (lortng, cnino otit and stayed at K&rwir.* A 
few years later the factoi-a wei-e bettor huitbands of their money. 
They disdiargod all their doga and other auperfluiliea. Only onootd 
custom was kept, strangers from Europe were located with pr«tty 
Uaok female danoera;' 

During the laat ten yc&rs of the sercntoonth contnry the Dutch 
made every effort to depress the Engttah popper Irodo at Kilrwiir, 
and in 1697 the Mariithits laid Kifa-wtb* waste.* Tn 1701 the tmdo in 
whiu< ]>opper was enconn^cd,' and IhoKiirw&r faelory waa continued 
as it appears in the list of places Itelonging to the two East India 
Companies at their union in 1707>8.*<' In 1697 (August 17) the 
]Pjj||J^2S^^ made a t ryatv w ith the chief of Sonda, under which tlittf' 
jiTOrSiUlowod to cut iimbor and to build a church." 

Tho history of K^nara during the eighu-euth cenfniy belongs 
to two main sections : Up to 1763, during which the north of tho 
district as far as Mirj^n was undor Sonda and tho south was under 
Bodiuir ; and after 1763. when the w hole dis trict was oouquercd by 
Haidar A^li (I761-l755]of Maisur. TTcoiitmuod to be held by hia 
»on Trpti SultAn C17«2-I799) nntU on Tipn's overthrow in 1799 the 

' Cliurohai. IV. 217. * ChatcWa, IV. 818. » Chan*ni, IV. SI9. 

* Soe BanlMr Guott«cr, Xfll. 490. < Vojago to 8«rat, %ft 

* BMmlton'i New Aceouiit, I. 3el | Ao.lcnoti'a Wastvm India, IS5-IML 
'nwntlton'aKov Afvoiiiit, 1.264; Aixli)n>oii>WMlani Iiitlia, 135-136. 

* Braoo'i Amu)*, lll.-Jla • RiBoe Annala, III 427 

** Bnioe'a AhmU, 111 . B61. <> laitnocw do Harquoc do AIu{;&a, li • 1] 

Chapter V' 

wliola distriot passed to the BritJali. In (ho be^snini; of tlio 

oighteeoLh centniy in tho north of Iho district, Baaarn j-''"K"' tho 

fe onda chief , who hiid siK^cecded bis father SadiiaiiiT iii HifV , con- ^,,-5jj„-_ua 

tinagd. to rnl e till 1745. BasaTu SMias to have farther increased tho -1"'!^^^^ 

power of Sonda to which Ma fathe r Sad fahiv had so creatly added. ^^ Soada, 

Thu decline of the Munitliiis autTtho frieodlineeB of tSo Uoghala to /L_mti-J7fi4 

whom ho paid tribato, and of tb» Portagueao with whom ho was in 

dose alliance, combined to enable Basava to spread his power as t&r 

Bonth ae MirjAn. According to a local man aeonpt history, in 17 1 6, tho 

oiQ lona 01 kftrwAr Am i Kmlra , about ftisteeu mik>» east of K&rwt^ 

were pulled down and Id lijeir place new forts were built,^^^^ 

sh iygad callod after Basava's father at Cbi takal o n the no^u^ 

right bank of tho rivur mouth, and Kuj^yj^d on an ielntid off 

8adiiflhiTt(ftd.^/4n 17 07 th e P ortqypeee m a^lea w ^t^afct r with tho , «(rf»«r. 

fi Bdnnr cn tef under wbiob the leave ^antea co Eheo Ttl bolding fac- ' ' I'W-il 

tones at Miniin i IIoniiv»r, (.'huml'ivar. M dBhatkalwas confirmed." 

Ill 1 713 th e rortiigHCtte ami the king orpSnar^ho wiia always 

pmu'i una troublesome because K^ara was the granary of all his 

noiglibours, bad a disagreement about a Bednor vessel which was 

Muizud by tho PurtiigiiCiW for tnuling without a Portugneeo paso. 

'Vhv viceroy sent a neet of eleven j>aUa« or galivats and itfiO men 

uuder Jose Pereira de Brito, a man of valour. The Bquadroit left 

Qua on tbe loth of January 1713, and on tho 18th arrived nl the river 

of Camata or Kumm . tlie firat river in the kingdom of K^arw. 

Here eleven BeUnur sliipa wore captured and burnt. From Kmnta 

tho Soet went to HontlYar, and aftvr doing nothing there passed on 

I wculy-Bvc miles Bontli to Bju-kulm - which thoy burned, captoring a 

fort aud destroying ten Ampa and much merchaitdi»e. From 

Barkalnr thoy sailed to KalvAnpur in llalahar which also they 

destroyed.' Tlicso lo»e8 "6Boght the Botlnur c hief to terms. On 

agreed to be a loyal and faithfnl friend of Ijie Portngnese; to pay 
floOO (Xs, 30,000) andSl&Obalcflof rice towards tho Portogueso 
wnr expenses, and to coul inuu to Miy 2!l>00 bitles of rice a year of which 
'loo bales were to bo wliite and clean. He promised not to allow 
Arab or other ships unfriendly to tho Portngnese, to visit his ports. 
Til? iigrocd that tho Portuguese should e»tAbliHU a factory at Mongalor, 
and promiood lliat Uicir factor nhould be treated with respect, and 
that the factor and vicar would settle cases in which Christiana were 
concerned. Ho allowed tho Portuguese to build churches where 
tbiru were Christians, and engngod that his officers would do the 
T]iL-->ionano3 no hann, that he would keep no Christian slaves, that 
111.' would not allow Christian men to marry Uindn women, and 
th»t bo would send unchaste Christisn laymen to the factor of 
]M:tiigaIor. The Pcrtogucsu in rotum agreed to holp the king in any 
war in which he migla engage ; thoy promised that every year two 
Kiinara boats shoold be allnwed to go to Ormuz to fetoh horses ; and 
engaged that their priesta would force do one to become a Christian.* 

* (}ranlDDiriHat4tbla,I.I9S)niyellikt SxUaUrgftd wm built hy ShWiji. Ho 
worki miy tui-c bcva boguo by hfn aod lUu«li«d by tho Sonda t^Xtt, If 8«diUhlT 
«nl (Kit IbuuvA wm tht boildur tlw fort miut hkve b««u Aniabed b«fam IW}. 

'lutnwcM, 9. *0>rwtagMM«,VU.Ii8-lsa. «OsFoitagMM,VU.Iff7-in. 


D| OcDtory. 

In Octolwr 1715, Mr. Stephen Strutt, the Deputy Governor' 
of Bombay, was sent to taqmre into cbargps of mismanaKomeut 
which had bcvn brongfat against tho KibwAr, Tullichcrri, K&Iikat, 
and AngvDgofaotonn. Strutt roacUod K^nv^on thelilatof October 
and found three Portogueae TDssels cruizing at the mouth of tfad 
river to keep the coast clesr of pirates.^ Ho left a list of qnratiooa 
to bo answered by the Elinvitr huton, and, on his rotuni from 
tho south, »ecma,to have been Eiacisfiod with their repUiiii, as, uiiltko 
AQgengo,Kilrwi&r passed the inqniiy- without punishment or censure.^ 
A long-standin;; dinputo which it was hoped &tr. Strutt would settle 
was regarding ihu Kugii^h sliip Mounoon, which luid be«ii seixed bjj 
Aogri» in 1707, and immediately aiutr nt the request of the Englis 
recovered by the Portngaese, Since 1707, tho Portuguoso ha 
persisted in refusing to give up tho ehip, andMr. iStrutt'sclTort«lBC 
wit!) an little suoceait as the previous negotiationa.^ 

In 1715 the removal of the Sosda cliief s fort from old KAr witr, 
about three miles above the English Housio, t o Sadtehiyinwi tX the 
month of the river, seriously interfered with Uie eafecy of tho 
factory. It was now little more than a gentoel prison.* After the 
Sonda Rdja's battery at the month of the river was complet«4 
Mr. Taylor, who was tlion iho chief of tho factory, wim foolish eaotigl_ 
to annoy Bu«a\'a Ltnga by Mixing a wreck which came BBh»re~ 
about four miles from the factory.' The Souda chief besieged the 
factory for two months during the rains. Two attempts to rcliev«^ 
tLo fuctoiT, from the Htonninc«i of the season and the inoftlciono] 
of some of tho troone, were little better than foilares, and though, 
with tho help of a trlendly Muaalmnn the siege of the factory 

■ BMido* tbo MilvaiM ud tho AnjHu who ' very impwbtiUy ' fir«d at Mr. 8troU 
on hb w»r <la<iD Ibe ooMt, ui Anb n«ot, ineladlng sue ship of MTDiitir-ta«ir gnu 
two at (Ixly, on* ot fifty, «(ght««i> of ttilr^-tw» tu twolre, uid buow row*l)aala < 
«igbt to lour suna, k«pt fa sw« tli» whole ooMt of Wecteni InilU. UamUUia (171' 
in Loyi't Indian Hmvy, I. 9i. ' L»w'« Indian Navj-, I. 83. 

*Tbe d«taOa of tna caplurv of the Monaoua, • nhanioUtutic and is Ha time i 
fsmona OMa. are Uiui rvoonltd in th« Bonhtjr Qnutcrlj Kerjew, UL % la 
b^naiiig ol 1707 Biitkul am K&rwAc wna tiia wwio of the capture of oa 1 
Aif nsfflod tho UomooD bjr the Cirtva MvsgMa Iliat is Um Sbivijii or UaiitliSa i 
GkMiataRittiiiciTi The Englisb sbtp Annagaeb rtwting from I^Aroir to Manjpi' 
aoticod that a licet of (oar gralw and thir^-flvo galtvabi nnilar Kihi I'rabbti^ ' 
scncnJ of Atinia'a ficet, lu^- in Bod oovt^ (hat ■ in UoitkuL "thaif did aot 

UM AwraagMib. Off Antidiv th« AnnuigMb net the ahip Uonaoon bonnd 

ward*- TIh- oiptoin told tlia inpcroaigoa of the Moiuoon that a pirate Am* In i 
naitin^' ufl KAro'ii and offcrod lo cMort liini to Capo lUm*. The lupercargea aaid I 
did not fur the pittitce and tbe Awnngnb laft. Early id the taatuiag the SkiiJijii eaa., 
out and altaoked the Moiwoimi wbieb nmnderad after thrae houra. Tlie Monanon 
WM bitiucht to Baitknl core sad tho BDropoHM were alhywed to go to Kirn ir factory 
Tbo chi«l cd Uio Kirwir fttotMV tent WMd to the Ooa viocvoy to waylay Ai^rii% 
fleet and ncoTOT tho MoiUMon. Aagna'a Qoet aficr wailing foar days in Baitiul oov 
■tortod for Ghorio. Thojr had to boat avaUurt a aboni; hndwlud and off Oua W4 
*ttavko<l bv H>mo PortasiMae ahipi andllod botont the wind back to Bnitkvl i 
not tito MonsooD od shur*, Tho ("ortu^mao paraued, dioro off Aiifria'it vaa 
Ughteuod the Moaaoon, aud OMrlod her to Qoa. lie Bomhay Uovoraiiuat fo 
MTn)y«an(1j07-1714) triwl loperaiwde tliePortnipieMtoreetoTe theMonooBi ' 
tb« ntgoliatMUU failed. * UamiltiiUB Kew Acoonnt, I. SOS-STl. 

'The writorin the Bombay QDBrt«riy Itcrtuw, III. 07, ailla tbo rija the 
and Captain liOw (Hiit. Ind. navy, 1. 1>l[h.-i* ■uppoud that th« deoll wu (bo desti 
(UnuitvtbU. U«iulton(KewAiMoutit,I.27a)dutuKUyat«tvtlhatth«i>hMtwasl 



raUod, Gafsra continued eo hoelilo tlint tho Comp&ny vroro foroctl 
to remove tho fiictory.' 

Of Klinara, aboot 1720, Otptain Alexander Hnmilton h&B left 
tlio following details ; Tho northmost bftrboar wh« Sevaaeer, that 
is Shiveshvnr, > bwl porl^ with tho cover of r atetle and n fow 
guns. Tlio next was Kflrwdr witli a good harbour aud a river fit to 
rficoivo vessels of ^00 tona The IWja was tributary to tho Mogbal. 
The wooda wcroftill of wild bc-nsts, but the valloys aboandcd in 
com and grow tho best pepper iu India.' lit tho Sonda clttoFs 
tiTritonea there were three Bmall harbonrs, Ankola, Cnddcrina^ 
or Kadiiie, and Mirjdn, whose river ondod hia teiritories.' Beyond 
MirjliQ bc^n KiUunru, which, luioordiiig U> Hamilton, was a bottvr 
conntry than Sonda. Its two chief towna were Ilonor or HoD&var 
where was an old castle, and Batakola or Bhatkal where, about font 
miles from the sea, wi>re tho traccx of as old city. The &igltsh often 
came to Batakola for pepper, but thoy had never sct'tlod uioro since 
tho massooro of the eighteen ^tors in 1670. Of tlie ruler of Kiiuai* 
Hamilton aays : Tho governor is gonorally a lady who lives at 
Baydonror &)dnnr, two days' journey from tho sea. She may marrv 
whom she plcasco, bnt her husband never gets the title of R^a tbougli 
if »he have sous the eldest does. So long as she Uve« neither hasband 
uor son has anything to do with the govemniont. The peoplo are so 
well-behaved tJwit robbeiy or mnrder is hardly heard of. A stnuigcr 
may pnsit through the country without being asked where he is 
going or what business he has. Mo man except an officer of state 
may ride on an elephant, honto, or mule, and no man may have an 
nmbrclla hold over him. though if he ohno«*e.i ho may hold au 
niiibnilla himself. In all things else there is liberty and property. 
When Hamilton knew Ktlnara (1 700- 1 720), KArwiir a eems to have 
bftou tho only EnKlish tnulo Bottlement . Shortly after Hamilton 
Utft, a snuul footory subordinate to Tellicberri was oj^eiu'd at 
H onivar the chief articles which tempted a settlement being pepper 
and sandalwood.* 

Bale or h'va-raj in the Konkan.^ Tn 1 72(> the Poshwa Bdjir&c 
nonj83 the Karnitak to Seringapatam canaed much diatress iu tho 
soath of the district.* At the oeginning of 1727, the HooAror 

Chapter ' 



■ HaniUbMi'it How Account, I. Sfl3-S!K i Itomtmy Qa*rtcily R«vi«w, UL 67 M(l VI, 
!m. > HMBUUHi-t N*« AocooDt, I. SGfi. 

* IlMniltonV Keu- AowmDl, I. 276. * Bonftw to TellicbMri, 9th Jonjr. 1T27. 

■Orut BnlTit MaiUhis, 200. Of Uio thiitMB nlww idmiUoiiviI ia Uio Roukm 
the U»1 llirvF arc, I'bwQda, AkolK ■ppu«eUy Ankob, and KndAl in SlvMitvAdL Id 
Wutbsr (Musuc [Ditto, 334) the KoDui^ iitrnUoy in the Konkut in I7ll7 in aud to 
«xt«nd [niu ait\a\ in Devgail in Kutnigiii to AnkoUh 

■ Sw Uraot Ihira Mkrtthit, 319. Uf Uime Martthft nidi Wiltu ^th of IndU, 
I. 259] writo* I I>o*»l>ttuu eroywhccv msrka thu coara* of lliuw <OM knd inutaUo 
rotibcn. A Marttha ■•<i««tltul»o(tiie saiwroeily knd houuur whioh bakmg to a 
bold rol)bi(. He oombiMe Uo pbusiUa *nd |^tlo BMna«i« of a iwindlcr, ths 
dcxLmty u(apidEpo«lE«liHidtlioiB«asa«Molap«dd]or. InthainbauIoaiiBtrKatha 
RBull of tko Mamha nMla wia that when aoara C*io« to a dirtriot of th« apptoaoh 
of an uDHiny tbs peojile buried their vroucrty aod Sod to tbe woods ouryiaa with 
them whkl gnua tbcV '^U. Thew iHizlilB worowcoimMa that the fecial void 
voIm waa «{iplMd to tfa- a. Wilka, I.SW, 

iBombay Oantteer, 


Cli*pter VII. 





hcion in writing to TelHcherri complnia ihat their tronwiotions 
Imd long been at n stfuul on acooniit of tho raragoa of Itiljirto.* 
Sonda was plandvred aud blackmail loviod in thu cotintrj' rontiiL 
Bo wiilcapniad was the alarm that tiw qaJet ptviplo ol BeUuur and 
Dtlgi iled leaving their fields nncoltivated. Both the Sonda aod 
the Bcdnur ditc^is agrcod to pay thu Mar&tha chauth or oDe-foDrtlu 
Sonda isi muntioned as ttaffering from Munitha raids, b»t Bednur 
800ms not to have again been disturbed though tiie levy of tho 
Harilka tributo caowd the people mucb misery.* The friendship 
between tlio Portngooso and tbo ^BJi ^"t ftont-innwl. In ^TffS 
(Bcov ruber 4}, the treaty which had beeo passed in l ff&7 w aa niuowod, 
and Uio Portagaese were allowed to build a chiu-cb at Siavansor or 
Sbiveebrar and to «rry timber.' In 1739 tho Mar&tha records 
mention that tliongli tbo Hetlnnr chief reniainod mwtral the RAja ol 
Sondft and the DeofU of K&rw&r helped tho Portugneso in their 
Btniggle with tho MarAthfis.* On Juno -tth, 1742. the treaty of J735 
between Sonda and Goa was ratillod and tbo Portujfiioio woro granted 
certain %-illagea, and allowed to trade and to build obtirclies. llio 
Souda chief promified to lot no other Europeans E«ttle in hia territoiy.' 
So long as tho mlo of Baaara Linga Kjija continned the Engiisk 
efforts to ro-o[>OD a factory at K^rwiir mot with no socoow. On 
Jia sava's deatji in 17 45, he was socoeeded by his ROn I modi Sadii ahiy 
11745-1763), whom Portngnoa© writers name Sad^hiv 'vorosada 
and describe lu a man of w eak mind w ith no turn for {^vvming 
bat a strong liking for ease and Inxury. Uo wiM in the hiuidH of a 
fa Tt;inrite named XnaauHiti Viray a.* In 1747 the I'ortugaese, who 
were unoas to take possession of ■' ' ■ ' -■ '"■■ • ■■ 
mouth of theKjliDadi . tried l _ 
R^d^hir liad suixod certain rcssel 
Dia were lutcreMted and tlio Porttigueae pressed him to restore them. 
Ho at fintt refused, but when the Portuguese fkot appmrod off 
Sad&shivgad the ressels were handed to the comuiandaiit of Aajidir. 
who, not undorstnnding tho viceroy's intention, took tJie ships and 
thu chancuuf M^'iiring thu for(< of Fir was lost.^ About 1750, loHidi 
BadlishiT was attacked by the MarAth^ and forced to pay tribute. 
Tho fiye districta below the SnhyiJdris were given m a pledge for 
tGs tribute to one Oopil BAm wbo restored them when tlie tribute was 
pid.' In his ctTorta to nu»o £10,000 (Rs. 100,000) which woro dno to 
Uie Manlthis Imodi turned for help to the FliigliHk Tlicy rofusiMl to 
lend him tho money and ho said ho would call in the French. Thia 
throat brouglit Cbarloa Crommelin from Bombay with iastmctiona to 
obtain privileges and oountoract the French. CrtmimcHn did littlo 
himisulf, but a sum of money luf t with a native agent wait so judicioiudy 
spent that a letter came from tho chief inviting the fingUsh to open 

'Fkctoty taT«lUc]ianJ>9thJMniwy 17S7. 

* Uaaio to Board o[R«vaiMa,3Miby INX), par«. IOl 

* Intmeoao il«~M*nian d« Alogiu, Noi-a Goa, ISAG, I ji, 17. 

* r.t%ut Vair» MwitW 291. ' Uruit THiTt MartUito, SSL 
■ Eguuuitieiu Indioft, l^ut iV., laboa, iliS. 37 -K. 
' ^Bcaphonladia.i'MtlV., LMbon. 1748, 37-4«. The fort o( rirorJ-iro* 

tobrSadUhivKuIurChitalMl. OntboCliitekitlhUl UicreUrtUU/iii-VorMiMalmia 
Muit'»to«nb. eaePlocMof latCTMt, SMiitqhiTgad. * Bnoluuia&'a llTtaret III, SU. 

their bciory at Klu^r. Robert Holford waa sent to open a trade in 
poppor. HewtMutfinit snocc^fnl, but afterwards, undor Portugaesti 
iriiliience, was so oonsUuitly thwarted tbnt bd iiskol to be removed, 
lie continued at K^w&r from December 1700 to Bepfcember 1752, 
at ooo time onconragod, at anotlior time rebuffed. He was not allowed 
to repair tbe oM factory or to fortify bis lioase, and was forced 
to take down a flsff-Rtaff whicli bo hud set up aocording to 
enatoin. At last tb e Fortugxie ae, who were lodging for an excn8e to 
daokre w ar with tht; tioudn c^ief, took advantage of tbo fact that a 
Jesuit pn>oe«aiou luid »ut bi«a allowod to pass u temple and scut a 
irigate to K&rw^, and on the iJrd of November 1753. after a '''■sh' 
oo^idv carried Fir bill and greatly Btrenetliened tne fort. The 
Bombay Uoronimeut knew that with Pir hitl in Port4igae«e hands 
tbeir agent could have no clianou of trade and recallod him, and be 
Tx.- ' 'to Sombay in a Portugtieso resaol.' The ifogliBh neTW 
_!!;. inpk-d to open a factory at Kitrwir.' 

in 1 7-\> 1 , tbu Knglish chief of To llicherri concluded a treaty w ith 
the cbiel of Hednur under which the lUja agrcud to lot tticm 
robnild tbe factory at Uon^Tar, promised not to seiKe British wrecks, 
and engngvd to giro them exclusive trade privileges. In return 
the English !<ent him n field-piece with four gunnon and promised to 
supply him with stores and iinmitions of war lo help Iiim in a oonCe«t 
with the Niyera. In fulfilment of this promise Captain Mostyn at the 
head of a few Europcnns marched to tno fort of Qadrytf wbiTo the 
Kiuarase general and hii* anuy were cucamped. Tlieir powder wm 
exposed to the weather, they luul neither pickets nor advance guarda, 
and in every way wore unfit to tight tbe impetuous Ndyere. Mostyn, 
finding it rain to attempt to introduoo order and vigiuuico, retomed 
ID disgost to Teliichorri.* 

At this time, according to Sir Thomas Mnnro, the Bednur 
fforcniuicnt, tboagh very rich, had not complete control over the local 
^i;t?fs.* Tbo popniation wn* diminished by frotiuent revolts of potty 
1. ii.'.'! and the favouritea and dependents of the Bednur chief were 
allowed to min many of tlie loading hmilies by tlio levy of exorbitant 
floes.* Kxtra OMSos wero inipot<ed and made permanent and wore so 
hoavy that if all had boen levied little would have been left to tfao 
Umdbolders.' Still the whole was not levied and land was valuable, 
being occaaionally sold at twenty-five or thirty ycara' purchaso.' 

On iho 25th of May 17.>4, the year of one of the Martitha raids 
into the Kaniiituk und M^sur, the treaty of 1742 between tho 
Portugese and tlio Komla chief was renewed, in WovcmlK-r of tlio 
following year, on condition that they ga.V6_ up th e fort of PJr, th e 
Portuguusc wero g raotod four villages and Hllowcd to mak* & fort to 
the south of the R^linatli near Buitokula or Buitkuh. In Pebraary 
1756 this treaty was coofirmod with sfiglit momficanons.' In 1755 

' Bomliay 9''*'**^y lUvUw, VI. 909. SIO ; Anqaotil iln Ptemn'* ZmiL Avcst«i 
Oi^.'.ura PMliiiiiiuire, ceil. 

- U inkay Quuterl}' Rarlow, VI. SIO. ' Bomtoy (Wterljr Rericir, VI. 210. 
* Tu[t(M]^otR«v«nM>, SItt May 1800, nn. 1G. >To uouit of R«raiu«, para.)6. 
' I'o BoAnt ol Ba*«BD«. pwa. 10; 'To Botril of B«r«iiM, puw. 17 uid 20. 

* lMtnKCM,IG-17. 

n 810~td 

Chapter TI 






ISotDta; Quatl 



ClupMr TIL 




BMftni^ N^ik, Uio Ust oliiof of Bedaar, died. He leFt sa 
Hon. a y outh QtaeTOat«) a. namod Cbao Baaavy ft, nnilorlltl 
of his widow, an abandoned woDina, wbo, on ber huaband'* i 
livnl with a paramour namod Nirabaia The young chief Tvauaui.. _ 
Itnd on the 17tli of July 1757 Was murderod by tbo ordor al 
adoptive motbor. Tbo people ^tiMko iuU> ruvolt and ia Uio oonfu 
tlto MarAUuiB am M ^ba fort ol Mirjiln.' 

Tin.' Trench scSoEg Ananctil 3ti Fottod. who paaaed north ■■ 
Uie district in Fobruur]rT7S9!T!u1!4n!8I^mG<o tbu mnrder 
jonng chief the people hat! risen in revolt, and tJiot tbe levivs w! 
were imposed to raise the tribute of £50,000 (o £00,000 (Ks. 5 toO 
lakha) duo to the ManUhUs, cansod much injury to tnulo.* In tbt 
north the Sooda chief \na at war with the Marrfthia.* U« bad 
fonnorly been tributary to the Sdvanur chief bat now paid tribut* 
to the Manithie.* Tho places which da Poitoq montiona in fata 
journey norlhwanlx un<, untvkol or llhatkal, a fort built oa a rodk 
with a river ;^ and Onor or Uoniivar, with an Kiiglisb factory, wliidb 
di4 not show from tho sea. Close to Hondrar wore two fortified 
islands, Euludurg and Rajamandorg. Komta or Komonta 
Chriatian cluirob, a river, nud a fort on a hill on tho tva. Mirj^, 
deep river of tho same name had two forts one of which did not 
Buyoad Mirj&n was the fortof Kflga). Next came Gokam, a fai 
temple ; thon tho rillairo and river of Gangitvnii ; tliiiu Ho\ 
the river that se]Mirated K&uara from Sonda ; and then Ao 
Tho next placo was Anjidiv, bolooging to (ho Portuguew, 
fo<l4liod, aud with tlio bo»t cotton stocking* to be bought on 
ooaat. Then the K&rw^ rirer where tho 8onda chief hikd m 
fort, but tho Portngneeo held the mouth of the river. CI 
river mouth was Bootakol or Baitkal cove. Th e Sot ' _ 

extended to tjie Aw|flijlli py°- ^^T? fvilflg rV"*"'^ nV I'a]..^ Rriiuas,* 
On the 24th tJ Uctober lYOtM a tlio Portugutae drwided u .MiirAtla 
attack on Goo,' tho treaty of 175(J between the Portogueiie and tb« 
Souda chief was renewed. And on the I2tb of September 17^, tbi 
Portuguese ogrecd to restore the island and fort of Shimpi ^Ximpio 
which tht-y hiul held for some montJis." 

Tbo criiiios of tlio lUni of Bednnr and the disordered state of 
territory opened the way to its conquest by tho great 

) WUka' South of India, I. 450; BouUy Qiuutcrij- tUviev. \'T. SIO. 

■ ZmuI AveaU, Umo. I'rrlim.caov. cievi. cxciz. * j!cih1 AthU, Disc. Ptclim. i 

*lal7G6tlio foikwadinoUiL B«lvu>trlotobc*icf[G.i(«uicir, BDd in tlwi [oiln 
TWr, Uiongli titaf did iu>% bdocmiI id rcocbing Bcdtutr, they laytdcd wait T ~ 
Onat DulTi MarAUi^ 297, 98. 

•Znnl AvMto,Duc. Pnlin. axds. ■ Z«Bd AvMta, IliM. Praliia. ooiU. 

'Oruit Dair, 2M. Tlw Portvpuae vtooroT MtaolMd PbowU, bat vnriof t«] 
■nUoooduct o( •!• ttoafa wa« «1ttiii. Ualiar ud bwa biT»d*tl by Gopd] Hati f 
InvrionajrcardTliV). Diuit Duff, 303. 'InatnMCM, Ifi.l7. 

■Roidar All, who niltd Uaimrfrom 1700 to 1733, wuboniin 1*32. Uo WMJ 
graafrmadMa of MnfaunmBd Bhelot, a nOfpfnu emigraiit from th« PoajAb 
mUIm tn Kalhanpk Uiiaoii MubomioadAl) wiaacaMoaM iiinaiiimiiii and hfr* 
fkii* MahatnmM.Budar'* tnlhcr, iliitingoUlied hhnMJf in hi* ynathjiy Ko 
lo«tb>Ulonadraotob«FaD]iUTwi(hlhi>titlaot FattuMobamuiod KluUi. 
mnthir vm tbo daug^lor td * NavAiyat mcrehatit. HaMar Ali flist tom t« 
in 17411 at Uw l ii g t of 1>eTaah^l wharw lie (uuf bt a* a ToliiBtuer uodar bu bi 
Hia coolsMt and Murtgc attnctwd tliu ■tttntwu uf hi* tT^iral Nutja Bdji 


In 1 762, tbo year after ho had made bituBelf sapreme in Uatsar, 
s TiMhir cane to KAtdu- who waa Ihc^ in the ndghboarhood of 
Stra in north Maisur, told him that ho iroa tho yoane chief ot 
ItedDor wfaoBO life the ossaiisia tiad spared, nud askeu bis help 
in wcov-frring his t«rritorj'. Ilaidsraffreod and advanced tovrarda 
Bthlniir in January 1 7G3. Tbu city of Bodsur lioB in a hasin onciraled 
"by hilU three to §ix miles distant. The countf^ round in liilly and 
then 80 thickly covered with timber and underwood that the 
lans had a saying, ' Yoti can pass moat of the yuar at 
lurwitbouiaeeingtbentD." Baiditruilvanocd, rejootingull tornui 
* by the Rini. At lumfii^ thirty miles from Itediiur, bo 
ortnnato unoogh to find an imprisoned minister who oudertook 
laoqoainl him with thorosonrcesof the conntxy and to guide him to 
I city by a secret path. As the Matsnr army drov noarer, the Bliui 
1 to boy Uaidnr off with an offer of £57G,O0O(12 laMu otpagoiliu) 
Srhicb ehu aftorwards raised to £864,000 (18 f^^^f^ o^ pagoilas). 
Haidar refused and tho lUni fied, iMving ordcni that on tho 
Iti^toat danger the palace and treasury shuuld be bumod. Early 
lut^ 1763 Haidar readied the firsi outwork of the city. Ue 
■ade a norsy and feigned attack, and under cover of tho confnnoo 
1 a body of chaiim troops by a %ocnA path and entered the city iu 
iQ to qnenchthe 6re8 which nad been lighted by the lUni'sservanta. 
lonr had never before been attacked and was fall of wealth, 
peoplv tlod to tho hills without won hiding their trensuro. 
imcnso wealth of tho richest town of the east, eight miles in 
lerence and full of rich dwelUngw, was left without a claimant. 
Jdar provented hia troops from plnndering tho city. Be set hia 
~ on all tho richer built^ngs and in said to have gained property 
which at a most moderate estimate was worth at loiuit twolvo million 
These riches were the foundation of Haidar's creatness* 
iimont sent to tho coast took Hon^y^ and tho fortified island 
intjdiirg; a second dutiichinent captured tho Uiini, and sbo, 
' paramour, her adopted son, and the preteuder, whom Uaidar'a 
oops had named Ghaiba Rlijn or thu Comc-to-lifo chief, won) 
mnnud togollipr in tho hill-fort of MuJgori.* Haidar raised 
Inur to the rank of a city or nagar, and called it Uaidajiiagar 
I own city, ilo determined to make it bis hond-qnartors, struck 
. ia ila mint, and at Homt Tar and Mangulo r on tho west coast 
dockyards aod naval araenaJa.* 

History, i 

1763 -m 


rcOlMMW. DwdM WM]il««cd)ac«aiiaiko4 of Itfty bone Kn4SOOfo«t, anil WM 

_j tiliuEv ol l>eT*aluUli, a fraotiar lorlMM. In ITSAlM fonuwl Ika naDlea* ol his 

cr hj tilaadoriii^ Triobiaopoli. la ) lAlt lio took ■ loaiUac put in Mttling tha 

a»da ol ibe OMttnMU Uaimr troo|». ta l'5<l he wu cbuMato coniMiiil ■ foK* 

it I* niMt a mat M a iiU ia iaroMl, wm ■iiri.vwful, mm) n4iiniad in Crfsmpk. 

lauw ttnliadJBg mania Hainir ; Imt bctuou after iMt kl) hi* power wfct«h«rM 

r tha Hindu nlairtAr Kbnailtrto. lluilar wa* d*(i«U«l «><! Iiwl to tly. 
I |r«al AOi anil, with Um b«lp ol tlw old intni*l«t Nauja R«ja, lia ilaloaUd 
Aoand LodNBe aatimiM. Riot'* Mnon, I. SOO-MX 
a- Sunlh o( ladia. 1.440. * WIUj, I. tS0.4M. 

3i.t. I. 403. Tlinr mm wlawwl by lb* U>riUuti ia ITDT. INHo. 
'1V>1L<. I. 4Mi Kiov%M¥«ut*,i.350-m A«coidn«taKorUi1Ur.M««B.IV. IOP> 
wtaf .Ml'* •raiy <ik4u)W M.OW oavalry and infaat^, lOO iMa tlafdianta a hoify 
I Vnach tnwpa, and many Frantb oScni. 

Cbkptor VIL 



itiMar Ali. 




VDicta news n-aoIidO ihu Engliiih factorj at HoniTOr that Hwidar 
wu» ill Bodiiur aud was lord of K4uarn, Slniooy, llie Brilisli 
resident, ahipned liis ^old to Bombny nnd with faia two msistaate 
trarellod to Bcdnur, und preaenting: themselyea to Haidur, wero 
allowod to contiune to trade at Qon^rar.' 

After tho fall of Bodniir, in December 1763, a force tmdcr I!»ibut 
Jatiff, liotUir knowD as Fa«dU!laKIian, was sent againi;!. tW- hill 
oountry of Sopda.' Sav*i' ImodTTSwUithiT, tho Sonda cblof, begfjed 
the Fortngiijb^ lo help him, and after a feeble reeistanco, fled to 
Shircfthvar on tlie coast, about eight miles nortli of Kiioritr. Tho 
viceroy Manuel de Saldanha de Alboquerqao Hont troops to hold 
Pboada, Zatnbaulim or Jaboli, Kanacouuanu Cape lUmas. flailMit 
Jang OTcmuiallthe Sonda territory except the |iarts held by tho 
Portngaese. IIo took the forts of Shiycjhvar . !<ad^i-liiv tnid. and 
*Jlhftl8i' "^"^ ^™* laving Kiogo t o B^l g» 3 w h<;ii no waa recKllod In 
moot the advance of the Mar&Ui^~SavaiTraodi SadMbiv withdraw 
with bis family and ti^asaro to Goa, where he received a pension, 
and where a reproeentative of tho family Btill lives.* 

Though be wm to 8uccc«8ful in Bodnar aad Sonda, in tb4 
following jcan in 17&1, 1765, and 1767, Uaidar was severely 
defeated by M^hav Peah wa (1761. I77S}. who claimod an interest 
in Sonda and fCo'ng&no'lcvy tho ono-fourth or chauth in Muisar, and 
had to buy off tho MarAth4:» by the payment of very birgo sums.* 
In .January 1768, darinff the tJiird year of the first war between tho 
English and Baidar (17G6.1760), tho English tried to culist the 
IklanttbAs na allim by the offer of Bcdnur and Sonda." A squndroo 
of Hliips with 400 Europeans and a largo Ix'dy of sepoys was aoat 
to attack Hnidnr's aea>port«. At IloiSvar Uaidar had begun to 
waku a navy, but his captains wcro so disnlcaiied because he hnd 
given tho command to a cavalry officer ttint, when tlio Knglisli 
squadron appeared, Haidar's fleet of two fthipa, two grabs, and teo 
calivat« jomed the English. Fortified Island at the mouth of 
HoDiivar nvcr and Honavar fort woro lakon with Ittllo lo«s, and a 
smali garrison was left to defend thorn. Tho English did not hold 
these plaooB for long. Id &lay of tho same year Haidar's tJt>opa 
^pearcd, and in spite of their strongtb HonAvar fort and Fortified 
IslnQd yii'ldvd »huo«t witliont re«istann-.' In 1770, }ll^haTilU> 
Peahwa, who was most anxious to take Ueiluur and 8onda, enteral 
llaisar and dofvotod Haidar, bat his failing health forced bim to 
Wt Jrft to Pp oDa.;___ , 

Til Febniary 1772, Forfam , tho anthorof tho Oriental Memoirs, 
passed down tho KAuara coast. H» notices that E&rwAr wn.« a town 
of importjincu during the flourishing days of tho Portugue-***, and 
that toe Kngliitb had formerly a factory there for the puivhaso oC 

> Boabav QDartcrlj- Tti'Tiew, VI, Cll. 

> \Vilk>' SoDtb ot Indii, I. iX ; Kioe'i Mr«ons L 303 : Gnat DolT, 330. 
* t>cKni>:D<> GotrI R ^i■toril^> by Anfftcs Vol. HI. 1680, Lulxm. 24. IM*^] 

givro under .SondiL 'Omil Puff, 3SI, 337. *nnuitl>Ba. 34a 

' [/>«•'» Inaian Nutv. 1 , IM ; Wilk*' South of ladl*, 1. SO ; Rin'a Atrioro, 1. : 
' (!t»nl Puff, M6, in. 




{Kipper. There wore a Dumber ot Portugaosc iiiluibitwit« vith 
a hiflhop in wkoae diooe&e were the Romaa C'atlii)Uc clinrches 
in Bombay. Iii the forests near K^rwAr, where the khair tree was 
abundant, there was a consi<lvrublo inanufucturo of cuttiohn or terra 
JMpfintca.' He aotioes Onor and Slitzi, the last of which ho idcnlities 
with the ancient Musins. The country near was fomous for ita 
pepper, custiia, and wild nnimcg.' FortiltcdIslnndalitUetothesoath 
of Mirsi was about a niile nmnd, rooky, barren, mid ho stronff aa to bo 
doomed irapre^able. The whole country waaiuHaidar Ali'shaiids. 
Onor or Ilon&var was on a rirer or salt lake whoso bar on accoont 
ot a tremiiudons eurf was most difficult »ud dangoroos to cross. 
It h«d n fort on rising ground and was a small town of indifturout 
bouses. The beat was the English factory where two of tho 
Company's servants lived to buy pepper and sandalwood tor the 
F-i'^'hsh und Chinese markers. Tlicro was a oonsiderablu private 
ini'iii with Ilombay and the north in t^telnnta and other articlen.' 
The lowlands near were well tilled and planted with ooooa and 
betol palms, pvppor, rice, and inferior grains. Ita most Talned 
product vtu» the white sandal tree.* 

About three years after Forbes (December 1775] the English 

traveller ^rgons visited Eyinars. Be notices that the Portuguese 

territory ended nt a sntall fwiified promontory twenty-four miles 

Boulb of Qoa. The re^t of the coaat was in Haidar Ah'a hands. 

The only exception was the island of India Dave, that is Anjidiv, 

which belonged to tho Portugueae.' On the side next the land were 

the town and oastJa mixod witli verdure, lime, pinulain, and cocoa 

trees, and a few gardens. The island was chiefly used as a plaou for 

(elans from Goa and Din. They wero taught to eniu thread and 

and to weavD sto<-king» which were tho best in India and very 

;>, About a milo off slioro and five miles north of Honitvar was 

I'ied Island girt with a stone wall atrengcheucd at proper 

iiices by armed towers. At tho south end the only landing wag 

a fort with eight gnn»i. Al Honltvar the Union flag was flying at 

fche Kngli.ih witory and Haidar'a flag on the castle. Parsons went 

ashore about four in the afternoon and was well received by the 

Company's resident Mr. Toun.send and his wife. The caallo and 

t^iwti were on the north side of the river near the ontranoa About 

a mile fnim the entrance was a dangerous shoal, with not more than 

nine ti-ot of water at low tide. At nigh tide tho rest of the river 

IVOA sixteen to eighteen toetdoep. It was navignblo for largo boats 

A great way inland and was very convenient for bringing down 

pepper and sandalwood of which Ilaidar had the monopoly. Near 

Ibe cu^tlo were two half built frigates, one of thirty-two tlie other of 

twenty-four guns, niey had prows and wero what wore called 

grabs. \VhoD finislied tnoy wonld be complete fngatee, being very 

strong and of n fine mould. Tho work was eiirprisingty good. They 

built broail.-<idu to the river, bocauiiA their way of launching 

, . was to lay great beams ot wood, grease them, and get olophantfl 

to posh the vessel along the beams into tho soa.* Tho coast was no 




< T. lf<m. 1-303. * Or. Horn. I. 304. * Or. Hctn. 3M. * Or. Hcu, 307. 
tptaoaa' TnT«l«,nDl * Puwuu' Travob, S20.22S. 

(Boinbar GuaHmt. 

Chftpter Til. 





freer from pintos tliao it had booo in ourttm- timos. The MoRltliAs 
held Gberia wiUi as strong- and ajt piratical a flout w Angria ever 
owD«d, utd f urUior soatb the ooost soffared from the nudg of Uaakat 

Duriof^ nnidar Ali'a ^OToniment of Kittiam, which lasted from 
his coiitiuest of Boduur m 1763 to his death on tho 7th of IX«enib(>r 
1 782, tnu dvtatlod administration was ODtnutod to the ci^il 
aervants of the fonoor ffOTorampnt with a separate miniator. 'YhfSf 
were doubtless treated like all Hoidar'ii subordinate officials. Some 
officers, cliOH6D to eoqaire into embezzlements, Kucoovdod not onl; 
in Gntling frauds, but in proving evil praclioeo where no erfl 
pFooticea existed. Probity became not only onproGtable bol 
impossible. Those who hod levied moderate sums from the people 
vivjv uuablo to pa7 what Haidar demanded and diud under tho 
torture;* tho»e alone esnqicd with life who haringr enriclitHl themselves 
by exaction mcceeded in «ati«fyin|f Kaidsr's domands. OlHoera and 
t«x-gatliorDn,who bad been scourged almost beyond description, were 
kept in office with the marks of the stripes as u public warning.* 
Naturally the oflic«rs meted to tho people the same treatment Oatlf 
bad received. The evil effects of this system were soon apparent. 
' Huidar,' iwys Munro,* 'received Kiinara a highly improved conntry, 
filk-d with industrioas inhabitants enjoying a gnmlvr proportion of 
the produce of tho soil and living more comfortably tnan thotto ol 
any province under any native powtrr in India. Instead of observing 
the wise and temperate conduct which would have secured to it the 
enjoyment of thca«v odrantagos, be regarded Kiianra as a fund from 
which he might draw without limit to moot the expenSM of his 
militiiry operations in other quarters. The whole course of his 
deputies' admitiiMti-iitiou was a series of oxpmments to diacover the 
utmost to which tho hind-rcnt contd be raised without diminishinj; 
coltivation. Tho savings oocnmiiUt^d in better timca for some ytjars 
enabled the pcoplo to support the pressure of continoally incresaing 
demands; but tht.7 could not support tbem for over. Berore Haidar^ 
death, failure and outstanding balanoM were frequent.' SVTtilt; Haidar 
was impoverishing Kiinarabythcse exactions, the death of tho yoon^ 
and warlike Httdbivr&o PcKUwa in 1772, the Huccessi<m of Nir&yfta 
a minor, and his mnrderin August 1773, so weakened the MnrAthitei 
Haidar'fl gntatest rii-als, that he was able to extend his power as br 
north as the Krishna.*^ Immediat«ly after the death of Huidar Ali 
(7th Decemlwr 1782), in the third year of tho second Maisur war 
(1780-1784), in December 1782, news reached thy Ilombay Govern- 
ment that ColonelHfi^S&EStfilUL l»d retreated t o Pani ani and 
that Tipu had appeared before it.* G«ueml Uatbews was sent from 
Bombay with a strong nand and military fori-*. He captared tho 
hill.fort of RAjamim^iry oi tho month of the ilirjilii or Tadri river, 
and passing up tho river attacked and took the fort of Mjjfai. 
Ho then eent to Paniani for Colonel McLeod. Prom Mirju tM 

' P*f«o.' Tr«vol». 218, 2«9. • Wllkii" Sooth of Inda. II. SOO-ML 

"Ldlcr trom Um> Rav, Mr. SehwarU ui Willu' South oi Ii»<li». 1I.S74. 
*LaU«r toBMCiH, Slit U» t»00, •OtMlDwITi Umithli, WOl 
* Wilk/Sontii o( India, II. 3S, S3, 




tmited detachments passed to the wry stroug fort of HomtTs r. 
On tlie first of January 17^3 tlio British 1mtteric:s itnd Ibo gntm 
from the Hliit» opeoed on tlio fort, and ou the sixth a breach 
ntB made sum the ploco was stormed. Except a, few who fi'll in the 
assault, the g&rri»on, who numbcrud about two UionHand, woro set 
at liberty. Utptain Tonriano the commsoding officer of artillery 
VBs luft in charge of the fort, and tho army paased. aontbwards on 
tl:i- '■■' nth, detachmmta having been aent to occupy the forta of 
A aI ti ftdiptuT gnd.' By the treachery of the ^Tornor,' who 

was hiitod by Tipn, on the 27tli of Janaary 17S:j. Be<inor tho 
cnpitjil of KAiiara was takoo with litt]e~Tofla. 'J'ipu coUectod a 
grcal furce and atttiokL>l Bfdnur. Captain Mnthows after a bravo 
defence was forced to utpitulute on the 30th April 17 83. aiid moat of 
Uie officers were made nriaouers. Tipn nent a large force to North 
'H'r'-ira, and, by May, Min iin and the otlter forta were reta ken. 

-in Torriiuio refused to give up Qppfcfar. and ugainat an army 
oi tcu thoQsand miin, he aiid ni« gamiion of 713 ulfioera and men 
ftf whom only 103 were Kuropeaua, in apite of losa, disease, and 

'>f snpphc^, held oat t ill peace was declared Jn March 17 64. 
i.e 7t;J only 2iB rouohed l^ombay in April 178'k> After the 
clo6<e of the second M^iRur war (1784) Kitiiara suSercd §eTorely from 
the cruelty and the exactions of Tipn, who suspecting that the native 
CItriiiUnii population hod helped tho English, delonnintid to Force 
them to b«coinu MnitalmdnH. Ho Hccretly uumbered them, set 
fpiaida over theii- villages, and on one night had the whole population 
aeiicod and carried to Maisur. Tho men were circumcised, uud men 
women and chiMrt^n weru divided into bands uiul divtribulv*! over 
the conntry nadcr the cliartre of ^IiDwlmiins to nhmn was entrosted 
tho oonvcna' education in Isl&u. According to Tipn 00,000, and 
ucoonliiig to the generally received cHtimato 30,000 Cfaristianit won 
seised in tJte wholo province of K^nain. Before a year vrm over, 
hardships and the change of climate are said to have reduced the 
30,000 to 10,000, and not 3000 lived to retocn to their homes when 
Tipn was overthrown in 1709.* Bwidos doslpoying one of Uie 
moet oaeful and hardworking claascs in Kiinara, IVophet Tipu's 
half-craEy fondness for now measures brought ruin ou the traders 
of Eitnant and poverty ou many of its most skilful husbandmen.' 
Trade enabled strangers to pry into the afDiirs of a state, and as, 
according to hi^ gutipel of trade, exporu strip a country of its best 
produce and imports stifle local industries, Tipu ordcixid that the 
ttndu of his Ki&nara ports should coasa Ho liked black popper 
better than red, for rod pcppor ho believed was the cause o! ilch j 
Lo therefore ordered that in all coast districts tho rod pepper vinos 
^ould bo roo ted ou t," Even the loss of their markets and tho loss 
ol their p«pper rnics injured the landholders less than Tipn's 

Chapter VI 




' Miuilha MS. 145. 

■ Tbe gerrvmat wm Slulkh AyAx, * KAtot bv Uith, one of fiudar'* eMi* v lolduir. 
■lavia. U'iUu' SovUi ol lodu, II. V>3. 

■ Low'i Indian Kavy, I. ISS. IHtiuI* DM nven uadts Htm&rar. 

- v:.t%ilymr», U nS-STU- Sit Thcouu Hmuo's Boport, Hat .thy ItNM. 

i<[i in ITSStocJi thu utl« of Prouhet or AMamAar : hii ocoiduct iu utfaer wsjv 
I ligra of idMuiiiy. * WUlu' Sonili ol [nclia, IL m-2tS. 


TMrd XaltKr 



cxactioiM. His one rule of finance was neror to bavo toss ravenos 
liiaa his h^tier bad. Uia outy way to uinlce op for fularos mu 
by compelling ono set o£ laudboldera to pfty for tbe abortcotojun 
of tbo rest. Ho Forced tbuiw wbo bod mcana. to par not omy 
tbe ronta of waste lands but of dead or runuwny boldcrs wbow 
inimbers wore yearly increasing,' The effect uf tbis menstiro wbb 
the opposito of wbat was iDtondud. Tbe coUectiona fell ten to sixty 
per cei)t sbort of tbo luseninont.. Tbo bkod forced on cultivators 
oeaaed to be aaleablej and the old clasa of propriutont ilimpix-arBd. 

To 1791, tJie first year of ihe tbird Maisar wmr (1790- I7ft2), an 
tlie union at Db&rwitr o£ tbe Engl lab detachtoeiit undor Cuptiua 
li ^tfclfl an d tbo HnrAlbu foroo undtt r FM-aghnrAta ISh &a, Sonda at'eined 
cortnin to beovcrruo.* Perhaps in tbo bopu thai the MaMitbAs would 
respect them more than they would respect Iho Soodn cbief, on tbo 
]7tb of Janoar; 17&]. the Portngnes e ootaimKi from f^hiviiji, tbcsun 
of Savai Imodi Sad&riiiv, tbo formal cession of bia rights in tfae 
Sonda territory which tbey had soTod from Haidar's cintches in 
173S.* In 1790 after tbe fall of Dbllrwllr (April 4th), riinu>bunlm 
led bis troops to meet tbo allied or grand army, fie joined tbom 
at Seringapatnm and marched with tbcm to Bangalor. On the 
separution of Ibe forces for tbe Tuinn (■TulT8tb)Parashartunmnrcbed 

west with tbe object of carryinir out tlio lone-oheriKbcd Mnrritba 

mmog a in North Maisar, and, chiefly 

Captain LitUo'ii 

a chame of gaining Bonds md lled nur 
dctftobmont be marobed to Shunog a in N 

by Captain Little's military skill, in difficult wooded coontry, 
defeated Tipu's army and took tie fort of Sbimoga (Snd Jannnry 
1792).* From Sliiinoea, against tbe orders of bis superiors, lurro 
by the hope of plonder, ParoHlmriim ninrchcd north-woet through 
tne woods to Haioar-Nflf^r or Bednniv which tJjcy reached on too 
28tb of Jftunwry. They destroyed t£e town, but, l>efore tho fort 
waa invested, Farnfiburiini board that Tipv bad detached a atroog^ 
force to act against him." He at onco gave ordoni to return to 
S eringapatam j where Lord Cornwallis arrived on the 5lh of Fubrnary 
with iiio combined army of Uari Pant and Sikandar SliAli tbo son oE 
Niiuim Ali. Aftfr a sie^ of eigfat«en days the third Maisur war 
closed (2:jrd Februai-y 1792) willi lonn« most nufavoumble to Tipu,^ 
By tbe end of March tbe Mar&tfa^ had atarted for Poena, but so 
comploti^y bad Pam^burfim's troops laid waste their former lino of 
inarcb, that during their return o targe part of tbe army perished of 

' Munro'a L«tlar U> Bo«rd uf R«v«nii<!, Sin M«jf 1800, 21. 

*lLh«d«t*Ua<i(Opt*iiiLittl«'Bd<?tiichnicntw«f«thv(ttti. Contain LittleV, ond^ 

lllh Okptain AlBxaaiW Mwdonold •. buttAlioiu at Nubvo In/aatr)-, of 800 bkraMtal 
fMh: «oe oumunjr of Earop«aQ and tuo romionira oj Nalire ArtiUoty, with Hxl 
nx-poundeT fidd piMWu. Bloor'i Nmativo ol Captain Little '■ SM^Aatent, 1. 

■ Oompm DMeriptM Qoral B Oiitorin by An^u, 111,21 : iMboa, ISBO. 

* Moor'a Nfcmitirr, 72-97. • Dttaila ho given in Mooi^a Namtivc, IN- 16S. 

• Mooj'ji Nuntivo, 170. 
' Ttpu lu<l to c»de oii*.|ulU of bta tvrritorv. to pAv £3,003,000 <B«. 3 cr«rM mkIi 

30.00U), mnd to Ml kit jirtMiMn trw. Graot nutr. 4M. I 

' OtmaX DniT, 4M. Of P«r«>linnlin*a invauou of Uauiur, Bacbanui (Uy»on), I tl. SDO) I 

writcB : Punahnriin Itliia'a (1791 . 1702) mwdi woi u ««1 marked ^ davtattUoa, 1 

tainiiw, and murder. a«Ul>r>Kagu-, * ton of 60DO boiiMs, ww mtiivlj duvtn>|«d, [ 




A.t th« cloM of the foorth Maianr war (13th F<.>bruary to 4tb May 

ITOn), Aft«r thu captoro vf SeringmpBtam un<l the death of Tipn, 

Sonda and other tvrntnriett in tho western KanulUik weroj^gcrej^^ 

t^^Pgghja. I'he ofler was acooinpani«d, among other couuiSoosT 

ij^hi^omand that tfce Pcsliwa aboold employ o o Frenchman in his 

ik'e and tbnt difTeroncoii botwoon the UnratliiU and Nizdm Ali 

J tie nubiiiitt«d to K ngligh whibr^ ^jop. To ilu-J^w tvrms Nina 

laUiiaris would not agree. Son da was rufuaed ami V«!camft part of 

the Company's territorios.' On tht> Ist o f June 17(!9 Lient«nant- 

"Hiarl of the Bombay arm y wag directed lo twko poBeeea ion 

. - ::i including Honda, and iho Maittor Conimissionon vrtiv 

instructed not to itit«rfere with him in its management.' In the 

— - month Captain, afterwards Sir Thomaa Munro, was appointed 

'tor of Kimirik* Ho was lU Rmt under Itie imniediat« authority 

lonol ip yf y C J^ ae. the Kwtidentat Maimir.'but. on the Ist of 

lary 1800, he wan placed under the control ami supcrinl^^ndonco 

Madras Boai'd of Kevenue subject to the general political »oweni 

I'.' Maisnr Ucsident.* OfHccrs oommnndrng troope in Kiinara 

were dirt-ctt-d to comply with the CoUoctorV rc^iiiittitiouft for military 

aid. &[u»n/ found many districts in the occupation of petty ohiefB : 

Bilgi was in the possession of a paiigar ; Ankola and SodllsluTgad 

WOTO garrisoned by Tipn's troopg ; and tho IMjn of Sonda Imd entered 

lua long nl«Ddoiied territory and claimed it an his andeut inhorilnncc. 

The fallonem of the famous Manttha freebooter Dhnndia hod burst 

Chapter VI 

El]l)il««iilh I 

tf^" ''"^''''r^iMt womni w«re curled oS, Mill Um rat ravUwil. ftaeb of the uni u 

( ' MwAiliAa' liwda wen) kiJIwI, Miil of tliow who wcaMd tli« aword a 

I* . : ; iii'M Mridbod 'if htiBger Rvsry eataUe thliigWMiwoMkway by thoM 

wIhiiu i-uu^Iv ill Kiiroi") iiru pJoMcrl to call Uie mild Hinilu. OdJoim Willu (!■> Ric«'* 

MysMti, I. 316] wnliiu; in Iw4. Ihiu (tunmajbta tbouSectof tlie MarAtlu nuda into 

MttMor iliiring Iba wcoad haU of the eiufatocnlh ccnlurj' : A Muitbaamiy ii thn 

WMl UUl (unroe of depwnUatioii. Guouriu Uiui invvleil Muanr in I7S0, Buii 

VMji Pudit in 1161. MildtiaT [Uo in ITlSA. 17(17, and II'.O, TryunUlc Bio in IT!1, 

BaghunAUi lUa in 177-1. and Hari Pant PbadiM in 1776 ud ITSG. 1 linvo intyattgatMi 

na ttic apit vad cxuiuiw4 Iho Ubcu of the m««iI<M nvagee o4 Pani^aMiu BhiB in 

L7DI toA }'tl'i. Uany diitricta onoe wall peopled have not • trace of a hnnnn being. 

Of ihc rii'iD it camod UeutonoBt Uoor, who WM witb I^mwliarAni^ anny b<an 1790 to 

'""' .ivcK tliofnIlmFlngdotalU ; OutlielrwayKiathtli«rDiit«af the anny (NarratiTo, 

• iiiai-ked by rnja and <l«viuUtioa. Every viDj^ and town waa msd irltli the 

' ''"l the mohI ativwed will) liullodu and ho«aca. la ten mtloe u many 

'I' liiaf^ mtraaeen witbuiit awuultotall theiruBmci. When {Ditto, 141) we 

•- « rnu) tprv»i\ lij nioh a Loat of lotrunta wn are inclined to tlunk the unrao 

i uL>uM Diit have fallvn no llic Kt;f iitiftna in a more terribU (om. Even after 

'r vaaovcr, on their wjy nortli. iliu Murltliia <«utiniMd (Ditto, 2ZS) toplanider 

andvitUgeeoa the line of much. It waa mors lik* tbe befiiaaing of a oar 

titan Ibe beBnaiiw'of a peaoe. Tbe anay raffeml Irin^tf ally trom want of arain and 
ftvBi rant M fodder. T« «a«ape atarvatioii tbe Riwlitli eootingeBt vaa foront to 
leave the main anay. Befora they left ri«e had ruon to tbm livn and nix ahillinp 
tit? poead (3, 5, l> mpte* the lArr^ tfoareoly a auutid wu bcaid in tho oeioe uMty 
Hiirw* and bnllecka wet« dying crcryirheR or itaniliiig liitleaa and (aodae- 
<i vltli tb«lr ntdauelMly maatori icatod bcflde them (Ditto, SitS. 3S9.3S1). 
(II iLiiti' "f tbn niliwvy be oauaea, ParaahiiTim wna, occotdbg to Uoer |Nanative,388), 
* kfiii] iit.iii iiid waa nu«t napireted where ho waa moat knoira. Tlio I>ake «d 
WiUm^'t/'^. S.iiii.lenMtttary Dmnatcbsa, I. 3U> dcactiUd Um MarUbaa in Malnr 
ira a« H curw to human natnre, 
l.> t Kim's Myenre. I . :i9a 
' '.VclkBlti't Ueqntuhea, IL 18, 22. » Glcig'a Life of Jilunm. 68, 87. 

* Letten froRi Secy. t« Oovt. to Captain Uonm and to the Bmrd of It»<rwnne, 
lat VA. ISOa ' Utter to Boatd o( Rwcnue. Slat iJay ISOa S and 3. 

R 8IG-J» 


IBombajr OuetUtf, 

Chapter \ni. 

Ctbmtl WrU(»Uf, 




from Bedaor into Knndtipar cloee to the noatlt of BbiUkal.' Thvrt 
were pretenders to almoHt crory part of Uio diatnot. Exn-pt vritliiA 
tho limits of tlio old Souda state, tltongh too stroDjJT for tlie atH 
iwwer, tliese claimanta aud freebootera were too conti-mptiblo to be 
made the object of a military expodition. Thoj^ found Miinro firm, 
and tbo threat of Ix-ing treatud na rebels forcvd liiem tu givu la 

Tlio Sonda torritorv coi-reHponding to the present oplaod 
siib-divi^ioaK of Sirsi, YelUpur, Haliytil, and Sope. did not Bubttiit 
without trouble. The chief of Bilgi in the 80«th fitnipglod for a 
time; hot in Soptombvr had to Mtibmit to a dutju-hmciit of Kn>*Iiafa 
troops.' Tho Mitrdtli^ and Sonda irrogulara were tiluiidoring tho 
countrv and had almost emptied it of poople. In the same iRoatli 
as Colonel Wollcsley's detachments bc^n to poor in both tho 
MarAtlubt and the Souda troo|K( luul to withdran-. lUpnji Siodta, 
the Mar^tha commandant of Dli&rw&r, ordered his detachmonta at 
Halijil and at Sambritni, about fire milea south of Daliydl, tu 
maintain their poets against tho Britiah. On the ^dth of 8f:'ptoinl)cr 
tho 8anibriini garrison of 300 men who hud Ktroaglj- barricaded 
(bo village were attacked and the Tillage wax carrit-il though not 
without loss.' Hearing of the fall of Sanihrtliii the Haliyjil gwrtson 
abandoned their post and on Colonol WollcsIoy'B advance Sn|w iJbn 
was takon without n strngglo. In OctolK.-r «a opposition was at an 
end Colonel Wellosley returned to Maisor learing troops nt Snpa, 
at Ualiy&l, at Mundgod twenty miles east of Yell^ar, and a( 
Badnii^'ad fifteen milo» north-oast of Sirsi.* So completely ruined 
waa tho country between SirKi and Snpa that in Colonel Wollesley'a 
opinion the chief of Sonda who had chiefly caused the niin deserved 
to bo treated aa the worst of enemies. lie and his people had 

J)lundered and dexlroycd wherever they had boon. To him were 
lue the most disaatroua and the most nnmcroiui sccaoa of human 
misery that Colonel Wellesley ever had the misfortane to witneas. 
It was a mattor of indifference in whose hands the governuieiit waa 
placod. It wiM almost litorully tnie that owing to ihu conduct of tho 
Sonda chief and of MarAtha freebooters thcro wilh little to govern 
except trees and wild bea.ita.* By the begiuning of OctoWr 1799 tbs 
Company's rule was firmly established throughout Kanara.' 

■ Dhiuidi* TCi^b, a Muntlin by dewMil, (vrvnl in lUidu-^ Mmy, hat tlnrAinjicd 
t« DhArwikc dnnuj- the isvuion at litad OoniwklHi (I790}. la IiDI he vm iiiduoed 
to go to 8priiijis|iat>m, ui'l rcfuuaE toemlmoe I*Um irw (iwcibly cutvtrtcd tnA 
thrunt itit.>pri>>i>ii. Huu-u n^ltoaedby Britiab laJdJeraM th« captiuv <•'. SniagipAtam. 
rataped Id Uid MuMUia ouuntty. oollootod a Utv* force, ootnuiUtwl nuay itqir«l«' i<m*. 
Hid WW in 1900 kined iu a cavalry obarce led^ Colontil WoUmI^. IKicc'i itviortt 
aad Coon. 1. 3971. ' 8«ppl Ump. I. »3, 328. 

» Sopjit Denp. I. WO. S4I. * Suppl. Doip. I. 347. ' Supply Dwp. L XIA. 

• Mr. Pnutd* Kcwcome Ualtby, a lormer Collector nf KAnan, writing in tha 
CktoutU K«vl«ir, XXI. 33A, thti* ■timmkriiMU iliinro'ii wurtc in Kitxitn- ' Wbnn 
Miinro Vdtcrwt thu diitriot, tbu witly t'bkf* i>|>(<uly rotiat^d hi* nutburity. uid Itc i{iwU 
l-Hidv of tba laoidliaUan nvivnl n iirauttUB with which tbcy had boni funilur undar 
wMikorgoraninanta, Th«y otgaiuMd a paurive miitancD, nndnifBMd toanniiblBta 
Bcttia tli«tr rent*. Bat thoy bwi to d«al with a •oldics' and utatSMOJui glltMl bny^aX 
vthor mca witb tlie powpr <>( tttinff MTOity anil kindiua*, cadi in lla ]in<|ivr d<f;T«a. 
On* or two p9 undohiiK ohwri wura hanjtad, nmt their bandi diucnvil, '.-thf-raiiaM 
ptDai<>uad.aiidthcpaac«(ullaRdh(ild0r«uwnuItiinHto c»e«inn«c farthvreooibiiMtMB 
in Um nan who did oat ev*n olW to treat for tctma, bnt oalm^ gav* tbtm ttiiM la 
dincJrc tboir vonfcdoratKia*,' 



:ho Htate of the district when it camo under his ohai^ in 


lias left the folio? 

account; Wilhiii tlio laat forty 
yt>»r», vxcupb in » few favonretl spots, Und has ceased to he 
saleable ; the greator part is not only unsaleable bnt wastu and 
overgrown with wood; the popuhttion has dimitmhod by onu-Uiird 
and iho vniuo of property has suffered a very much f^VAter redaction. 
Ctontappa and Ankoln httvo only a fow bopgarly iuhahitants, and at 
HoQ^var there is not a singlo house.* I'lio north of tho distriof, 
Lowlaud or Payanghdt Sonda vaa in the sante statu as the taos% 
dv^^lnte difitrtccs further to the south. Upland or BtUaghAt Sonda 
was still wurjtc. It was nowly a complete desert. Throoghout its 
whole extent, except a few «inall openings, it had not a cnltiratcd 
spot a mile scinaro. The rest of the country wag so OTorgrown with 
foTx^^t tliat it could be crossed only whore roods had been cleared. 
Mom nf the villn^ had thiin'eK in their pay. For fonr years before 
the overlUrow of Tipu's jwwcr Uiroe or four thonsand banditti l»d 
driven out all the Sultan's s^arrisons, rxoept those at Haliy^and 
Sndnsbivgnd. They defeated several parties sunt against them, 
and. though dispcivod by a strong dotachinont, tieveral banda of 
fifty to a hundred men continned to elude search and commit 
doprcdacions.* In 1800 some still held ont Bobberies and murders 
w«ru frt^qnvnt ; no villago was safe n-ithout a guard.' 

In 1801 Kiinara was visited by tho learned and most observant 
'icr 0^^mj])U|^Dj whose diary, tho rcsnlt of a rosidenco of 

1 Gf{e«D months, ha« sincu rumuincd the standard work on 

Uaisnr and KJinara. Buchanan speaks with respect of ^(aior 
Uunro's management of the province. He had not been so liberal 
in his grants to temples as some officers, bnt this economy did not 
seem to Iw Httendi>d bv bod rcsnltx. Hiti conduct svomcd to hare 
gained the good opinion of every honest iuduatrioua man tinder his 
authority .* 

The following aoconnt, summarised from Dr. Buchanan's journal,' 
filiowB the state of North Kfioaia in the early months of 1801. la 
the cxlrome sooth the Bhutknl valley was cxc<.-1lrnlly cultivated. 
At the public expt^'ni^e in the fair xoason dams were mudo to water 
the rice Gelds. Th<?re were many cocoa gardens enclosed with 
stone walls, better than any in South Eiinara. Between Bliatkal and 
Sbirili, five miles {l{ Som) to the north, the country wa» full of bare 
latcrite hills, some of whose sides were terraced for rice. Iteilcm or 
Bailnr nine miles north (3 kos) had beautiful Alexandrine laurel or 
Oulophyllum iiiophyllum trees. The shon> vnx& skirted with cocoa 
^olms and the soil of thu plain v.&» j^-uerally good i almost the whole 
.was under rice. At JJailur tho peoplo in (heir ttcHltered houses ImJ 
nnSered mach from the Jilar&this. Xhere were not more than half 

' Li|-( I. CT. « Mnnro's Lite, I. TS. » Munro'ii L*f., L 75. 

• 1; .1 fianftLi'kMyiwri', IT!. 33, ISI- Munro «-lio vu Ic^'id in B*Iliti. wm (tared in 
K 'i w-oikLi kii4 liilU. ill fiva ini'iitlis M nuo, utd ita 

uii I [.(! Ttii of June l&OO, he wrol*, • VVbcre there hu 

'. "I wutviTV (Titor fM> b* otaUidiod oolj- by heiag ioiiKiSbU; 

-I 1 J clEMJpitofafUinrsrds.' JUbatfauM'* Li£e,I.lxxvii. Ixixv, 

' ii;,. ■-. CoDMn, III. iee-174, 181-1», 101. 







(Bombay Qat«ti«cr 

Oiapter VII. 





the numtwr whicli were waoted to till tbe groiiBd ; and a givaJk 
pari of tbo oo<X)A<pitItn« irvro dead, llio rouls woru good, but 
uot bccaniie lulmnr luui l>ecn spent on tbein, and every now and 
sfi^io camo rivers, liilla, and rocka impassable for a cart, difficoU 
tiTon for B buUock. From Bailor abont tea miles north Buclianaa 
pii.Hii<><l amonff low bare luturito hills, with ouly two nnriow valleys 
with a fevr people and a litlic good riire Umd, th» barrconc^t truutlw 
had ever ae«u. Two miles south of the IluoflTaf lake there wm 
a plain of poor soil with few people. It wag uapoeeiblo without 
Dialling arrnngomonls bofon'hand to take cattlo across the DootlTar 
hikt;. HoniiYnrhad been dc'iiiiiliahed by Tijni in 17H4; t<\wo 1799 
five shops had been opened. Tbo pirate craft of the Mar&Uin ciAst 
wcro n great hindroncti to trade. They hovered roand I'lReon 
Island itinl Iiiid tbr iin|>cninviici.- vvKo to ontvr tho riviTH a&d tnttiCa. 
Hight days before Uuchanau wnA tliore, thoy had Ciu-ried ofl two 
boats from Hoo&var, a week earlier one boat from Manki, aad 
iSvo days earlier one from Bhatkal. In the six milos between 
Uonavar and Huludipum the (toil whk poor and tfao country mnoh 
spoiled by creoks. According to Buclinnan the coltivatrtl Inoda 
were private property, the holder paying a lump sum for his oniirv 
oetate. The proprietors, who were BnUimans, were called mui^dn 
and somo of Ihom Iua»L-d part of their lands to tonants or genigdn. 
Few estates were enctu])bcn>d with mortgageit, an tiw- Unihuiaos of 
Ilaign were (pwd economists. The Brdbmana did not work with 
their own hands ; thoBo with twenty ploughs were rich and those wiUi 
fuiir wrrc fairly off ; miiiiy hud ouly one plough. In the BnUunans' 
farms most of (he work was done by slaves. The women alavca gtt 
a daily altowuncc of Hoc which amonnted to nearly fifteen bosltoU b 
year, worth 8(.iuiethiugleMtlmn £1 8a.6(f. {R». 14}). 'I'liey wero also 
13aid 5(. (Ha. 2}) for clolhea or nitogtrther about £1 13». 6<f. (lU t6f] 
a year. A male slave's allowance vioa 22} bu»IiuU of rico worth 
£2 7s, M. (Bfl. 23|). Atroe male servant hired by the day reooivod 
fonrpoands (2 hanis) of rico. Free men and elavca worked from fivq 
in iho moroing to seven at uight, at noon eating food cook<^^ by tbe 
master's ]>iM>{ile. llie tenants held on four to ten years U-Juee. 
Por each crop of rice they paid for tbe best land eighty -four pounds 
(2 inoraj/9 ori»iWii«),for miudling land sisty-threc pounds (1 i morau), 
and for poor land forty-two pounds (I moraij). Tho over-holdw 
paid the taxes. If he failed, under what Buchanan cnlU » uuiiorsble 
syvtem of troc Hindustani invention, aman was billettcdon him, and 
sold tbe crop and deducted tho land lax. If a man gave security 
and failed to pay, on the third day afl«r his failure, hia eccurity 
was put in conGnoment. Government never sold land bccaurie of 
luT«ura of rent, and in Ijad eeasons the gi>vemment demand was 
reduced. In pri\-ate salott land fetched about five times its yearly 
rental and could be mortgaged for about two and a half times, the 
lender taking all the profit and tbo borrower being free to redeem 
it at any timo. The value of Und was shown by the rnunU'r of 
disputed auoceestoca The families generally Uved undivided, tbo 
eldeat member msoaging ite affairs. A reduction in the export duty 
on rice and an tncrouse in tho demand were making rice a more 
important crop than it had fonneriy bevo. 



iTiie cattle were bnfTatoen nnd oxon, poor animnU. moat of them 

ftlrave the SabjSdria. In the rainy innntlia tbey wei-e fat and 

Dtig; in tho dry boomou though fed with hay and &traw they were 

sly ahW. to cniwl. Working oxen were fed on Hm hueku, and 

iny bufr»loe« on cocoanul-on c»k<,'. Milk and buller were very 

as the few cowa were iu wrelohtfd cynditiyn. There were no 

mrta. The MarAtha pirates were a great obstacle to trade; people 

were afmid bo bnild bont«. Thero were no manufactures. Trade 

had been deatroy&d by 'I'ipu and the racrchantK wero ynly beginning 

to come back, liice had formerly be«n iinjtorted. Now the number 

oF people was so rednced tJttt rice was one of the chief exports. 

tWr li.ukdinjr oxportfl were PocoanuU, betolnuta, pepper, and 

ilwood. Kumta w,-cm«d t') have oiico boon a place of note. It 

A been twice burned by Tipu'a irref^uiara. Ilegada a little to the 

fTih ot Kumta wasabne plain with farm-hoasee built in a stylo 

rIii' li ahowod that the people were mocb better off than was asunlia 

Iniiirt. Mirxaior&lirj&non thonortli bunk of tlioTadrt waa entirely 

diietroyed. In Che hilly country to the oast of Mirxai or Minan well 

waicrod ralleys wore not fully cultivated owing to the want of people. 

N' rtii of Mirj^n the sol) was good hut wu much neglected, l>&cau«o 

waa noone to till it. The plain of Goluu-n was well cultivated, 

:-.- i rice Gelda mixed with palm gardens. The Qangdvli river 

had most wretched boats and no trade ; its baok^ were bonutiful but 

'-- ' *' r barren, and its salt was so bad as to bo scarcely saleublo. 

onntry to the north of the Gangavli riTer, which according to 

Kuchanau wa« the division bi>twoen Uaiga or Uaiva and Koukana, 

tboagh larger tJiaa the southern district, yielded much less 

ruTODRO.' It nn» nob naturally poori'r and the poople wero by no 

tnenas richer thim tho»o in tho DOuth; in fikct their booses were 

not nearly so good. But it had been ao long unsettled that it was 

wonderfully waste. Even of the good lands not more bhui two- 

ihtrd» wero under cultivation. The country had been laid wa«to 

' 1 If Uariith^ and by KomirpAik and HalcptUk robbers. Munm 

itely done good service by sending troops to shoot one Gunesb 

tiort, a Komlini&ik chief who haa persisted iu hit* old practice 

<-i.'bootJug too lung aft4.'r tho arri\-al of the English. Ankola 

wa« recovering and hiS forty shops. But the people did not live 

in lowna A. few ehops wero ooilectod iu one place, and all tho 

otber inhabitants were scattered on their farms. Tho country to 

■ ' iiLMrth of Ankola wa* overgrown by trt-os. Part of it had once 

CuUirat«d, and with [>i.'op)i: cn<jugh the whole might be 

productive. The only industry was a poor mannlactoro 

aiechu out of the khair tree, MiinoBa catechu. Round 

ihivgad, much land had fallen into tho hand.-t of Uuvemment 

I- w-aatft This was tho n-nult of tho mids of Venja NSyak, a 

;k chief , who had forced even Brfihmans to join IJis caste, 

ii" :rLi'i Li^en brought to order by Major Monro and was now quiet. 

Tho town of K&rw&r, formerly a noted place of European oonimorco. 

Chapter VI 




' nomtnr £20.400 (/\moA» BI.OOO) ; KunJipur £30,000 (fiHrMla* SO/XW) i ud 
kola £1 1,«00 (/><>o«dM SO/100}. 

(Bomb»7 &u«Meer. 

Chaptor VI L 
I History. 






liad gone to mio. Of ita former commorce tbo unly tracu wu s 
littlv trnHic ia snlt tind CAt«cbD. The chiof huabaodineD wore 
miscmbly igikornnl H abbu BMhp iaitg who liad alieoated much of their 
land Co Manlth4a, iCoiUuuia BMJhinaiiB, and Komirp&ks. Manro baJ 
lowered the land ratoe, bat, as what rcmaiDed was strictl; oxact«dj 
tho roroDiie had incm«cd. An e8t«t« paying t\ 12*. (Paoodcu 4) of 
rsvenuo cuuM be inorl^aged for it-iU {Fa^xiat 100] and sold for 
£60 (Pagodan 150). The land which had falleo to Gorerament was 
charged higher rates thun thu old ostatus. The hrms Tari«d in sixo 
from one tu fivo ploughs. The family gf tho pruprjolors gununUly 
worked on thv faroi, only a few of the rich eniployiHl hired aervanta. 
There were no akves. Men evrvaata were paid tt 8«. 4d. (VagocloM 
6), or lea.ljrf. {PagodM 2) a ywu- with a daily meal of rioe. Tha 
OX4ID were stnall aud wretched, and th«ro wore few biiffuloos.* 

The nortJi bank of the Kilinadi or KirwAr river was at fintt level 
with pretty good soiL Behind this the coantrr rose in hilb. Thero 
w»8 amwreutly litUe tillaga Owing to distaroances the vilhigo at 
Gopidiiti, the i irat stage front K^wilr, had boen demrtcd for tweutv 
But under the security of Hooro's authority people had 
to Eettic During th o second atag e, thoagh mudi of tW land 

I once been tillud, there wait not a Imoso for eixtoen miles up tho 
north b&nk of tho Kilrw&r river. Kodra, alwut twenty miles from 
tile coast, had once been a place oT note ; all that wm loft wero two 
booses with ono man and a lad, besides women. All the re»t had 
been Bwopt awny by a great sickuess which hud prevailed for seTonf 
years. The people thought it was the work of some angry spirit ; 
in Bachanan^B opiniou it was probably due to the xproud of loreet. 
Sixtoc" miles further to AirUi-Gotma tho ooontry was still witboot 
an inhabitant or a trace of tillage. But it waa not entirely descrtod 
83 small villages were bid in the forest. Thu people, who had beon 
attorly lawlum wore rodaood to order by Major Munro, and, except 
from tigora, the roods wore now aafu tor a defenceless man. Tee 
country beyond was most unhealthy ; for a stranger it yna< 
considered certain death. 

At the foot and up tho Sohyddri spurs to tho south of tbe 
E&linadi Buchanan found valleys with nee and plantations of botol 
and ooooa Fjliis.' Further ou the popper MIIb were miserwbly 
neglected. The forests were very stately ; but the climate was 
deadly. Thu road up tho SiUiy/idrm to Kutaki was Iwdly planned. 
Loaded cattle could pass, aiid this the peojilo thought was all that 
oonld bo rcqiiii-ed of a road. Above tlio top ot the Sahyfidris, 
though the country was level and the soil good, there was no tillage 
except luw rice lands and betel gardens. The people wore Haiga 
BrflhmiuiB, hardworking husbandmen wlio tilled with their own 
hands. Formerly the country was fall of thieves and ^ng« of 
scoundrels callod «acft aamhali. Aft«r Major Mnnro h^ driven 
most of them out, th«y wont to the Manitha country and thrice 
rotnruod to Kinara in great strength. Bands twenty to thirty 
atroDg still occasionally came. When attacks wore expected tJie 

1 Bnchaou)'* Mytoi*, UI. 181 -ISJ. 

t BadiMwn'a Myiore, m, 9)1, 




■3. YelUpnrhada )iundi«d bouses, and a fairly flupplied inarkot. 
?en miles beyond Yellapur tho conntry was anuihabited. When 

Br&hmane and other quio( people led their lionsoii, nnd ctob duriug 
the mil)* hid llioinsolyes in tlit.* forL\its. Festileuco aud booaLs of 
|.ri\- were gentle compared with Uinda robbers, who fortared nil 
whvj fell into their hantu. In tbe sixtoon inil«a to Yellltpar the trees 
and tiun soil were fine. Throe^fourths of the gitrdvos wore occapiod, 
litu froiR wont of cnhivaUira three-fourths of thu nVe Inndo woro 


Siiteen miles bejood Yellapur tho country ■ 

Mni tr Mnnrocamo to KAnam the sixteen miles from Yell^por to 

la was a contiimed wa«be. About half way ^lajur Munru bad 

i:.'.:oi>Iished Karny Hoso-haii a miserable hamlet of six houses. Tho 

people were Mardcb&a. Tigera and wild buffaloes were numerous, 

bill there wero no elopboutii. Further on tlio oonutiy wne waste to 

t^i.uindagoinla, whore were some rice fields and a few houHus belonging 

W Llie Teiicht-r of the Haiga BrAbmans. To Souda Ihe country was 

Terr rongh aud tbero was little cultiTatJon, exeept some betel gardens 

'1 near tho old wullx. In tho oight miles between 8onda and 

... ., [tuohaunn ww neither houses nor cultivation, but it tvus said 

that there were villages near the read. In two places he noticed 

' '- ctod pepper plantations. Sirsi was a smalt village on a 

dvrablo tlion>ughf«re whicli wiut hIjU troubled by robbers. 

Urvat i>;irt of the garden land near Sirsi was waste. This was duCt 

along with other troubles, to Tipn's raising the Major 

Unnro had reduced tho rent to the old standard, but no now gardens 

I:;..l luMfn bt-gun (U) tho people expecU'd further iudulgenco. There 

fear hUivcs. Host of tho field work was done cither by Haigs 

lirriiimanfi or by hired labourers. Tlie Ilaiga Br^hmantt toiled on 

their OWD gronad at every form of labonr, ont they never worked 

■ iro. For so poor ft ooontry the wages were very high. The 

: male Aervants, who were gcuorally engiigotl by the year and 

vcre all men, H<^Idora received money in advance. Thuy got 

[-...-' meals a day in their master's house, and once ajear a blanket 

a hiindkerchief, and £2 8r. 4<(. {Pagodtu 6) in cash. The womon who 

wtire hired by tho<iay were paid 'i pounds (1 ^ th^a) of rough rico and 

abcnt \\d. (1 anna) a day in cash (3 dudiw of which 4il)='KB- 1)- 

:<Te sJave received 4 pounds (2 iher$) of rough rioe a day, and, 

n year a blanket, a IihikI kerchief, a piece of cotton cloth, and 

Duuie oil, tamnrindit, and capsicum. For his wedding, the only money 

be ever ttaw, he was given £0 8«. 1 \d. [I'ayodas lit) as the price of 

his wifo. As the wife had to bo bought she and all the children 

K'-inio tho mailer's properly. A woman slave was paid 3| pounds 

iion) of rough rice a day, and once a year a blanket, a piece of 

i cloth, anu a jacket. Children and old people got drosAvd 

■Is at the master's house and wore allowed some clothing. 

■J worked from sunrise to suuKVt with a rest of twenty-four 

Hj <i. midday. The women staid nt homo till oight in tho 

nioming cooking. They then carried the food into the tields and 

remained working with the men till suniivt. Thcro were fe^t- or no 

TCtiident merchants. Some merchants from below tho Hahyddris 

bought n little pepper, but the chief buyers of local produce were 

Bsujigs from Uublii Dhdrw^r, and tho Mariltha dominions, who 

wuro said to give every protvctioD and eacouragomeul to VnA«. 



Conrfi(fM% I 


IBombay Oaxetteci< 

Cktpter m. 




SCraKt Rinng, 



Theso inlwinil trudcra brougbt cloth and (^rain, and took poppet 
bi-teliiiil Mini cards iiioinH. H*>tno of the tntdiog was dona by huner, 
but uioAt by casb payments lo local ahopkeupere, TbeT« wiis aa 
import of iron fi-om Maisnr for local use, and an iDiport and great 
through traffic in salt fnim the coast to the Mah&lim turritorim. 
IHit' climate was ootiniilvreil dniigrruus to people not inureni to ii 
from birth. In llio twenty mibta botwRou Simi and BaQavAgi a 
meai deal of the country which bad formerly beou cleared was waste. 
Bauartlai had ruined wallti and about 250 bonsea. Ju llio c«si of 
Sonda, owing to want of peoplo and Htock, dry Geld tilla^ waa 
much neglected, and the whole of the rioe-grouod waa not cultivated. 
Tho cattle were larger than in lowUnd Kinara, but grcaily inferior 
to the cattle farther to tho oast, from which niany plniigh oxun 
were brought. Buffaloes were moru uxod than oxen. Tlierc wore 
no «beep, gOAls, owine, or asses, and ver^ few horaee. The revenne 
was paid in money. The custom of lesdmg money on tho mortgage 
of land pr»v(^'d that the land-tax waa moderate and left eaoiigb with 
the cnlhvnlor to make tho land valoablo. A hrmer with aix i)3[<iiglui 
was con»i<lervd rich. Haiga Br^hnuina never tbomBolvea held the 

1>lougIi. Hired ineu received S pounds (4 »l»^») of rough rice worth 
t}»A llinn \\<i. (1 anna). A man slave was given 4 poundit (S thtrs^ 
of rough rico a day worth £.\ 2». a year, a handkerchief, a blanket, 
and a piece of cloth worth is. (Ra. 2), about 8». (Pagoda 1) in muney, 
and at harvest six Icandak* of rice worth 14s. Gd. A woman slave 
received a piece of clobb every year and a meal of dros^-d victuals oa 
any day she worked. 

Vtlrnn Munro left Kdnara in 1800, the divtrki of which he hod 
been in chatKe was diridod. The present collectorato of North Ktinana 
together with tho KnndApur nub-division of Sonth K4nara wm placed 
under Mr. Hvwi, and the rtMt under Mr. lUvenshaw. In 1817 the 
two divisions were re-united into one oollectoratu under the Honour* 
nblo Mr. Harris, and remained as one charge till the transfer of North 
Kinora to the Uombaj Prosideocy in 1862. About tlio bi-^nniug of 
1831 there were some riot* tonned kvts, to suppress which it waa 
necessary to call in military aid. The aeason hacl ooea nnhivoumbla 
aud the collection of the Qovemment domandx was reaistod. 
Govemmeut were of opinion^ that the riots were dne, not to ao 
temporary a canso as failure of crops, but to the state oftheaaseiwrnont 
which was said to been some eatatesbotapepper'com.aodonotliers 
oppressively high. Subsequent inquiry- showed that the riots had 
been got up by tlio iutrigiies of sotoo fir^hmans on tho Collector's 
establithment to throw the district into confusion, bring disentdii 
on the administration of Mr. Dickenson, and procare the remoral 
of Native Christians from the revenue department. Tho riots wero 
easily suppressed and no great injury was done. 

On the night of tho 2nd of February 1858 three sons of Pbond 
Savant, a man of position in Silvaiilvfidi, who, since the distnrbancwa 
of 1844>4ohadbceu under gitard in Gron, escaped. They gathered 
a band of 150 men, plundered the customs bouse at the Tini pasa 

■ Lcttet to PHiKip*! CoUoeMn aud Ukgiatrkloi, ISO, &th Fcfaniaij IS31. 
*Hr. StokM, CwnmiaaiaiMi, to Uio liwtud v( K«>«<iu4^ IStfa Janaary 1833. 





it thirty miW north-west of Sapa and took a strong poration 
^ambamguilita hill about fivo nii'Ies north of TinL Troops wore 
?nt ai^ioat tbem and a lur^o n.'wnrd vraa offered for th«ir cnnture. 
Jot tho country was ho difficult and ao favourable for banditti that 
']|>y rotnainod at largo for nearly two years. In the Uttter part of 
185^) the coiiliiincd prossuro of tho troops gruktly redncod tho 
trength of the gang. It ffa>« finally broken np by Lieuteim&ta 
iirrtKcn and Drenner on the 5th of December 1859.* 

''.e I6th of April 1862 th e diatrict of North E&nara, with the 
I >D of tbu Kundiipnrsab division, for ndminiHirativo nod 
egiaiativR pnrposeN, was tra naforrcd to the PrCM daacy of Bombay 
an order of th« Secretary of State laanea under 16th and 17to 
ictorifi cap. 96 section 18.* The principal reasons for the transfer 
ro that tho district was a narrow strip of territory interposed 
tween cotton districtsof great importance bo the Kombay cotton 
arade and the sea, the commt-rcial emporium of which, at least as 
warded the cotton trade, was Bombay, and that while the cotton 
nltivatioD and trade above the Saliy^dris and the coasting trade 
)elow, looked to Bombay as their conimorciul cnpitul, tJio i*ubHo 
(Vorka and other departments of ndministmtion in K^nara looked to 
1raa as the seat of their Government with which there was little 
mcrcial connection.' There was much dtscassioa as to what 
t of territory shonld come under the Bombay Preaideaoy, 
^ aficr the proclamation of transfer it was repreaented that 
.oad^nr ahoiild not be oxcludo)!,' aa, except thoae tranfiferred to 
Bombav Government, it was the only snb-division on the ilalabdr 
t in which the Eao^rese taogna^G was spoken. Tho Secretary 
State declined to altor his decision.^ By Bombay Act III. o[ 
t3, from the dato of transfer, tho torritory was declai^d subject to 
acta and regotations of the Bombay Presidency. 

Chapter VIL 





jTulittMl, IS, 290) F«t>rwuy 1603, ud ProelusMiona ot l€th April 1S8S. 

lOoviinBant of ladi*. SSia^ Sttli Dvoemlwr 1861. 

lB(»at»7 OoT«ma>«nt to SMrrtwj o( Stat*, 9, 12th May 1861. 

[PoKlKttl, SS, «Hti Jnoa 1S63;, 




Clxpter VIII. 





CoiiONKL \Vtl.Ka, who wrote about lf)10, in disonasing tba natare 
of liuiiled property in India remarks ; ^ ' In India, an Jn Eiiropo, the 
conquerors and thv conqnt^red, succ«>aiToly impelling nod ivpcllAd, 
rollvd forward wave *ftc-r wnvo in a soutborn directiun, and wbwrw 
will uLLeutivol)' examine llio iitnicliiru and the geography of thai 
portiou of India usually called the Southern Poniniiula may infer 
a priori that the countries below the GhiUs, 80p«riit«d liy a tHirrier 
scarcely pwnctnihlc from the ceiitrni regions, and ft^rhiddtng approikch 
by a barniug climntv iilivnys f(}riniditbli.> u< the uati%'ea of the nortli, 
will havft b^ri tlut Ia»t visited by invaders, and will have 
retained a larger portion of their primitive instiiutioTis.' He 
thereupon inslanceB X&nara as a district ' whi<:h lias prcwrvod a 
larger portion of its ancient institutions &ud historicsl recorde tlt&a 
any olhvr region of India,' and gives an acrouut of it^ early revenoe 
history. It must however be remembered that only tlml portion of 
the district now known as North Kanam whinh li(K< wouth of the 
Gaiigilvali and TH-twt-^tn thi,- Sohyiiilris and Ihe t<«a was included in 
the old pro^nnce of Kinara. The re<at was at varions times subject 
to rsriona dynasties. During the Brat half of the cight«entli 
century it formed the dominions of the chiof of Sonthi, ana at tfao 
time of the nsMumption of the district by the Curapany's (joverniuuDt 
was distinguished ns Sonda. Sondn I'uyeu Gh<it or that portion of 
the district below the SahyidrLi which is north of the dangAvaU 
river, oorrespondit in its phyaioal features wiih Kdmiiru proper, bntj 
like the Sonda Biila Gb^t or uplands, it was a froulinr country 
bordering on the territories of several dilTerent poweni, and cousc- 
qnenlly the soono of constant atrifft and insun-ection, and the 
inhabitants were accustomed to plunder and be pinnderod. The 
oonxequence is that Sonda has lost all tracoa of its pritnitivo institu- 
tions almost Hs cumpU'tely aa Kfinara has retained them. Kron 
oocoants relating to the time immediately prior to the aoce^sioa 
of Urilish mlo could bcirdly be procured, tno accountants and other 
Tillag<» oflicent having ivmspin-d to witlihuid them when, ttft<^r tbo 
fall of Seringapatnm, it became known that Klajor Munm was 
marching northwanU,^ and the Collectors under the Madras Uovem- 
ment frequently repre^tented that they were unable to obtain nay 
kraatworthy data on which a satisfactory settlement of the land 
ifironno could be effected. 

' Cflntributod br Mt. 3. Monl<*tt., CSL ' S«utii U Ii.dia. 1. 180,151. 

* Tht HonouMblo Hr. Uniria t« Uoatd u( Hcveiiu*. Uth Juua 16S1. 




Tlnr fact^ iT'iiiting to tho land rovcmie of wluit wi^rc <liP kTritorii'S 
of tlie K.-1JH of fvjiida Ixifure lUeir ix>n(iuoftl liy Huidur Aii in 1703 
Buty be <)tated in a few worda. It ia mentioned in land gmnUt or 
aanadg, llint a aarvey, vrbiob was probably only an estimate of are* 
From insmiction, vnm mado in too second contnry, but it is not 
Vii-^wn wliat Ihe old ntwettgnient w«». Something oornupundiuf; to 
tlii' ^yatem of Toilnr .Mai, which was iutroduood iti the Docxun by 
bh^h Jah^ (1(5^7- lt>57) appears to hava been introduced into 
Ankula and nomo placoa abova tho Saliyddris by the Adil Slulh 
ilyiiJisly of Hijilpur, probiibly bctwovn u)>out 1570 and 1670.' The 
[inuL-ipal feature of tbnt system wm the periodical readjustmODt, 
with regard to the fluciaationa in the valoa of money, of the money 

■ mutation tor the fixed ahurc of the produce. From certain 

iuUi Mr. Harris inffm^d thitt in the linio of tho Adil Sbdh 

Uyui. ■■ was a rtoini^uomiiiU wrutinv called reMajAaift or 

aascr- rutiny which appears co have D«en of the same Daturo 

■8 Todar MaVs systou of readjustment, with the additional object 

of dotvcting fruude committed by the village acoountuntfl.* rhe 

■MOMmt-nl of the Adil SluUi dynasty woh regarded as th« ntuadard 

asscaaDient, riiJcka or ghiiit, and subtx-qneut levies were called extnm 

orahdmit. It ia not pOBsibletoaaoertainwbat proportion the aasesa- 

itiriit bortttoihe ^rossproduoe, but the country hocuk to hsvu enjoyed 

I'M'.' 5%r>isperity for w; vera I centuries boforo its ocviipnliuu by the 

. According lo Munro its decline secma to liave began 

" Mubammadan priucoH of BijilpDr, and to have oontinned 

r ita own chiefs who were aoccoaaively tributariea to the BijApur 

'HS and the Uoghal Emperors, and whuboaidus the payment of 

tribute or p^/^ldhat, vfi-rc ooinpetlod to satisfy the rapacity of 

I J :iabtes by heavy emotions from their subjects.* To make good 

tl'. tribute an extra asfleesment of thirty per cent on all gardeoB, 

and 2i to 12i per cent on all rice fields, was impo&ed, and appears 

in the itccount«us ce«s or pnf/i under tlie hvud oi shiimil or extra.* 

oia waa subjr'Ct to tho Mar^tluit for eleren yeara, but tbev do 

eem to have bad a very tirm graap of it and there ia no evidence 

t i ' ShivAii's revenue ayatem was introduced.* Huidur and Tipu 

npi>i-iu- Co have trunted Sonda and Ki^nam alike, and tlie account 

of lilt! revenao systwm of tbu two divisioiia from their time need not 

111' written aeparately. The only point requiring mention ia that, 

ii- rdinR' to Mr. Harris,' in some narts of Sonda the aaseaEmenb 

1 in kind as late aa 1 770 ; that it amounted to two-thirda of 

I' ,.. .:< producu; and that the aettlorocntwas made by villagoa and 

( ii:L)ge-group» or iMii^nniv, the hc-odmcu and accountonta being loft 

to diride the total aaac^uiment among the under-renters as they 

plonsed. All laud was held to belong to the Government, It is said 

litns were considered private property, but it appears that 

irecs bolongod to tbo ovravr ; tbu property of tee soil waa 

voaied in the Uoveramont.' 




■ " - ■ » . .-,rt, 3l*t M»y 1800. 
' IndikutdrtnU, MO. 
*bHWTW tiouA d Bertant, lltb Jbm 1S31. 

■ I«ttar o( Mr. Harrii. I4tli J«m 1831. 
• Miiar»'a Ropart, 31>t ihy ISOO. 

Uonn)'* Kepon, Z\A U>.j V«m. 

[Botnbar OuettMT, 



The rerenne hixtOTj of K^ara proper has bom tracvcl by Sir T. 
Mnni'o And others from very earl; times. Sir T. Miinro derirMl his 
inforinAtigii from andent title-dectHs or »nn<i<h and ncconnte written 
iu black bixiks or vilUgu regiittcrv.' He had gre«t ^tb in these Uack 
hooka, bat almost all have boon lost, and those which remain are noC 
easily dwiphercd. One-sixth of the crop ia aaid tohavo bceu the shar* 
exacUrd by Qovernment from time immemorial/ till, in a.i>. 13^2, ft 
prince of the Pnodyu] race whoee capital was at Madhura, conquered 
the cooDtry.* Before hiji time the sixth was paid in roiig:li grwn, 
but he rrtiuirod it to bo delivered free from the liiuik, ood thereby 
iscToaaed t4ie reTenne by ten per cent. This eyst^'Oi contiunMl till 
A.D. 1336 when the country came under the Viiayanagur dynatiiy. 
Harihar-IUi, the first nrinco o( that dyoacty, made a new aaaessmenb 
on the principk-s laid aown in the sacred books, which suppose the 
produce to be to the seed as twelve to one, and which prescribe 
the proportions into which the produce ts to be dtvidc<l b^-'ivrvon 
the Borereifcn, the Imidlord, and Ihociiltivulor. Colonel Wilks thua 
deecribcs the iiiaoncr of dimrihution : * 'l^irty ia the whole 
number on whtdi the distribution ia made, of which it is calcnlated 
that fifteen nr one>half is coDsnmed iu the expenses of aftricultnre 
and in the maintenance of thu farmer's family. The distribntion oE 
the remainiug fit't(<en stands thus : To iho sovereign onc-itixtb of the 
^OEs produce or five partd, to llie Itr&lnoaoa one-twentieth or one 
and H liiilf )iartH, and to the gtida one-thirtieth or one part. This left 
to the proprietor one-quarter or 7| parts.' The sovereigit distributed 
the share payable tc the BrAhmans and ibeKoda. Munroitatcs that 
the share aclnnlly nllowod was little more tbaa oito out of the thirty 
instead of two and a half, the curtailment being made on the eround 
that the Brdhmans held lands which were not accounted for. Before 
the ooni|ncMt by the Vijayanuj^ar dj-nasty the rorenae was collected 
Bometimes in money and livmctimM in kind, but Harihar-Utfa 
minister made rules for the OODTeraioD of the grain payment to ^ 
money payment. The average asaessmeut paid by hold^-nt was 
{Pagoda« 50) but aomo paid as much as £2000 (Pagodas 5(fOO)i 

Harihar-SAi's system remained unaltered till 1618, when 



' ThoM U»ck boolu are th« Tillan npMUn. Thaf uo lIifM to four iacbea thiok. 
The Iwvei ore a uirt of coariw ololli of tht mhrtSBo* <jt pMta-bowd. Hiil ilycd hUek. 
TlicT an viiltvii witli ■ wrt cf alate poici], vhicli iloe* not rob thouirli it will wuh 
Mt. Mr. t^lpwuin-KoilWIV. ^ 

• From Uis iCTiotcM timM of nkick tbtn (a uiy rtKonl W new the mJdiDs at 
the fourternlh nntiarj' all land wuumwhI In riovataqaantity tquaJ t« IbcquMitil* 
of ptd(l>- auwD, thni >■ a RcM wbidi nsquiml U-ii Hiawjia of pait<ly t« Mtr paU t«a 
jUoMrftf oi riM lo th« nriMr. The maacurv tl>vii in uu vaa cmIImI a A*M. whicih 
MmtaiiMd fort>- taal$ of cigbtr TUpcta waight ; a AuM waa lh«tt4ix« eqa^l to ibrtm 
ttioowail and tvo hanxtrcd ntynct -ntigiit. The reat of thrt* iiiah iMtit of land wm 
tbr(« AnUii «I rioa, or oneirAf^ jMjwiibi of tfco auee ralD« a* til* Uabiidurior Uaidar a JUa 
now ia. Tba r«v«aiu wu aooMtiaiaa MDeetcd In kind, lomMimiM in nKmef , at Uia 
dkcretioD of die p>T«>nuneDt, and |roti«]ily aa th«< *Ute ot pricM rendaml the <m)« «r 
tbe other moat ■draatagtoM. Sir T. Mtmro to the Boud «f Bevoico, 31st itty 

• WUk.' Sonth of India, !. 152 ; Munro, airt Mnv 1800. ^Vbcfo thna authoritka 
dilTcT. a* they do an aoiiiia ntlBor matloni, Coloiml Wilk^ who vrote later aad 
i«cc» to the MackcBEio Mamisn^pt* and ottior npoca, ia foJlovad. 

• Wilke' South of India, I. IM. 





ailditional assoument o£ fifty pta cdnt vraa imposed hj one of tbe 
fiednur princes. la 1660 a tax was put on c'Kx>anat« and other 
fmito which before had paid notliirijr exclumve of thu Und-remt. 
Th« Vijayanagar asseaament, with these additions, waft coiLsidcrod 
tlie standard rent or reJUa of all lands caltirated or wasto. Thitt 
assessmonC is uIhu ctallod thiat-, and as »uch is diJitinguisbed ia the 
accounts. Aocunling to tlie above caicuUtioait wliat was levied hy 
nnv'Ttiment would anionnt to one-third of tbe ffross produce; 
Iji.: it was taken only at a roaj^h estimate of the seed sown and waa 
ooD&idercd light. The jwoplo arc- n?pro»<rnlodaa happy and proaper- 
oas tin<]cr it, there woru no oitt^tiuiiliii^ balances and Inud was 
saleable at eight to ten and aometimea at twenty-five to thirty years' 

Until the end of the Bodnnr role cessos were oonatantly imposed, 
It'-Iti;; fixed at a percentage of the standard ussusgment. In 1763 
wtiin Hnidar got possession of the country he ordered an investiga- 
tion of every source of revenue with the view of augmenting it as 
much as be coold. The additions made by him and by Tipu woro 
nameroiia; but they conld not all be oollectcd. Some mdeed were 
vaggONbud by tliu oflicera with the view of involving the acooant.s in 
oonhision, so that thuy miirht have an opportunity of embezzling 
with more safety. The whole administration of Uaidar and Tipa 
is described as a series of attempts to discover how much assessment 
tfae province could Iwar. The result of this systeia was that po])uIa* 
tioa waa diminished by one-third;* the ancient proprietors were 

ChaptCT Vli 




1763. 1TO9, 

' WliBtever propo rt ioa the HBOMinviit laig^t bre borne tti t1i« gram prodsM la 

1763, at Dlc tinio of Iho eooqatat of (Unan by Uiiidiur, it itill MecM t« lutre bMn 

tB&cHnUy modorate to havD nwbled tbit miuiitry, if Di>t to oxtepd ita oiillli-»tion, 

«t leaU to prcKrvo it tn the m«o floariihitig atato in vhtA it bad been In radier 

ilmea. NTbcrc diitricta w«r« in a d«clin« it wh not eeotod by tbe land-iviit but had 

been tbn toaaoqeaoe of Ibo dinunntioB of tbcir populntioii dating the frequent 

revolt* of their namercnii petty chiefi or pOJfgart, or it h&d b«(ia oeeedoaed by 

temponr}' act* <■! o«preMl-Mi, fw the ntJAa ol Bclcur, thouxh tb«y ailhered to tbe 

priiMijilT of k fixed Uhd-irat, frefjii^ntly jwrinitteil tlinir tarnndtot and lipMndaati^ 

wImq pLuoiI In tbe tnanKvoMBt al diitrlcta, to niia inwiy «[ tlw prlnuipal mhabitanta 

by tbe exHoUoD d( i-xurbilaat fine* under varloiu pNleaoe*. Ftom th«m and otber 

noue, la manr pari* of tbe oonntrv there were treot* of vaale luid wblub paid do 

!--n: and whloa Conld not be tijMiVnttbe lauds which were ocouplod oould, (or 

the Titbet pail, beeoM attborato of ooetoei|bl artcDyean'uiirchaaeotthe Gorera- 

mutt rent. Uadcr the Hcdniir priaeea mae fiolde irera aolil at on high m twenty- 

&*« and thirty y«an' parcbiao ; tbocefore tbeootatanding b«lancea which aftcnrarda 

»ra as oomnioa la Kiciara were almoet unkaowa. It wm thongjit oiuiaoeeury 

{.f U.-jip ajiRual lifijtte of the state of cultivation. It waa Davsr jiu|ttirt<l what 

; -' III nf liit i-i*Ai« ■ landlord cultivated or Irii vaatc It waa expected that, in 

' >ry ircro, he WM to pay the wtinio rout- Whvn, mh wm aometliMe 

l to pay, evni wbent it iMiuld bo donu, it km ant uaual to mU the 

•I njic ct- jitrr- Ol hia «atate to make gowl the defioieooy. Thiairaa looked npon aa a 

hanb noMuru. and waa aeldam rmort«d to. The usual enMoin wa* to grant bim 

tinw. to aaain bin with a loan of money, or to tenut the debt Tb* viUage ur 

diAtiiot me Ksrody crcr nupiied for iMdindnnl failures. On the whole, lh« rt«iiu« 

•ma tbm cHJlr raaliwd lUiil vhco thin vorv at timet oatataudiog baUucoa they 

--«Ml«d rather from miunaiuigcnioat than fmm the operation of ton 

I Munro, SlitMay IdOO. 

. .1^'' i»rty yeanendin^ incn thepopuIatiiiD otthooonatiyhadbeeDlaaMnod 

i awl tlwre wna little dou1>t that ila prMpcrlty had anffared aoeafaff redne- 

. ' --ipfiaand dnkola, furrDerty llourithing pJsc«a,«o«)tainod(ISO0) oulv a tew 

bq^gariy inbabttaots. Hoolvar, once tbe sooonil lava in trade after MaOjalor, liad not 

anogle hmuei and Man^loriUalf waaffiuatly ditoayocL It may Im ttid that this 

thaa^ was bnragbt about by tbe iavanoa of Uaidar, by the tou wan «lu«L b«^ 


n«3- ITffL 


IBoubAjr Gazetted' 



■ ItKI 

cztingoished ; oncl land had to be forced on tbe cultirat<7ni, those wlw 
wcra ])ree«nl being obliged to cuUirato the lands of tliO^O who bad 
absconded. Gcniirolly the pvoplc could not \>*y cither tbu rent c^ 
ibait own or of tho dcfnnlli're laiidn and not more than half the 
nominal demand could beoolieotcd. Few would avow tho pxltmt ol 
th«ir estates, and freqoeutly a portion was held in the nwno of na 
opilent relative, a rorenue servant, or a templv. Onl/ landa vritbia 
a few miles of the mm wvro )<aloaklu. 

The additional ct)S»es impowd by the later Dednnr pnnoes and 
by iho Muisur rnlcnt w«re called tKumil or extra, and wero stigma- 
tised aa imposts or 6nca The assesBment of IGGO was alooo 
i-egarded aa land*ront.' 

Major Hunro nutMrally disapproved of tho eonrae followed by 
Haidar and Tipu wliich hiid iin[H>voriHhed the people and renderod 
the country almost a desert. 8till ho did not deem lumwlf at liberty 

pcu«ilalnM that aTiot, by Tifia hiauaU dMtrojrbig mtmy <d tli« pmiaipal towM 
DiKiQ the coMt M»l (oTvisD tho iahalwUiiit* to ramoTo Ui Jnm»U1«d Mid otlwr uiihimltbr 
utuBti<ma nur Uia IuUa.l>>- lii* •risliu t» •»* nigltt *II tli« Cfariitin nwn wxom 
anii diildrsn aiHl nadW Ifaem to tli« taauhwot uxty tbcniHnd mla "r^----- tn 
3iUi«ar fiT not Di>o-t«iUt «f Ihwa tf** ratimwd, by Ibo tvohiytii. .'a 

tfkde. Mid bjr tbe g«i«n] flOfTvptiaa of bis nivenn««l in kll iu (l«[i4nij' ■•ii 

iiircoaMaiiixii certtiiily nonlrraU-d th« cbaiigv, bill, all talwa toftotber, piubaUly 
did not ccotnbnte *o BiUicb to tbe clioacu aa tht oxtnwtdiaM-y aojcnieutotioo nj tba 
Und-ront Sir T. Monro. Slrt Hny ttm. 

> The IMIMM of lukd-ctct WM divided into extn bmmimiiIs noA aew hmda of 
rvvoiiDc, boeauMit mu Om oxtt> Mrcwnneatamloae Ibtt added to tbeburtbco ot tbd 
biidboldon and exbibitod tbe esoaai ot tbe OMdcrn over tbe Ukciant MMMMak 
o4 tbe ura« land*. At tbe eoe— Jeii of Btitbb power tbii uatMl mtemmrtA W19 
■till wntten. not on^ ic oil general aooonnta, but In Ibo nocounti of ei-nrr laadbolder. 
It WM oloDo oonadMcd *• thcdao of tiaT«Tiunent ; all aubMuacnl additiuoa w«M 
CMwidored aa ojipnaaiTo cxaatioaia. Tba; wtra not calM noL bat were nigmatiMd 
witli tho wrnM* <a fhawdt, tmiiaata, and 6am, and dietinfrul*!)" W tbe nanos of tbo 
niiDi»t*T wlio lir«t levied tboiu. Tliey mrealwsyi mttuMod by tbo pcopbo^ Sir T. 
H«un),31atMay IDOOl 

Id additiou to th«4Auf or IMjflpur alaiulBRl rcnlal, the ctiof oemeawhlcbwcrein- 
fMVO at the clone of B«<lmir nils vere; The pHjirfi or ottx* a wee w neiit of 1711. 
Tbia waa tmpoaedby (he wKc □( thcrAja, vha «aa n^'cat during tliatnaidMa* o( ber 
haadiuid on Iho oocaaion of the mainage n( ber ton Baanppa NUib ; il waa at 
Uw r*t« of ODO-aixtepntli of tbe tklit o« atandard rratal, aiid for a lew jtan waa 
Ivried a> a ajMcial paytiiout or amiA, bat kko came to be coiuiduml part wf 
tbe rOKulnr aavaoueiit. Tb* ceaa or jxtfti ol ITlSwui iinpofod by tint rbi«f of 
Sonda for Um parpoee uf dUalia»ii>g tbo iloghaj tnlnttv; it wai at the ralv of 
thirty pvr<.-unt on nil ganI«?nB,atnl Ultol9)par Miiton all tka lUUa. TbooikiJtar or 
•itra amixMiiient ot 17^, wu iiiipoM4 \a liou of ioterMt paid toth* baakeri wbo 
adTMivwl the yMrly iBttoliUFnU)- In BoIbiit fifty |>ur orut had alwaja boon paid by 
tbvmUdlaorOctoW.liutoulylStpiirceiit iu Kiiiara. Tbo rajawitbed torcKnIate 
tlwK^aniwlal»iontaiii the *as)*»iraya* in Bnlniiri bataaftvisthvlatMiowol tbcir 
iMrraat the iidiablttuita wvn: unable tu oumply, it wa« a^-recd that he tbould borrow 
tlM naney, and tliat thuy sbuuld My bim as iutorat a half auna or ouv-tbtrty. 
•Nuod part additiuual ou tbe rtaudard mut. The extra oca of Baatappa Kfllk 
wa*l«viod in 1733 al the rate of on»-teittb of an anna, or a hoixtred aM u^ttiith 
part of the *ta»dard rest, in ordur to erocl tkaUm aod feed nttirima. Tbe nddiUon 
of ITK8 wa« ntadc by ll>o nUii to diacharso the atrwra of tbo Maritha tribute. T1i«y 
had acciunnlatod to *o Kruat a aunt that abe pretended afae coald nnt pay tboia 
without a le%-y from the lahabilailta equal to ooo ytor'a rent. To tbi* demoDd tbe 
pooplo rofnicil to tubmit. and vbeo ah« attempted to foroo compliaoce tbaj roic in 
a body on the oEBciab. Tbo matter waa at laat aottlcd by tb«ir oouanitin); to )iay fif t^ 
per mnt in foiir yoira at tbo rat« of 12^ per ecal cacb yoar. lu Ibu liftb yoar, when it 
waa to hair« been rMniltol, Haidar ordered Ibi* levy to bo UMda punuaneut. Ijir T. 
Haora to the Beard of Beveaiu!, 4th Ua^ 1(0^ 




til liopart wi>]viy from whnt liu fuoud rstulitisiied. Re considtn'pJ 
liiiiisvU merely a Collector, iiml inudt' no further rediK'liyne tbnn 
sticli «in were abaoluicly ntx-esaary to ennure the eollt>ctioii of tho 
revenue, li«%-it]tf it to the Board to grant any farther reduction tUey 
tleomed ])roi>up.' As the land had never been survoyod, and aa Belda 
ivj.T-o so mixi.'<] Hiid iliriilcd timt liiinlly noy uiii-ljut the owner know 
t!:< ir limiu, SirT. Alunru thought it wax iui|M)H.-<iblo to jtidgo of tho 
raU' of ttssesameut without a survey. Ue accordingly started a aurvey 
in Ilarkur, which was to be stojjped or oontinned as tho Board 
thought fit. It douft not appear to have boon cairiod on, and all 
trace of it liaR 1)1X411 lo»t. In Major Monro's opinion, tho B<Hlnur 
n.s'-<','<ement was as high an was consistent with leaving the land any 
|jn!i' value; but aa Government had determined to introdaco a pep- 
luiiiirnt Kottlotnent and to abolish road cuHtoms and duties on gnun, 
he did not think so gnciit abntoinciitH were required. P'or Hon&riir 
and Ankoln, which in bis ogiiniun wero in a more dcflolate stat« tfaaa 
other |nrt§ of the district, ne projioaod tho Bednar assessment. For 
llie rost he proposed the Bodnnr assesament with twenty-fivo or thirty 
per cont of Haidar's additions. 

1')ic Board of Revenue were not prepared to enter into a 
ConKidtmition of Xlujor Miinro'a suggeationa for reducing the asBesa- 
imui in the proportion bo poinU^I oat ; bat tho Governor in Council, 
bemg of opinion that the tem)»rary n9S«ssniont of the district Mhonld 
be in proportion to its productive jKiwers, authorised the settlement 
for tho year to bo as proposed by Major Munro. At the same time 
it wait liiid down thnt the Hacritice shmild be headed Tomporsiy 
G r^tuitouti H«niission. It was also «tatvd that tho standard propoiwd 
by M ajor Munro did not appoar an adequate rcroouu for Kfatam 
refereuoe to the stanaard assessment ; and it waa observed 
liurticular satistadion that the proprietarj' right in the lands 
of KAnam bad boon dunvod from so rcmoto a period, and that 
' the existing kuowli^go and eittiinAtion of tho value of tbove rigbla 
among the descendants of the original proprietoira indicated the 
<-:i>y nimna of introducing a permanent system of rerenno and 

Afterwards Major Munro stated tliai he had proposed greater 

'ucciuns than he otherwise would bare done under the idea that 

trmanont eLittlcmt-nt was about to be introduced, and that since 

ruto ha had been led to judge more fuvonrubly of Ktinara, 

id not propose 80 grwtt reductions.' Tho landlord's root was 

. N nor above than boiow fifty por cont of the net produce, and 

t-..i L.'wi from fifteen to eighty per cent. He saw that wiiboata 

- I'viiyora register of the rent and produce of litigated estates it 

., I . ild not be posaible to aacortain tho capability of the lands, and 

1 f: ii tilt! sLiudard asscesment was unequal, and that the ooconnta 

I. He jioiuted out what he deemed should bo the 

.:icnt settlement, showing that hirgc iHPOprietora 

<.v'. rf unlcnown in the district, and that small proprietors wore as 

Uiuty to pay regularly. He proposed a reroieskin of i\ per ocnt, 




^Si- T. Miar 

' Lrftcr to Botrd, 4tb Uay 1800. *l,«tter toBtent, SOi HovemberUQO. 

tBombftj OftuttaoT. 



awpt«r VQL 


in* Com)Mii]r- 


isoi -isu. 

Mr. Harru, 


and that other reductions shoald bodofcrred till a ponnaii«Dt flfstem 
WBH iMitubliitlied ; be renutrkod th»t muuy of the TiUagn in Bilgt 
nnd Aukola and all in Souda were iu so do»olate a coudition tlwt a 
pemtaneat settleioent of tJiern would be made noder ffreat dis- 
advauteges, and rccoinmcnded that it ehonld be deferred for at least 
five ycura.* Aftemurds,'' in n lctt«r in which, at the request of tlie 
Boftrd of RoTsane, tiestotod bin viowH totho Collectom who succeedsd 
bim, Major Munro recommended caution in imposing a nevr mrm^ 
ineut on lands wliich already paid the Bednor assessment and half of 
llaidar'a additions, and thought that no inoro should ho levied from 
any which paid thaBodnnrasMMSmuntoDd thrco-quarter«of Haidar's 
additions. Both the Board of Rcremw and Qoretument approved oE 
this advice.* 

In the annaal reports of the settlement for the next ten yeara tbo 
resouroes of the district and the condition of the people went 
reprf^sont«d as iinproviog.* Snbsoquentiy disturbances began, and 
Mr. Rend, after attributing- thorn to variotia causct*, at lengtk 
declared thai more revenne was drawn from the country than it was 
able to bear. He was called upon for a more particular reiwrt, and 
stated^ that the largest proportion of lands was rated at more than, 
the reenlar assessment or «ftw( and three-quart«rs of the extras or 
thavui, and that none were ml«d so low as the regular assessment 
or tkitt only. The reaaon ot this was that, owing to the decline of 
agriculture, it was necessary to make np by an increase to low-ratod 
lands the rents of lands which had been allowed to fall waste. He 
gave it aft hia opinion that the Government Hbaro riliould not exceed 
one-third of the gross prodace, and showed grounds for believing 
that throughout lowor Ktliiara Government were drawing thirty to 
fifty per cent of tlie gross pnxlucc, besides varions cessea. This 
exoca^ire denumd, in Mr. Read's opinion, was tbo cause of tbo 
decline of agriculture. Ue afterwards expressed similar bnt more 
decided views,* lie stated that thirty per cent of tbo gross produce 
was the ntmust that should be demanded from eatat«« IhiIuw the 
Babyidris ; bo pointed out tbo ni<«e^ity of am-crtaitiing the gross 
produce ; and kIiowihI that thu original and extra asGcssment wero 
grossly unequal and wore no gnide in equalising Uiu Government 
demand. As the share of the state was more than ono-third of tha 
gross produce, he recommended a net reduction of seven porcmt 
below tlio bills and of four per cent nbovo them. 

Mr. Read was succeeded by the Honourable T. Harris. The 
Secretary of the Board of Revenue forwarded Mr, Harris a copy o( 
a miuuto not then recorded, asking for any explanation which 
Mr. Harris or Colonel Hnuro who was then in tbo district mighk 

I Hnara ottoa ftppli«« tli* »■»• goads t« Uie t«TTit«tv above tb« Sahjiiria coIt. 
Bilgi wat fomwlT ■ pt«ty obM«hlp oada's fftfflMr. 

* Latter to CoUecton, 9tk DKcnbto- ISOa On lli* tranrfBr o( Hajor Uaaro tli* 
diitrkt wM diriilwl into two obargea, the uortbcni diririoii, cMTaapoiulinK to 
tha preMnt diririct cf North Rteata, irlUi tbo nb-divnioi of KniuiUpar, briu pnt 
iiudcr Mr. Bead ; tbo (Mttbora nntWr Ur. Hartaihsw. 

' Bo«rd'. LMlOT. eZnd July ISM ; Ooveranwnt Lettw, 15th Av^puA ISM, 

* BoMd'i ProcMdiDp. imb S«|)Uuiber 1831. |wran«ph 17. 

* LoUcrtoBoMd. IstJwuuy 1$I4. ■ L«tUr, IWh Janau; 1814. 




faiak nocssHir;, to eiwblil tho Bonnl finiilly to fix the maxiniiim 
>tO of lutJtOHsment for K^ara.' Tlio mtuuto tmccil tli« Inotory of 
Bveiiue administration in K^nara ; it stated tiiat the result of Cutoiicl 
(acm'B moderation in fixing the muximam Oorarament demand 
t the standard ussessincnt or r'fkka, toj^olhcr n-ith throc-qaarters 
the exfcr» cess or ihiUmt, was a geoenU improTemont^ The 
ibaeqneut decline was attribnted to the attempt to make up by a 
mall mcroaso on low raUsd lauds tho rent of other land which bad 
assed oat of tillage and Co the attempt to Icvj the ftttl amount of 
loidar'a additions. 

On this minnto Colonel Monro remarked that it waa from the 

Rtnal cnltivation of oscht-atod estates that he vxpoct«d the land- 
I of 1799-1800 to be kej)t up, and that there could bo no con- 
mble increase of tillage unless the a^seaament of the Deighbouring 
Mates in cultivation was kept below Uaidar's asseesment. He 
dhercd to bia opinion thnt ro(uiction!i were necessary. The land- 
uc nood not always be maiutaiued at the same amount; a moderuta 
MCMiment should bo adopted for each district, and no estates should 
ay more. He added that KAnam was more able to pay the aaaesa- 
icnt than when it annu undur British rule. 

Mr. Hiu-ris* stated that the boUd aaaessmnnt or btrrit entered in 
he Tillage papers or pallaa waa regarded aa the limit of the Govern- 
itect demand. At tuo same time no showed that even in respect 
I the standard asso&smunt or #Auf some liuidholdcrs were assessed 
weoty per cent higher ilian their neighbours. The inequality was 
he resuU of corruption under native ffovemmenta, and was ao 
flaring that the system wasono mass of oppression. Kia prede- 
ossors triiid to correct it by the individual .-kittlccaenl of the rent 
la each man's estate, and he himself was guided by the productive 
Mwera of tbe land in confirming or decreasJDg the total assessment. 
ie did not limit tlio dumand to tho on'ginul aswKsment together 
ritb Uireo-quart«Rt of tho extras, because, as he showed, hundreds 
rere assessed beyond that by Colonel Manro in his first settlement 
sd ccatinuod to pay the higher umouut. 

Ou this the Board remarked tJiat their object was not to equalise 
rat to limit tbe Government demand.' Inequality, they said, is tho 
oenll of differont degrees of industry and good management, and an 
iteration of a^.tessmoot would only produce alteration in the value of 
and and a want of confidence in that species of property to which the 
■Tero attached. They were of opinion that the beat aniroraal 
: 1 of greatest di^miind would be tbe average ooUoctionsroalised 
meach e.itatosinoethepnn'iuRehadcome under the Britii^hQovem- 
t, and desired that, subject to the confirmation of Government, 
r. Harris' settlomeut for tbe current year should bo founded on 
ihut bnHJ0. On n rt^fcrenoo from Mr. Harris respecting certain cases 
which the Board's principle would not work as it wM intended, 
^rd issued further luatructions, again declaring that their 
vu to fix ou each estate a moderate limit to tho public 



Mr. BoTTk, 

1817- lan. 

' Ldtcr. asth Apnl 1317. 
• al«-2l 

■Lotticr. 2Tth Aug. 1817. *Utlw, tlllil>K.\%Y1. 

(Bombay I 



Captor VIU. 


TIio Comimi]:. 

Mr. Harri*. 


useseraetit.' Mr. Karris &f(enrarda asked if the averaffo collcctioi 
on v«tat«8 which bndbconascseedsbovu Colonel Monroes rn&ximn 
fthoultJ be llio limit for Uiom, »nt] tht> Bvard rvpliocl that it shaald.^ 
The inatructtona which Uie Boanl had given to Ur. Hams ' 
rcfcrred to Government for final orders aod were appTDved 
(Iir«ot«d to bo carried oat id Fntute sultlemotit'S.* 

Mr. HiUTLs* report«d the itettlonient for 18ld-S0 on tho prindpli 
of tlie Hvonigo of pa«t collections in all sub-divi^onii exwpt Aukol 
and Sonda. It was not at first intended to exclude these dk: 
from tito new oettlomont, but it n-as found tmpossiblo to curry 
through ttio whole diiitrict in one year." At the tutmo time it 
atAtfid tJiat when settled by Major Munro, Sonda was almost a deaeii 
and that in Ankokand Sonda tho sot-tlement would not afford the reli 
to ovur-ȴsi^sMd ctttiitcs which wag czpeotod. Thv Board authorisei 
Mr. Ilarriitto settle Ankola and Sonda on the old principle for ISIO-Sd 
but expressed the hope that the new principle would be introduce' 
in the next yMr." Thin hope was not reulisod, as Mr, Han-is wi 
able to assign good grounds for cot complying with tho Board'i 
directions. The absence of any aoconnta or trustworthy inforniAtion 
regarding the territories whioh the lUja of Sonda ruled has alrettdy 
been meutionod. Undur thi^^c circumstiincos Major Munro had 
arraitged the aweHmeat according to the aotnal condition ot th« 
country. The standard asaeasment or rekka berit was adopted aa 
an account to look up to, but the settloinont was not made upon it. 
lu fixing tho aiuiiial demand no regard was paid to the Actual are* 
in cultivation or to the quantity of seed sown. FreHh Uudit bad 
been brought into coltivation iinlcly on the authority of tlia 
interested accountant In 1801 Mr. Read began an inquiry into Uw 
gross produce of a few estates in Bitgi and BaiinritMJ, btit Iho 
settlement with individual landholders was not begun till 1806. 
The settlement' was then banod on ostimutoH framed bv corrupt and 
intorcwted village accountanta. Owing to their protended ignorance 
and tho want of trustworthy acconnts the settlement ooitld not 
be made with each occupant, only with tho principal landholders. 
For this reason tho inequnliticfl in the aKscsuneot exocedod anything 
known in .South Kilnara. 

Tho only remedy which Mr. Harris oould snggeet was a sorrey. 
It would, be thonght, lighten the aHsessmont oo many individoai^ 
add yet would increase the total assessment by ono-quartor. 

Id 1^2, Mr. Harris bef^n an experimental survey in the Badiingad 
Tillage>groap now in 8irai, and promised to fumiah the Board with tha 
resnUs. He afterwards explained in detail tho principlo on which 
be had proceeded.' The surrey was called an inspection orjia'wiMJ, 
whidi was said to bo the form best suited to the usage of 

> Latter, ISA Daombw 1817 ; Letter. SOth DeMmlwr 1817. 

* Latter, 19Ui Smteubor 1819i L«tt«r, lat SfpUmlwr 1819^ 
■PnMMMUnealBoMil. ISUtS^tMabar ]$SI,pM«.4£ 

* LbUct to Boanl, Sad Angiut 1890 ; frnm Sir. Hutu to Ur. Cmmvoii, 
DMNnbw 1819. • Ur. Hurt* ta Btard. SoOi Itac 1819. 

* PnmiiUiitr*, S8lli Pmv 1820. ' Utter tu Ik«ra. -^tb May 1832. 




country.' Ilie GovemmeDt aaaessment waa token at otie*thinl tlio 

SK>5B produce, and the increas&d revenue waa said to be mostly 
Qrivod from laud under cultivation wliich vnts before Dnknonn to 
be cullivaletL The surrey showed that in tb»t part of tho district 
Ibe rhutf or standard waa a certain apace of laud requiring • ocrtaia 
quaatity of seed, and tbo extras or sMmila were fouim to exist 
only in n doIuHive furm in t)io ncconuts. Tho groabost inequalities 
-ularities in the fomipraanesanients were bronght to light. 
< ijurvey removed, and at the same time yielded a pennnnvnt 
iacTease to the revenue, Ur. Harris nr)^ed tho extrusion of tho 
Bur\-L-y on tlie same principle tbrougbotit Supa and 8onda, and 
forwarded a statement of tbe establiabineut lie proposod for tho 
ptirposc.' The assessment founded on tbe survey in uadangnd va» 
DBxt year rvporlvd to linvu boon n-jdixod without difficulty. The 
~ *■ ':tor w»s cuutioned to be careful tliat Uie demand was modentta* 
1^^ Bame time he waa aothorised to entortnin an catnblislirnont 
^ble bim to survey and assess the whole oC the Ankola and tho 
j^ rid s»b-divisiou» on tbo samo prinoiplM. 

In 1325 tho survey and ro aBicwmont of four other viUitgc groups 

'" upland aub-divisions were completed by Mr. Cameron,* and, 

.jLafew gronps, tbe measurinff of Ankola and of Supa and 

Sooda was completed by Mr. Cotton.* But doubts began to be felt 

ol the proprioty of taking i>nc>tliird of the gross produce on all lands 

•like. Mr. Cotton" reprcAouted to Mr. Babiugton, and Mr. Gabingcon 

-■sented to the Board of Revenue, that to take the same shaie of 

roAs produce from all left different husbandmen very diffemut 
pri>iil«, and {ended to make tbi^m throw up inferior lande. In 
.Ankola aud in the villages on the Mar&tha frontier an aawssment 
on that principle mipht bo rcnIiKod. It was doubtfol if it could be 
realixod in tho interior garden lands. These were much more costly 
ta work, and bolides the cost nf working them paid a duty of thirty 
per cent on their produce. Mr. Babington thought that gardena 
shoidd not bo assessed at moru than one-fourth or onc-Gfth of thoir 
■■■ produce. In Ankolnfntuduleiit occupatiou and trausfera were 
ion; an attempt to er(iialize the assessment was more required 
anii less objectionable. But Mr. Babington was of opinion that la the 


, Land 

! .. L' Ojl1«atoc SnX oUncd Ui« viUa^ lonil* anAiir rioa vul g«nl«ti. lilt riM hoida 
were 'iiiidcil itrto thrco •orti, llie first uiiiitt rcturvinn wutu liable to be oroSowed 
■oii ivtvi' t'lr pn-'jii dfBtroyed, bat to oouaterbHUncF ttiiit they hail the adTMitMe of 
Tf ' tvaj uteonA year into augimiuio plantattotii : tho •ooaDd sort 

1:1 ' o( tfao icoonoir anil H'u vatsrcd frnia it | and tho cutljvatioo at 

11 " -' " * l.iTilcpcii'luioa the lUHal fall of ntin, aadwaa ooraudMcd 

ti. I liuiii u'c[iMnauiii«d,andotie-tliiTd<tf UiDgreatprodvo*^ 

. „ . iiicunrcmciit oud ooarcirtcd into IUM107 at iBodetat* 
•HBiBcd ■■ Uin (uturo mnnoj' oMauncnt. The aoale Of mmtmwtuX 
I tor (arvloa taail waa ngulatoi by tho oxtimatK) value oJ tho praduee. A 
pmUrottnMnreManaiod tojcraw on a ([k^ Hod ate* anda 6ied fin 
■faille on Um number of aamlAd^ tiriroand iiiutudcd in tlie gardini, iritbout 
•-ItMiDBmlKrurOeMriptiMioltbotniM.ortliclr pmdaotivaiMB. SecrelafT 
cirae tu flovi'riiinenl o[ iladraa, IMhSeptanibor )S31. 
Board. I'lh .taue IBSa * Proceediiipi, IStli Sept 1631, pan. 09. 

ii^D to Board, 24th AngaA ISSG. 
: .'II to Frinei^ Collector, Srd Juno 192db 
Mr. v^'itoatorrincipal C«Uootar, S4tb AogoM I8SS. 

iSombny OaxettMr, 



CfaApter TUI. inlatid garden districts it would be beet to tak« tweaty to Uurty-Gvo 
tTTj per cent of tho gross prodaco aocordiag to Uio qtt&lity of tho UdiI. 

UmioijtratioB. 1'he ptfto approved hy the Board vnut to luioortaia Lbe qitant^ity 
Tbn CocnpMj. of tlio gross prodace, to cUaa the lands acoordingly, and to calculate 
isst-istr. the asHessinont by turning into money on an averago of tlio prices 
of previous years n'hatovur proportion it was dot^rmioud (o toko. 
&tr. Ba1)ington was directed to ptirsoe his inv«attKation, to 
ansesa a few groups at tbs rates he thonglit they were able to bear 
and to assess other gronpa on Mr. Harris's principle, and to report 
the results in dc-taiL Tho Board at tlio sarao time reriewod the 
obieotions which had been urged against tbe aarrey. The first 
objection was that to equalizo the assessment would change tho Talne 
of prii-ato property. Fhey rt'pliod that tho intMiuulity originated 
throagh fraud or oversight, and (hat thoro waa no other way of 
placing the land revenue on a sound footinS' The second objection 
was that if the nssessmont n-cre lixod accoraing to the survey many 
landholders would be taxed on the fruits of their iuduiitry. To 
this they replied iliat it was the same everywhere, and that thfl 
mistake to be avoided was to tax extraordinary industry. The third 
objection wiis that there would soon again be the samo inequalities 
and (he landholder would be di»ti«wioaif they imagined thomiuilves 
always subject to re-assessment. To this they replied that if the 
assessment was equal in the first instance a long time would eUtpsa 
boforo a rovi«toD was necessary, and if propor leases or paltM vmo 
given to the holders, and they were led to understand that the 
principle was to tax tho land according to a moderate estimate 
of it« capabilities and not according to actoa) culture, the holders 
would soon come t» see that tha lutsosameub ooold not be 

The Government generally approved of the views oxpressod hj 
the Board, adding that tho rule of talcing one-lhird of the groas, 
produoo from all lands alike was iidiuittt^dly erroneous, and bad 
never really been acted on.* The main object was to rcgalatc tho 
assessment in such a way that there would bo no induoemcnL to 
abandon any particular land. 

Meanwhile Mr. Lewiu, the Sub-Collector, had stated that in 
AQkolathepronrietaryrightbelonged to (Government tKimiualty ratbor 
than rcnily.* So long as the pooplo cultivated tlieir gardens ami mid 
the instalmeota for rice tnmlH, tlii>y could not b« deprived of tiieir 
holdings, and thore were many lands held under grants, shatatM and 
muipattat, which could not be eubjectod to the survey assessmeot 
witnont practically resuming a grant or indm. Ho urged that if the 
asseumoat was changed, the new rote should be fixe<l on the average 
of oolloctiona.' Mr. Babington was of a different opinion. He had 
stfttod in a previous report that the assessment fixed in 18I9-20 
could never be raised on any estates.* But later enquiries led him 
to believe that Government was not pledged to refrain from raising 
the assessment when it was too low, particularly where there had, 

* L«««t to Boanl. 2Stii Mu«h 183S. • UUtt to Frincipd C«IU«tor. Mil S«pl. IS3T. 

• UtUr to Boud, lath Antntt 1828. < L«tt«r to Boui, 90th $4pt«»1>«r 1$2». 




boon fntuduluut oncroechmentfl. No adjustmont of tbo reretiQe 
conUI bo made from tho acconata, almo»t a]l of ifhioh bad boon 
falsified. Kveu hnd the occouQtB been genuine, the asseoament 
fixed by former povernmenta depended less on the value or 
camibilitios of an cstatu than on tho owner's influcnco over the 
chief or local officer. Inittanw.t wttre ffivon of e-iutoit in Mangalor 
iu South K&nara the asttesameut of which was three or four times aa 
hiffh aa the assessment on other oatate» of the same descripiioa 
and quality. The only remedy wait a Kurvey, which would bo to the 
interest both of tiovcrumont and of the landbolders. 

The Board, as has been stated, directed Mr. Babington to 
■BSOM some groups on the principles propoeed by him and some on 
Mr. Harris' principle, but it does not appear that those instmctdoos 
were earned out.' Mr. Itabington «hortIy afterwards prococded to 
Europe, and Mr. Dickinfion, who succeeded him, did not 6nd time 
to carry on the stu-Toy.' Meanwhile the state of the OBaeanneat 
attntct«d more and more notice. Ktotous meetiu}^ or kut* had 
broken out. Some attribut^^d them to the failun^ nf orom and to 
excessive assessment, but the Governor in Council thought the real 
cause was not tho excess but tho incqtiitlity of tho ossesament.' 
This inequality was »aid to bo oxtnordinary and most pemicions ; 
landholders in some places held land almost rent-free, in other 
places they were Hubject to an oppressively high demand. This 
state of things called tor correction. Under instructions from the 
Goreraor in Council Uiu UiLird prepared a statemout of the 
aaseasment in 1800 witli the variations aft«r that date.* Among 
other points it was shown that during the eleven years which haa 
passed since Mr, Harris introdnced tho new priuciple of on 
a«Messinent founded on tho average of collections, the settlement 
had not attained to his Rtaudard. The Board tlten stat«d that the 
information about the assessment was very imperfect owing to the 
defodivo system of accounts, and that they could not give an 
opinion on tho subject of a survey from not knowiug the l>earing 
of the assessment The third Member Mr. Stokes bad been deputed 
to inquire into the state ol the provinoo, and tho Board hoped that 
with a hotter system of acoount« a better system of revenue 
Diaiiagement might bo introduced. 

itr. Stokes also attributed to the want of ocooonta tho difference 
of opinion with regard to the pressure of the a&sessme&M He 
explained at length his reasons for believing that the asaessmeot 
was very light. He found among other things that the land was 
rapidly pacing from the agricultural to the oommorcial classes, 
liankom, public servants, ana other men oE capital, who were aofc 
likely to jiarohase land unless thoy found it a profitable invest- 
ment. This bad given rise to the idea of a depression of tha 
ngricultnral interest. In bis opinion it should rather be regaided 
as an aooMsioa of capita) likely to improve the estate* and 

Chapter ' 




'I.ottcr, SOOiAprUISZr. *Pro«oadiiigi, ISth8apt<Mb«r 1837. 

> L«tt«r IroiD i^ocavUrr to ColUctor «ad Uagirtrots. Stli F^bnuty ISSl. 
*ItooM(liBs>, ink 8«pt«mb«t 1831. * L«tt(t to Boud, inh Itn^. Yi»X, 

[Bomlny OnxtttMr^ 





re CanpanT. 
If r. Sieha, 

: rbftaA, 

lighten the weight of the GoTernmtiDt denutnd. He sdmitted ' 
tlie aBsenmenCs vrere unoqunl, but thought all fixed aamssmont 
even if origiooJIy cqunl, Iiad a teudeiicy to bvcoma nnoqaul. lit 
Kdiinra, beudea the ordioary caQscs that ftJ!Fcct«<l tlte ptodnctiTB 
powers of land and the valao of produce, the fraudulent accoant- 
inaking of the village BCcountunt, who till IH20, when Eubdividinti 
(heir lands apprirttonud t1i« aiuwaament as tboy pluiwod, tos 
with Uie Don>sj>ocitication of boundaries, toudod t<> prodnoe r 
inequalities.' The first step Ur, Stokw proposed was the ext 
of the thardv or aesoesinent on the average of ooUections. 
admits that this was not nicely odjiistod to the circnmstanueti of i 
estate or rary ; for somotiDies even the onginnl a8MMO)«ot or ahist 
could not be found out. In such oatcM thv rent-produce shonld bo 
calouiated and a proportion takeu with reference to the funiior 
A8«e«sment, the actual coIlectioiiB, and the rate on nuighbouriug 
eatatesr Tarying from forty to seventy per cent ol the rtnt-produce. 
The survey of Sonda, Supa, and Anxula should, be thought, b 
oomuletod, but uuly with the view of discovering the extoiit of land 
the iDcouie of estates, the boundaries, and thu rent-produce ; the" 
asseasmeut should be framed on tbo siimo model a.* in other snb> 
divisions, and should ho fixed on e«(taU;6 rather than on fiolds. Tbt 
point to be aimed at was, without any material eacrificv, toremoi 
existing inftquftliliea 80 Ear as they interforod with tbo prospority of 
the country and tlie punctual realisation of the asaeeament. This, he 
thought, would be attained by adopting a maximum demand of sovunty 
per cent and a minimum of forty per cent of tbo groM prodnco. 

Id ISS3 Mr. Viveaah' brought to the notice of the Board o£_ 
Revenue that though the resonroos of proprietora were iuc 
and cultivation was sprondiog, Qovemment were gaining no •■ 
of revenne. His opinion was that as the origual aaseeemeat 
Rnppo«ed not to have exceeded onc-tfatrd of the gross produce, and 
u afterirarda the greater part of KAnam was ossoeaed at t' 
average of paat collections, tbo propHi'tors ought invariably 
make good tbo Goveniuent demand in the first instance, and i 
the remainder as their share, whereas the opposito oonno ha< 
been followed. He thought tbat owing to the total want 
information abont estates a pormaoeat settlement was better adapted 
to KAnara than any ofJier settlement. He therefore nroposod^ 
the tiovcmment demand on estates which paid tne tiuirav 
average of former oolbctione should bo made perm»aont,and that a' 
permanent HeUlomont t^hould be introduced into the rest of the estates 
on the aremge of post ctdlections, the waste being reeetred to 

The Board seem not to have reviewed these Tarions propos 
For reforming the assessment till 1836.* It was thon thou 
advisablo to put off the final decittion till further enquiry 
bean made. The Oovonnnent afterwards complained that tho 
arrangements for rodocing tbaaaaessment to a fixed aud invanablu 

■ Letter to Board, 31it Aogut 1833^ * FrooMdinp, 11th Josiiwjr I8K. 




8ten<]Ar<l IlacI Dcver rooeiTod tbe separate and detailed oonaidemtioii 
whirl) they required.' The priociple on which Mr. Viveaah's 
arraDgemonta proceeded was not fully dcvolopod, and the occessitf 
fur & oomploto roviaion of nsodssnieut on moHt of tlio estates in 
KAnara reimunod as uixont nn ever. Mr. Viveash'a propouoil vroM 
eiinpjy to classify oslatt^ into those paying the fall demand and 
those payiu^ Eomelbiog less tliau the full dutniind, or, oa they were 
often4>r (-altud, bharti thnb is full, and kantliharti, tlint is less 
tlutn full.- Thu iuimlharti/i irere divided into three classes, thosa 
advancing to the fixed demand by yearly additions, those in which 
a permanent remisaion bad boon doomed necusitary, and those under 

In 1S38 Mr. Mailhy, when aciing Pi-incipal Collector, explained 
that it was constantly necessary u> change' catutes from oq« class 
to unothiT.^ The reason of this iva.1 tliat a syHloni of dsssificatioa 
which waa suitod only to one part of Kanani had becu tnlruduced 
iDto the acconnta of tbe whole oollectorate. Lands in South KAnam 
on the coast were regularly cultivatod, bnl in the inland gronps 
and in tho uplaniLt, holdings which wero cultirated and paid the 
fnll aitsessment one year, wera not cultivated the next. Ho 
accordingly proposed a ftither division into coast and inland villacie 
gronps.and siig^etod tliat in the inland ^rtjujK* the rcuttlumcnt ahonld 
for tbo lime contlMue to ho based on the produce of each c«tatv. 

Tbe Board of Keveune afterwards reviowod the history of the 
land assessment, and concluded that "ilr. Hurrin ha<l not snSiciently 
enqnii-ed into tliuciroumstanocsof theestatesi, and that for thin reason 
tile (hartiv or avemge mymont assessment and tbe revision of 1 6^33-33 
had not answered.* Tbouj^h fresh cultivation or hoBdffame was ^iptikcn 
of, there had been no addition to the revenue, and, generally speaking, 
the a.'cses.smont was not in proportion to the extent of land uultivatvd, 
which explained why land was bought by merchants, pnblio 
Borvsnts, and others,' There was a concnrronce of opinion that 
fraudulent cncroaobmonts were not unoonitnon. I'ho Hoard Iniccd 
tbe assesitment from the earliest times, and showed that the original 
donumd or reWut »as not formed on accurate data; even if the 
original had been accnmte, the extras or »hdmil» wen limited only 



■BfInqtM«fO0aMHaUoD,)ethMny 1637. * Prootsdlngs of Beard. 16th Nw. ISO. 

■SfiUlMMBtUvport, 1S38-39. 'ProoMdingief Bowd. lOih NOT«iBb«r ISM. 

'Mr. Blan«r«nMrk«d;TbuI!QCU'il(ixpI>iii th«U<rn>A<Mlynniror tt*woultivalioait(ibo 
tbe nxwcajMlJua of laniU Iwlidipoj; t« holden whu li*v» dowrtoil or b«ixiiii« extinot. 
It it DMMMTy to bear in mind thai kotttgame Uoea not inolud« such lutda wh«t« tb^ 
mru rvKutxrtd ta <liitioot eatktui, lunret'w lon(( tboy nuy luve bMn kbaadonod ana 
left n.ttU). Siaiih mota-kod when r«oconpicd w not «at«r«d u homiaamc, but lui aa 
••tot* •0MB braagbt nader onltivation. Hotdgame m wsiined t« the r«-uooapition 
«< OovcnuDcnt wMt« Und which U axSkd MaoMi that i* witboat a bobl«r «r 
nUiiaiulitbatUwitboiituMunicut, m diitiafaiahed from QovenuMttt WMt«««telflt, 
fiTs ]rraa acneaoS jtia* nil wutuUndiwcra looked npon M of w littlo iniportuce 
that It did iiutugDif]-b7whoni they were bold. UvMorasdandsoDiwobninedilaar 
imt, howarcr (nuU, couid bo abtoiood for wMte i aad o(bn iBMla lor tbe axotaiira 
priril-i)jo of gnuiiig uttlo or cutting graw wore nadily MOcpled, Ibe land in pctwMa 
nt tinii? being converted into Taluabf a coltintiuo eitliar by Itia boUen UiemedTce 
•It by tDoanta who took it from tboni at cooiidenUe rtate. Hi. Bloae to Board of 
fl«\-cMie,20tb Sqitenbcr IMS. 



[Bombay Oaut 



C Land 

hv Cotnponjr. 


by die ability of tbe poople to pay tfaeio, to that tbo ut 
coUoctions or tharav aspesamcnt was fonnded on A fulse bosia. TE 
proposed romvdios were discnsaed by the Board, and it waa shown 
that th« only adequate remedy waa a survey. The objections U> s 
survey were said to be tbe expense, the interference with Uieoxintii 
state of property and with coovoyancc* executed in anticipatio 
of pcrmanoncy, and the difiSfttislactioQ and dialruat which sac 

interforeoce would canse. On Che first the Board remarkml th 

the expense would be compensBted by the revpnuo arising from*' 
concealed and misapproprintud land ; on the second, that Qt>Terainent 
wore in no way pliMlf^'il to the present slate of things and that frand 
and encroachments rendered a sunroy necessary; and on tliu third, 
that dissatisfaction would ho got rid of by conciliation and decision. 

The Goromor in Council, in reviewing these nnd come SDbse()ii 
proceedings of the Board of Revenue, agreed that a survey was 
only way of correctinp fraud and inequality. At the same time hfl" 
thouj^t that some weight was to be utuu;hi;d to tho objection ruiMid 
on tho ground of <li»xalif(faction, and directed that no further 
proceedings should be taken till the Collector's opinion «a 

Tn 1843, the Collector, Mr. Blane, reviewed at groat length chi^ 

Gural »y»ton> of Und rt'vciiue." He pointed out that the country 
never been ao prosperous, that while, since the beginning o£ 
the century, population bad nearly doubled, hardly any Editions to 
revenue had boon mndc, and each additions as had been made were 
almost wholly From the nplands, part of wtuch had been Kiirvcycd 
and re-ossossed. Bo attributed this uuitatiid'actory result to the 
^«at inequality by which the aasecsmont had always been marked,'' 
This inequality arose from the defective and unsatisfactory charaot* _ 
of tho carHcr sottloments, the subsequent RottlementA b<Hag framed 
upon thuni imtl ptirtakiug of their defects. No measures had been 
taken to ascertain the extent and resourma of estates. Without 
this knowledge there could be no correct adminiatration of the 
revenue. Tbe want of such information had given the people every 
facility in encroaching on the rights of Govemment and in 
evading every attempt to let Govemment shuro in the growing 
prosperity of the country. Mr. Blano n.'niiirkud that tho 118O of 
the old r<^t«rB had boon forbidden by Xipu, that many woro 

■ MinntM ot CaualUtion, Siul Jul. IS4T. * Utter to Bowd, 2DUi Sopt IMS. 

* In Mr, Blftne'a opkalcoi, the real caiuM at tha statioDiLr)- Luid rei-cntio war* tk. 
fMadntcnt spptofirutioii of wuto Unilt b«toii2icg to L«pw<d cstaMa irhicfa na 
curied on to k gml oxtetit; and Mill niura Uic baud of Tillnjp aocount^nU In 
kworing lb* imwinmt on valoibla tatntva and impoung it cltlmr on uif<7l«« Mam 
whwh wttld not Ixoir It, or uu Ucd which appeared ia the accMinta bnt had nu 
exiitctxw. A third «auM wa* th» NOOonpatiMi «f abandooad aMbU land* wbeM 
•MeMmcDt had b«aa (^ually nii>itt«d and d«dBotad from tlM total, althiKub 
tha lands were not formllir ae^arstMl Erom tha satatM to wblob thay ball belowfedi 
a toorth oaoM wu tho onmvatioii uf WMte land* nuvcr b«farc oultivale^ bat olahMd 
as gnting gMan<di or a* troa-Iand atUchod to tha cultivated lands ) a fifth wa« tfa« 
oan««alod approprialioa, witbout my actval elaim brioB ad\->iionl, of laada beJanzing 
t« QoTtnufiABt mull aa manh laadii along nvqn, paAicoUrlv n«ar tha aea, and of 
otliar nthdmailil, or rata-lcaa Uadt n«T«t bttfor* oultirat«d but Mi)oy«4 bv Ui« 
coBunanlty at larg*, Mr. Bhos, SoptoinbtT l»48, pan«Tafd) BO. 



lovt, ftsd that the village acooniitiuita had heen flismissctl. Under 
I h..^n circumstances the people's readiest rcftonroe waa to (itbifjr the 
:iL..,uDti), TIiA iiccotintaiils wcro tho solo dcpositonua of inforinik- 
;i 'I. 'J 'hey and their n'lutions were Uiudholders, atid the nosettled 
?'.:/■- '^t the fonutry gave ihfliii evfiry opportimiiy to relieve l&rf^ 
l.\:i llu>l'it.'rs nl the eipenae of Hinall onett. Mr. BUuc uasurted 
'li.ii in bin ovn tinio an accooutant's papers were hardly erer 
correct. Ho coold not iimleratand how tho originui assesstneut and 
extras had been accepted a* if of awertiuuctd authenticity. Different 
degrees of improvement, it waa troe, caused iDe<]uaIity, but this did 
not exfiliLin all in equalities. It did not explain the fact that in 
aoino cdacs the original nvM-sstneiit or shist amounted to more than 
the whole produoe. He wiui siili.-tfied tlint long before tho beginning 
of tho Company'ci Government the ancient aaitc-ionient had censod to 
bo moro than nominal, lie further urged that even if the data on 
which tho avcntgo payment or tltardv assessment was founded had 
been faithfully anoertAioed, they would hnvo beoo iusafficiont as the 
ba^ig of a pennaneut tax, for the average waa taken of yeara 
sococ«<1iDg Tipu'a govemnient, when the country waa depreaoed and 
Ibo ruvenue woa at its lowest. lie asserted that tho whole difficulty 
bad an'Ncn from the abandonment of tho principlo of levying a fixod 
share of the Bnppo.<tod prxxluco or.ilH equivalent in money. Ho 
put UiD point to be decided thus : By equalkiug the asscasment it 
la not intended to lower the revenue ; in some cas«a therefore the 
asiiiA«in«at must be raised. Now tho total, (hough not founded oa 
trufitn-nrlhy data, has b«cn aesumcd as a limit to thu public demand, 
and Goverument maiit determine whether they are restricted to this 
[".I'ation. If they are, there is no help for the inequality. Tho 
B< Tird had urged the retvntion of tho maximum exiMjpt in cases of 
fraud, Init owing to tho tot-al ignorance of the Govcrnniont offioors 
ro^Mpecung holdings or carffs fraud could only be proved infenen- 
tiaily by assuming that a given quantity of land should b&ar a 
fsi ■■■'''■■ :imount of Sfisesunent which would bo oqnivalvnt to an entiro 
r'.':i^M -Mticnt. For the same reaiwn eQcrooohmenls could not be 
diH< jvered without a survey. Mo othor of tho remediea proposed 
C" lid have any effect but a general survey founded on an entire 
I < unLtmont of lands. It was too lato to i«gist«r tlio produce of 
i. ■i.ciitvd cstutos, and besidoa oncoumging amicable suits to defraud 
(liveniment this would nvvor have given iuformatiou regarding all 
cstiiea. The system of fixing the assessment on a field by the 
amount of 6E«d used in sowing it, was so indefinito, tho etandurd of 
iiti-nHurcmont varyinf^ in almost every villuge, that landholdera 
uia<.-d by thu courts could always deli.<at tho roveaue officcn.' Had 

Chapter TI 



Mr. BUM 


>Hr. BlaMWTOt*. 90tfcfl«|>t«ailMirlft«Si ThisMcd or 6fjtidrfay«taMb raffiewBtly 
(IcAoiM to avTT* tha pMrpoai of the POopIv in tnuiMCtiuna uiMnff tbenMolva, aad, 
at tbn wiDM ttiBK, laffioieDtlir indeRnitn to cubit them, MdrnT by the mnrl* <A 
l*w, toopfMMtlia rDveone offiocn. Th«re ia no alMdwd nMMaramant for fixing tbe 
Mwi whioK ■ mttda or > kiauuti td M«d cw tow. It not osly vaiMa ia nearij vrtfj 
villagograop, bnt wio* «Uo fo( the diff«r«Bt c l«ww of Und. Each nb-dirinon bu 
thm or (oar mode* of calcnktiag Ihit m«« by whick the muda, nndM tlw M M of 
i-:ri.:'.j mudu, ajol miJa. dut wmda, bg muda, miiI «iii>imi nada, njJM from rixty. 
ili'.vaix, fifty-tour, IIU7, forty . to thirty aAcn. IntonM vllb|Mtb««ro»UMlc«I*tiMl 
by fodiu ol Rvo at«r> mih, mwI in otbaro by a raeMora rallM a j w if ap i i B of thirttf 

i 810-32 



[Bomb&y GauttMr, 




The CoiDpjuiy. 
ilr. Bhun, 

the Bystom been devUod for tho rery parpose of duCoatinff ttcrutiny, 
it oould Dot have Imwii mora effvctuit). An Attempt to rc^vii^ it 
could not hAve aoy effoct. Even a narlinl survey, a meaeorQiueiit 
of eatat«B under iiiTestigatJOQ, waula do more liarm thaa good. Nq 
one know the boundaries. A looso roin would bo i^ireii to comip* 
tion and iiitrifriic, and cncronchmouts vould bo C4iiitiriRed. It bad 
alnayH boon the intention of (lovorumant to effect a Bettlemeot 
which it could pronounce permanent, but sanction iraa nilhUoM 
ifoxa ev^y propoeed schomo owing to tho want of accnnil^; iufonno- 
tioD. The only way of gaining accurate infonnation waa l>^ a 
gviicral iiurTcy. This measure, instead of overthrowing the ancient 
principle, as Mr. Blair had said, would restore it. Mr. Bloao 
admitlod that coinplicated amiDgements bad been modu on thft 
faith that the averaf^e payoient or tharao was final, aod^ 
althout^b the Board bad atat«d that Oorwnment trere in no way 
pledgi-d to the present state of things, yet, owing to tho Icni^h of 
timo which had been allowed to pass without a rt-al r^Tviston, » 
reaK»eftAmvnt founded on a »un,-oy would create dwooutent, iai 
disturb the existing relations of landed property. 

Another branch of the subject which in Tttt. Blane'a opinion 
showed the necessity of a survey was the wholosalu enclosing of 
Governmcnl waste in private estates. The extent of the Oorcmment 
right in the fore^t^ and wastes had never been clearly defined, 
and extensire lract« had by degreoa been included by persona 
whose right to tho land was extremely doubtful.' It was partly on 
waste cstatw, but more on the rrkte-Ivss or rekhiwuht waste that 
eucroachmonts had boen made. Govcninient waste bind which at 
tbo tow rate of tho Bednur assessment had paid a rental of £<Rt,U<K) 
(Itif. 0,00,000) hud almost oil been appropriated. This appropriation 
of waste seems to have been entirely lost sight of at the titnc oC 
the average payment or tharde settlement, liiere was no record to 
show in what nub-division or villages the waste waa situated, and thQ 
few old accounts, through which this might have been ascertaiued, 
wore lost,hurn(Ml,or dcBtroyod, Not only waa no account of the wa^te 
taken when the average payment or (AanJi-aettlfmeut was maih-.oven 
since that settlement the oocupiei-s of estates ha<l helped tbeinst-lvoa 
to tho wa'>;tu without check or restraint. Tho landholders' theory 
which liad practically been adopted since tho average payment 
or tkarav settlement bad been introduced was that their estatce 
included not only the land which was in cultivation at the time 

titrt. In Ronivar it la cftlmlatml bjr a mranut) callfd a knulgl, and in tb* DpUada 
hy tbe Urgir- find MnHll Haatfi, tlie anilt i-AaM4ib«ing tw«1refa*«tit «Arr* oi Iwmtf-htur 
nipci'i' wviKlit or thrM pnitn tAert ci txtttty-Xwo rapoca, au<l Ih* iari:d tJUuuK 
being cQUoJ to twenty of Uk« HnaU. The iW aguo Iiy whi«h tkme mvJdatn 
TMhMiod ii rquklly itncertaia. varying from Dincty-iiK to ■cvtnty-iKo nipMi^ 
woiKht. Thtw! varioni mcMuromwiU >fli>ril Mbplc rooiu (or ^f*f«t« >ad <]oul>t U 
to tfiii Mm «( a num'* hbldlBjc, and «h«M lli«y arc t.ikiin in DoiijiinctkiM witli tlw 
coniiilicatad loul vill^fo rau* by vhi<ii Ui« r«nl-|>milDO« ia cnlrsUttyl, tlic wholi 
n)b)«cl bconnto* lavi^voil in >nah ■ mue of obscntitr lb*] nay altmipt nt revirioa 
by wbidi the ofcj*olioii« of Ifae landhntden, patytmly taitcd and iicniito.1 to, ttudi 
be MUiafled. boonuiM ftll )>ut hop«lc«. 

■ Ftmd Ut. Blaat'i lotUi of SOth SrptcmbcT 1648 ; Letten rcktlng to tbo Ew|* 
lt«rH«a AdminutrttioA o( Kia«ra, pp. 190-200. 



of Uie former iicttleincnt but tract* of waste of two doBcriptions, 
waste lands which had fallen oat of cullivation in formsr timoe, and 
iiTinioinorial waste which had never b«en under lilliigu. Tbey 
:iil -^d that they had a right to bring under cultivation both of 
tlieite kindH of wrkU) without any additional assesament. Tltoy 
asserted that the total Goyernment demand was 6xed on the entir« 
mtat«, including lands of every description- Of these waot* lands 
Iherv witM no acoonnt or rvcord, and even of the cultivated lands, 
as they stood at the beginning of the Conipiiny's Gorcrnment, tho 
only rerord was an account called the dumioiif chitta, which waa 
* Bb«4 Ktatement of the lands under caltiration in the second year 
of tho Company's Government. This statement was said to be only 
an estimate, and watt not aiimilCcd to bo a correct or aatheulio 
r€ '^rd, or one which could be used as a practical chock. 

^'•'ith respect to the arable waste, assuming that it ongiitally 
f< rrnt<d part of the holding or vary by which it waa cTnimud 
ai:Ll Uint no additions woro inatlo to it from lapsed eetatoa or 
frvim GoremmeuC wnste lands, Mr. Blnue held tJiat tbo original 
aHSCBsniBDt or demand on the ectato might be assumed to reprcKont 
tho Government share of the produco of thosu lands when under 
onltiration. It waa known that very largo remiK«iuus were made 
and continued tu be made on account of waste portions of estates^ 
and where the assessment was fixed solely wiih reference tu tbo 
collections these remisuons would bo uxoludcd from the average 
sod tbo rent would bo poruiauontly reduced by tho umoont of 
temporary remissionii. At the average payment KctUoment no 
T^r iviaion waa made for reimposing this assessment when the lands 
again tillod, nor was tho waste land separated from the estate. 
-<»ale continued to b« ntlacbed to the est«i«, itiid, when it was 
a^tn brought nnder cultivation, it may be Baid to haw Iwion oujoyed 
' .of r^-nt, Mr. Blanc boHcvod that in fixing the avermgp 
it demand it was tho intention of Government that increased 
ion within tho limits of ealales should not be charged, 
and that the holders should bare the full benefit of all tito 
" < y might bring nndor cultivation, litis waa done under tbo 
ri that these binds boro some kind of adequate assessment. 
KutLii(-r tho extent of the waste nor the importaoco of the question 
had been understood. 

llio qnestiou of immemorial waste attached to cxtates waa distinot 
&om tho question of waste lauds once nader tillage. Ll was to 
the incantioitit admission of, or at least to the failure to oppose, the 
claim to immemorial waste that tho absorption of neany all tlio 
ikto-less or Teihdiia»ht Govemmont waste was duo. Considerable 
tracts of eneh waste land were attached to many estates, somo of 
it being nntbtc and somo of it hilly or stony incapable of improve- 
ment. Theao waste areas wore often toruicd kvmaki ornuxilinry 
tliat island granted to help cultivation. They were intended to 
provide tho tandhuldera with leaf manure and to furnish fodder for 
theii' calile. Originally tbey scorn not to have differed matenalty 
bom the waste lands nsod for Etimilar purposes in other parts of 
untry, cxoopt that, instead of being common to the vilkge» 
' ure divided and enjoyed in separate portioQs by individual 

Chaptw VI 


Mr. ftUtat, 

I Bombaj 





Mr. BloM, 

iMtdboldan. Mr. IJtane considered that tliey were origiiuUy 
essentially as so utljiitict to, knd in coDnectioit with, th« cmIi'v 
laoda. Uo tliought that Uio rigbt to them wu gt uodiHvd 
l)L< oiijoyod only fur the purposes for which they were held, 
of tbotie luuds for such purpoaea was a necessary ooncessioD. 
were not on that account the loss GorammoDt hinds, only 
which Deighhonriug landholders wore allowed to nse for 

If Uiis was tho original tenure under which these wasbo 
had been held, it «as entirely chftDi>f>d under British adininistrai 
The holders claimed tho iHiniu pruprit^tHry right in the wute 
in the cult)vnl«d Inud, nud, as a conneouencu, clniuied tho rii 
to bring them under Ullage without tlie parment of addJ 
aasesement. They ovon oUimcd the right of stilling orlct4«iig 
and thud if they chose, *>epnratiug them from the ctiltiration, 
alionatiiig them from their original uses. Another c-fTect of such 
tenure was that eron where the lands were greatly iu ercoM of 
qiiftntitv nw-'cesaiy for the purposes for which ihi-y vearv iiiteml 
the hoiders could prevent others from tnltiug thcin ou u Gxi 
aKsesauient payable to UoTornmeut, and the person who took the 
land paid the rent to the landlord, not to Government, and was io 
every respect his tenant. I'hoagh the right to cultirato »uch ' 
was not admitted in theory, it wax, as a rule, onjoyed in 
for the simplo reason that Government did not know the exteo 
the original estates, and could not toll what vras new cuItiTation uwl 
what was old. Mr. BUne Kut his face agninst the adini»Kiun of 
these claims. But lands, which were formerly brought urn 
cnltiratioD in this manner, were beyond recoverv, and nearly «■ 
ease in which it was attempted to restrain these encroaco' 
involved a protracted contest, and the certainty of having to 
ft law suit if there were th« most slondor grounds for disputing 

The foroft and wood land held for wood-ash or iuMin tOlj 
was of much tho eamo nature as tho leaf-manure land. Tho ll 
holders claimed the cxclodvo right of cultivating them, of m 
them, or of selling them and their pro«luc<', in ovcry rQft))ect in 
eamc manner as tlicir old cultiTalod lands, npon which, accor' _ 
to Mr. Blane's view, an a»ses«ment woa alone fixed. Light' 
ibronn on this aubjecl, and on the manner in which the people of 
K^ara quietlv made uuw rights for themselves, by rofernng to the 
terms in which public grauU and private docds were worded unclur 
the former govcrDmeot and under the Coufwny's rule. I-'roia 
ancient documents it appears that in former times estates were not 
the ondefined tracts of mixed coltivatiou and waste, which th^ 
were afterwards made out to he. Tliere was no room for doubl 
sa to what was grauled. Tho government waa careful to define the 
exact limits of tho land, appointiog a persou from bead-qnarCurB to 
plant boundai^ stones in tho pmaenci^ of the inhabitauta of tho 
lour surrounding villages, BO that no dispute might arise r«<ipectinff 
the boundarieti. The deed oaually ran : ' You ore to enjoy the saia 
land with uU the eight rights together with all extnui arising 




tiienifroni.'' Th«so kk tbn terms of » deed execaUtd in 1730 by 
Mjc Kriabsappa Kariiik, making over lands orij^nally panted to 
Ilia anmators by Keldi Basvappa Ndik about 1704. Tbor« js no 
lueuLioa of forust or of waste lands. The terms of a di-vd by which 
tbo very same lund was trauBfcm'd in 1837 ore: 'You are h«Rce- 
forward, as full proprietor, to c-njoy Uie land, the site of the hoiiRQ 
tc^othvr wiih the foretit unlands, and the eight rixbte.' The 
additionul terms inti-oducea are meet signiiicaDt. It wait not 
without a purpoeo that they found tlivir way into this and nimilur 
deeds, and tliat purpose was to ovate a rigbt to additional land, for 
which there was no authority. Yet it was by sach docnments that 
for nearly half a century the people had transferred Lands which did 
not lielong to them ; and that tho courts had ooofimMxI hy deoreea 
foonded on the terras of those deeds the ulienation of laud which 
belonged to tiovKmnieut. Under tliis state of things the functiona 
of the revenue officers were to a great extent transferred to the court<9. 
A Kitnan<«e landholder of ordinary intclligrncu who wished to take 
new land did not think of going to the Collector. He had a variety 
of better plans by which ho scoured the land for nothing. One very 
oommon device was to get a neighbour to sell or mort^^e the 
land and then by a fictitious suit bare tho transfer confimiod by a 
court decree. In other rasps the accountant who examined the 
land was bribed to enter tho Kpot coveted ae vaitbin the estate of 
a psrtionlar party and this entry was produced years after. It is 
impossible to describe the cunning with which crideDCo was got up, 
not only io tho roronuo department but before the police. 

When it is considered that this system went on from the begin- 
ning of the Company's rule, it may be imagined to what an extent 

^overnmont land was appropriated. The abuse arose from the 
^^MBt of any public rcoord oi the extent of each man's holding. 

^D suits between individuals tho rights of Qoverument did not 
come under diacussion, and the prodnotion of an admitted sale or 
mortgage deed or other evidence of a like nature nlwaj-s led to 
tho land being decreed to ono party. The simple rule that a man 
bad a right only to as much land as ho paid for was never applied 
Io Kduara, nor was there any rate or rule of assessment by which 
(ho Collector could determine whether a holder bad more or less 
land tlian he ought to bavo, or by which he could recover or reassess 
the extra land. It was of no use Io tell a landholder, ' You bare 
three or four times as much land as you p»y assessment for.' 
The answer was, ' It is within tho limits of my holding.' Or tho 
claimant produpod some paper or tho evidence of friendly noighbonrs 
(o prove that the land was bis, and if tho claim was resisted there 
w»s the ready resource of carrying the case into court. 

Mr. Blane cited the following inatanco as illustrating tho las 
Oyst^m of land management aud tho urgent need for reform. la 
Mangalor sub-division, Uari-KuUah viUago-group, Bunger-kolnr 

' Th* ei(ht ritthta *n : A^*mi fntiiN risbta, oAiAui pvMaot riglib, jata w&ter, 
tMhi trnuutc-trui'o, aiUUjM (l«|iotita. piMn rock* uid minerri*, tMkjM pndae*. 
aadnddUcoJlivkUdbiid. WOMaXfleMrr, K. 

Qiftptsf Tl 

Tlu OMii|Maf| 




> C<niipM>]r, 
Jfr Blaut. 

IBombaj QuoUMt. 



villiige, number 18 was divided and a portion transfcirod, loarin^ 
a» the old holding 6^ mudas asaeascd si aboat XI 12«. {Umu 4). Id 
1$I4, the holder Stin Bin had raortgagud to one Lnk» NiUk, a 
portion of tli« c«tato which yii^ldod ti yearly prtxliiw \2l 

(Ks.210). A snit arose out of this transaction wliiub • . .jr« 

the District Court in 1819. and eubspquently by apjti'al before tin 
Provincial Court. During iho bouring of these dsea two ol4 
documents were produced, one pai-|>orting to bo » grunt by UU 
local chti>[ about niuety years bofore, and the other a salo dcud b^ 
one Mntbes N^k to 8lia Biri in which the purchase-tuoney ia ^tntud 
at £14 (Us. 140). In tlio«o two duouuiuntK certain hoondaries were 
mentioned, ami a deed of acqnitance or nijintima huviny been 
tendered, the Provincial Court accepted it, and directed iu terma 
to be enforced. This onk-r wiis carried ont in 1835, In I3<'17 a 
complctint cauio before the Magistrate recording the right tocertaia 
f^rasK land, and, after rarioua iuqoinea and reports by t)iu m^ralat'd^, 
the Sub-Collector, Mr. Mnltby, examined the land, and wrolcanonler 
Btating that the land in disputu, ax wvll as some othor land which 
Iwd been cultivated, appeared to belong to Govornntont and dinrcted 
it to be meaaured. The meaaui-emeula showed tliat Iho original 
holding of 61 muiltit had developed into au estate of 62j mxdiM. 
Mr. Mftltby decided that part of this extra land was Govci-umeat 
waste and he ordered the m&iilatdir to talco offerit fur its cultivatioB. 
One Shaker Ali offered to take the waste laud on an M^scssment 
of about £10 (Ks, lUO). An order was issued that the offer would 
be coDsidert'd at the rout settlement time, and tltat meanwhile th6 
grass on Hio disputed land should be sold on public account. 
?'he holder continued to press his claim to the whole of the land 
before difforvut ofHcvrn who had chnrgu of the division, and >tirii>u» 
orders wore i88ue<l which prevented iSlmker AU's offer being accept4.'<d. 
This slate of things lasted for seven years, during which the 
grasa was sold on Government account> and realised coufiidornbl; 
more than the entire usscssmont of the Mtate. In Septenil>er 18 (6, 
Mr. Reado, the Acting Sub-CoUecior, iuspoctwl the place, and. 
apparently with reference only to the old documents •mentioned 
above, pronounced the whole of the land to belong to the bolder 
of the number, and wroto to the Colleclor reporting this anil 
requesting that nil the money which liad been roulined on the pram 
might be refunded. This was objected to on the ground that 
Mr, Reado ooght not to have upset the decision of a fonner Sub- 
Collootor, and upon the suspicious appenrancc of the old doctimenis 
on which the whole claim rested. A particnlar report of his reasons 
was callod for, but thiit wag ucvcr furnished ait he was iH»oa 
after tmnsferred to another divi&iou. Meanwhile, notwithstanding 
Mr, llaltby's decision that most of the land was Government 
.J, the eetato was sold to a wealthy ChriMiun merchant tn 

agalor, Juan Salvador Coellio, for £230 (Ks. 2300), and the salo 
deed was registered in court. In this deed ' The whole of the land 
with the garaen, salt-marsh, waste land, and bouse,' according to the 
Provincial Court's decree, was named, with the exception of two 
miidas which were left for the support of a female relation of the 
former holder. Hie purchaser applied to iho mtlmlstditr to have the 






iii^ entered in his nnmo nnd the ndinlatdSr reftiiriHl tiim to 

Maltby'fl order. The bolder rejoined bj refeiTiug to the decree 

' Doui-t, aud rcitoratcd his dc-Tnitod. In 18-(8 the case was still 

7 divpnto, and tbo piirchn«<.T enjoyed the whole of tbe «stat6 

nt the gmss laud, 

\> lib reference to the docuraenta npon which the Provincial Court's 

npcptanct' of the acquittance deed was founded, and by wliicb land 

ttmn eight ttmcs th<; oxtvnt of tho ori^nal boldini; was made 

ui the claimant, it appeared on examinntion that the lirst wus 

only a pretended copy of a permanent lease or mulpatla gninting 

lanil to a temple in the villaKO of Poralcndi, whereas the land in 

question was in tho vill»^ of Bnngor-KoUurj and tbe deed was 

Rn>duc«'il hy n Kloplnb, Sha Biri, who purchased the land from a 
ulivo Christian, Mathes Ndik, who produced it as a grant to 
himself. No one appears to have enquired whether the chief had 
any power to makv Guch a grant ; or how, if he had granted land to 
a tornplo, it could havu come into the possession of a Natire 
UmaLian ; or how a document referring to land in one village coald 
prove any right to land in another viTl^e. The Provincial Coort 
appoars to have meroly lookvil to tho ncquittanco tcndcrc<l by the 
]Mrlu-s, and confirmed it. The revenue anlborities were not 
;lt«sl, nor. if they had been, was it probable that there would 
I been any different result under the lax syatera which always 

prvrailed in Kilnara, whcro there wore no rates of usscsamont, nor 
any public record of tbo extent of each miw'» holding. 

In Mr. Blane's opinion this case gave important evidence of the 

diSicultr which revenue officers had to contend with in upholding 

tho rights of Oovomment without snbjocting thumsclvos to be 

_'od into court, » ouurso which tho want of any rule of assoss- 

and the nndellned extent of estates put it in the power of 

. one to tatca Other points on which, in Mr. Blane'e opinion, 

Lti - cnFc threw important light, wore the want of information 

rc'^,'a:':.';^ tho resources and extent of eatates. When the average 

payment or thanio settlement was made a remission was granted on 

an ostiite paying about £1 12*. (It*. lt>) where the net produce waa 

admitted to be equal to ahont £-'tB (K.4. 380) and probably much 

exc4?«(Ied that amount ; secondly, the kind of docnments whicn it wsa 

! 1 1 _ I imclico of the courttt to admit as evidence of propriutarj- right and 

I ItL- manner in which tho rights of Govornment wore oompromiacd 

by decrees in private suits where the public claims were not n- 

uted ; thirdly, tho unequal division of the public aasessmeDb 

flcpttrote nortinna of estates when divided, an asaessnient of 

»i^<jut £S 4$. (Ka. ^2) having been apportioned by putting about 

£1 4«. (Ka. 16) npon thrco mudas of land, and leaving ttO mudds 

assessed at only abont £1 12i>. (Rs.lR); fourthly, thu confidonoe 

■^••i' which tho people looked to the courts as a means of defeating 

lie ordi-rs, aa shown by a person jiaying tbe large snm of 

' i Bs. 2;JO0) for land lite greater part of which had been declared 

. belong to tho person diaposing of it ; fifthly, the manner in 

want of any rule for tho disjwsal of auch cases enabled 

to prolong tbe most simple qnestiona through a sucoeasion 



The C<>nii:aii) 
Mr. Bi-iw,! 

rSombir OaMtlMT, 


The CoapHiy. 
Mr. Bifiiu, 




of years, and Utkc tlicni from one public oBScer to anotlier, io ilit 
hn]»y of ttvcnliially obtaining a favourable decJBion and at all ereoti 
of rx:i(]>i>ig till* ndrautago of dutay. 

Oa this and otber cridenoo which Mr. BJuno laid beforo thuoi at 
great length the Board agreed that a survey was requir«d beforo Um 
revoniie system could be placed oa a satisfactory footing. At tba 
MftiDO time they thou^bt that it wonld he enough to eaactiou a 
small cslabliHliment under tho Collector to survey, whvro a etmrey 
wag necessary,' Hcferring to tho numerous tratisfers of jiropiTty 
which bad taken pkcv ou the faith of tho atale demand reiuniniug 
nm^iangctl, and the serious evils wbicb nonid arise from any general 
interference with the present settlemont, they thoaght thiu the 
average payment or (Aiir'iv anasanivnt should not, as a whole, be 
disturbeu. In ca«es of obvious nbuse, tbtt asst-^^nii-nt xhould bo 
roTifted, but the demand Hbould not exceed one-IKch of the gross 
produce. They also remarked that the claims of the people to waate 
shonld be treated liberally, and laid down a rnlc for dctvrmiiiiag 
when interfcronco was unnoccoowry and when udditioiuil land wopld 
not be allowtfd without a4lditioiiid &s«c»Kment. Separate minute* 
were recorded by Mr. tioldingham and Mr. Blane,* The purjxirt of 
Mr. tinldingbam'A minute was, that on tho whole the state demand 
had reached a maxitnum ; that tho clnims of the people who say 
that all lands, whctbor cultivated or not, are incluat-il in tlHiir 
holdings or ran;*, should be treated with liberality, as they were 
never questioned before the average payment settlement ; and that 
while a register of lands waa doMirablo and could not bo mado 
without a survey, tho people should not be aUrmrd, and tiovcrnmeob 
should declare it was not their intention to raiftc the aasensmeat 
generally. Mr. Blane, who bad become a member of the Board 
ainoo ho had writtoa his report> said thnt tho objection to a fnrvoy 
was its expense, that a small e9t(Abli.->.hm(.-nt under the Coll<-ctar 
might measure some landu, but that t)u; arerdgD piiyroent or tharav 
settlement should not be Kenorally disturbed. The UoTemment 
reserved their decision till the opinion of Mr. Elliot, tho first 
member of the Board, who was then on a special conunissioo, had 
been ascortained.' 

Of the revenue administration of the district between 1851 wiA 
1862. when it was handed over to Bombay, there is little to beaaidi 
Mr. Mallby bad remarkod that if a scientific survey was introduced 
a daaaificalion of the land and an sere nsKCssmcnt should supersede 
ib» priuciple of computing the GoTernm<>nt demand from the grooa 
produce* H© showed that it the priaciplo on which the Government 
ac<>ount« wvru prepared, of taking one-third of the groA^ produce, 
were carried out, the result would not bo doubtful. NoiLing came 
of tho propoaal, and until the transfer of the distnct to tho Bombay 
Presidency no important change was ma<le in the a«seMiment, Ihongb 
it was generally admitted that it was ag unsatisfactory ns it well i-omd 
be. In 1853, Mr. Maltby, the Collector, proposed to assess lands 

. 8th May ISSI. * PnxteOingt. Stk Smr. KSO A ^Mh Mar. I 

* HiaotM «1 Couultallon. 29Ui May lt»t. • I^tnr ta Board. Tt)i (>ntr. I 






newlv taken ap from GnTernment waste, had lan^alreaclj taken np 
bat discorerea to be liable to assessments aocording to tho quality o£ 
tbflBuil.' Till' C'>lU\'nr'8 proposal waH approTDtl aud hu wiw askt-J to 
explain hyw ho inlvniled to ttK-iirtnin the ckpabilily of tho soil,* He 
nrojiosed to lake one staple prodnct ami estimate tke ooalily of the 
uod from ita cambility to produce Ibis staple, ana tJiis coarse 
^noMTed tho 8nnctioa of the Board.* 

Since the transfer of Nnrtli Kiinnm from Madras, opontions hmvo 
been in progress for inlroducing the Bombay surrey Rettlem>ont. 01 
the (.'hnngea in the ordinary practice which the peculiar character of 
thedistrict rcqnired Colon«l Andorson, the Survey Commissioner, baa 
given tho following acconnt : Tho fovm^m-«8 of tbs climutu limits 
'surrey operations to three or fonr months in the year, llie ^hortncsft 
of the sar\-cyiiiff se«soa makeia it necessaiy to deal with a aub<divisioa 
piecemeal.* Thongfa progress is slow this system has cerlaia 
ndTuntngos. In the uusarvoyctl parts of KAnarii there is no real 
idontification of lunds in (ho (.invoniment recordx. All that i» known 
is the sum each landholder, kkdieJiir or vanjddr, has to pay. Any 
attempt to fix boundarioB gires rise to diapntos. These disputes come 
np nt the time of moasnrement and the limit« of tho lands of the 
fiev(-nt] holdent aro innrkod «IT. The»u limits are often unknown to 
the holder?! as tho lands are oommoiJy held by tenants, who til! parts 
of two noigbhourinK holdings, paying to each holder a certain 
fixed ront or shanr of tho produce. The limits of holdings which 
hftTi' been fixi^d nt tho timo of tho mt-fwuremoat como under review 
a year or two afterwards at the time of the claasificatiop. Tho 
bolders meanwhile have the opportunity of bringing to notice any 
arror thnt may hare been mado in the original boundary settloment, 
iny clmngi> thiit »fom» caltod for is niado by the classing 
J. Finally, a few months before tho settlemout is tntroducod, 
the village map, on which every holding is shown as a survoy field, 
and A list of tho surrey fields with tno ropntod holder of each, 
are given to tho mAmlat^Ur, some of whose clerks, in company 
with the Tillage oQIoers and landholders, inspect every field, and 
enter the holder of each field in the Field Inspwtiou Book. This 
minulo incjuiry raises a crop of dispat«8. Some aro at nnoe 
in(|uir<Hl into and settled by tho surrey officer. Where ho fails to 
bring the partten to agree the dispute is referred to the nUUnlatd^, 
who visits erory rillaga for the purpoee ot settling dispnt«8, and to 
test the field inspection n?tnms which his olorks have made oaL 
Any boundary otuinges whioh tho mi&mlacdAr finds necessary are 
reported to the settlement ofBcer and carried ont by him. The 
■ettlement Is made on the papers drawn np and checked andor tho 
mAmlat<I^H responsibility. In cases of aggm%'ated disputi^ tlie 
tatLralatdKr makes fidl notes on tho spot and brings up the question 
for disposal at the ftottlemcnt. The result of this metnod is that in 
the lowlands, where land has a high value and is much subdivided. 

l.rtWrtoBo«wd, lSUiF«tott4nrl853. «Pfi>o«*daigi, S9th April I8SS. 

• LstMr t« BoMfd. aUi Joao ISHt i Utter, Tlh April IS-VJ, 

*Aamr CommUnoaer'i IMUrtUS of 4U|-Aiiril 1877, Mid 411 of 30tbApnl 

B 816-93 



B<mfc«y SnrwJ 

iBombaj OasetteR-. 






Smretf SfOen. 


the preparation for the wttloment of twenty or thirty viUsges, a 
morn fnictiun of a Kiih-diTinion, kciepo the niAmliUdlir biijiy for ttinn 
ur fuiir inoutlia. Uo kuawa that this 6clij luspectiuu givos an 
opportunity for clearing diapntcs, and that if he does not Utk* 
advantage of this opportunity, ha vn\l bo found out si the aettlomeut 
or Etill wono after the Dcttlvmont is ovnr. 'fheroforo the mdinlsld^r 
takes pains to make the field inspection complete and to vosiini 
that the records twaed on the survey are accurate. The oousec)iii;iiBo 
is that after the setclenicnt di^puto^ ubout lands and their boundariM 
except cases of dijipiititl titlu which can bo ductdvd only by the 
civil oourla, arc very uncommon. 

Under the former system of rcveone maoaeement the nnit wa^ 
the account or varg in the GoTcmmcnt books. One account or 
holding genenilly included several detached plot* in ono villago. 
and often included lands in more than one village, and even in more 
than one anb-diviHion. Of tho precise eifuatiou or nature of the lands 
forming owe holding or vary oven in the siiino villiigo thcro was no 
IniKt worthy record, the village accountant and the pc-rsons 
couceroed alone urofessed to know. Of the share of aaaesHiiiOQt 
due on the several dclds or several dutachod plots of land oompnwd 
in the holding thcru was no record. Goi.'crnmont land was often 
appropriated witliout any addition to tho land-tax, and tlm nseces- 
meni of holdings bore no proper proportion .to the capabilities of 
the land. Under the now or survey system every holding was kepi 
carefully distinct. ItwMdividodintosc|Miratv8orTCy fields or numbers 
of modi-rate and convenient size, each of which was »cnarat«ly 
assessed, due regard being paid to the boundaries of the 8ub>aivisioD« 
of the holding. Tfaeasaeasmout whh ba««d on a moderate proportion 
to the produDtiveness of the soil. In ordinary cnltivalion and 
in ordinanr seaaons. it did not exceed an eighth or a tenth of the 
groBs produce; and in the superior and highly tilled lands, the 
proportion waa considerably lower. The holding thus remained 
mtuct, but was divid(Kl into a number of Mpnnitdy marked and 
uMtf-iued unittt or surrey fields which the holder oonld keep, give up)' 
or dispose of at bis pleasure. In this respect the landholaer greatly 
gained. Waste land, the solo property of Governmont, was divided 
into anblc and forest. Of the arable waste, unU'NX it was wanted 
for any Government purpose, so much as was reijuired to moot tbo 
probable spread of tillage was split into survey fields and ae»es8(^ 
The foroal waato was survoyod in larg^i blocks and placed at tlw) 
disposal of Iho forest department. Considomblo areas were set 
apart for grazing, but grazing privileges were always recorded to be 
granted during the plrasuro of Government, so as not to prevent 
tho grazing laud being changed, J^hould at any future time such a 
course »c«m desirabla Forest righta in grazing lands were strictly 
rcM-rved to Oovemment. 

Between 1 864 and 1867 the revised acsoesment fixed by the revenue 
survey wotiiutrodaced without opposition into 199 villagosand hamlets 
in the sub^visioQS above the Sahyidria.' In 1870-71 the ratoe o£ 

'Sorrcy Coauuinioaer'i Mttnoraaduoi, 1070. Wh Ostober IS71. 

Asn-i^sRient fixed by the surrey were given ont in ejgbleea Tilla^a 
•.'■' J . I'.rv^r snb-iliTisioD on the coast close to K&rvr^ town. In these 
villi4ii'« tliroHgli a long sterie* of yoars probably from tlio bcgioniag 
of itritUti rule, fraud and corruptioQ had deprived UoTemmeni of tlicir 
proper share of the Und revenue. In 1871 the coast landholders 
combined to quest iou the right of Government torevisetbetsswsment, 
aod filed aboat 6O0 Huits. Agents of this cvimbination were Mrnt to 
Sinti ((I ]>er8iiade the landholders in thu eighty-four Siifti villages, 
into wlich revised rates had been introduced in 1870, to join the 
K&rw&r lesguo ; bat thoy failed to get more than ten Hupport4-rs. The 
rates of otweiienieQt fixed for the Kwrwiir Tillnge!<, considering th« 
odvant^fea of tbeir Bituation, were very low, far lower than the rates 
imposed and accepted in other parts o£ the district. It was felt 
tlutt> whatovor might havo boon the origin of the old corrupt 
asscsisincnts, it would )>e iooxpedivut at once to demand alt that 
Qovemment were eutitlod to demand ; that for the first aettlement a 
moderate rate should be imposed as a compromise, leaving the attain- 
meut of full rates to a ruviKion at the end of thirty ytnrs. The new 
rtUes of attsex^went would more than double the revenue on tho 
eighteen villageatowhichtbey wereapplied. As regarded individuals, 
the incidence of the new rstes varied greatly. Many of thu poorer 
And Idui infiucutiid cultivators found their iks.->(!.-^munU tnaterially 
reduced; in Homo onscs tJie new assessment was not more than one* 
loorth, and in many cases it -was not more than one-baU of what nas 
formerly paid. On the other hand the larger and more influential land- 
holders fuuud their asseesmeut much incrcusod. In some cnsvs the 
Conner asaossineuis were nominal witliout tho shadow of an asflignable 
reason. The new aFsessment was oommnnicaled to the landlioldera 
at the end of March 1870 by the Acting Collector, Mr. Klphinstone, 
aad tho Survey CominiaiMoner. There was some vogue petitioning 
and general deuial of tlie right of Government to re-asteas the 
land. At first many of the more influential landholders refused Co 
attend the settlement. But finding that tho plea of ahsooeo would not 
aTuil them, the number of absenti^H>s becamu smalli^r and the spirit 
ef oppoedtJon seemed to have abated. For a few days after the 
settlement there was some talk of organized op]>ositiou through 
tho oonrts of law. An attempt was mado by the largt^r landholders 
to raise a general defence fund, but for some reason this pUu fell 
through. The Collector and the Survey Commissioner were told 
(hat the mass of smaller landholders bad come to the conclusion 
that they had butter leave well alone, and there wm every hope 
that tho opposition would die out, especiallv as report said that a 
legal opinion taken by the malonteiilii hud been unfavourable to 
thsm- Matters remained quiet till about the end of January 1871, 
ivben rumours begun to arist! of an intended combination to di.spute tho 
right of Hovt'ruiueut to revise tho assc«smunt. Whijn the first in^tal- 
mcnt of the new assessment fell due, payment was refused not only 
ttf those whose assessments had been raised, but alvo by those whoso 
ouesamcnts had been lowered, and in the conrse of the next two 
months a largo number of suits were filed against Government 
denying the right of Government to revise the assessment and assort- 
ing that tho former r&tes were permanent. Tho iiti^uita based this 

Chapter VII 


Bombmy Surra 




IBonlHor Qi 




1S!H. ' 


claim on iaobted exprassJoos in procliua»tionB nnd notific*tiont m 
til iho tinu. i{uiirter of the ceatoir. The Surrey Commissiouer I 
tlint Lboru ww no ju&t ground for this clftiat) um! lliot iluriag 
eixty years they bolil North Kiniun, Ibo Mkdnw Qovernuumt Ml 
Id nay way adiuitted thAt tiicy bod nok powar to rertse llie 
menu On the contrary tJiey liBd penistently assertod tfaU ri^^Iit. 
aome parts oE North Kiaars revised rates Trere intrtxlucvd i " 
the rest of ttto dintricl thoy bad often nndor ooBaideratimi tli 
czpodient tnode of effecLinjf a roraioii. The BomUty Cioreroma 
baaed their rit^fat to ravise the aaaeesmeut on tfao inhfrexit rigfati 
OorerniDcul to rogtiliito Inxatioti, «■ exprnaiod in aectiona 2^ and] 
of BootbiiT Act I. of 18C5. The plaintiffs d«nied this right, 
atsvrt«d tliat the existing asWHoiuents were jwmanetit. 

Umlor these circnmstancea the Itereiine Commiaaioner ~^ 
the Collector to allow any poilion of the acHoMinont wh 
bo in excess of a permanent loiiso or mulynti jmlra older thao t| 
troDEfer of K&nftra to the Boniliuy GoveraroeDt to ataud orer, pondi: 
inaiiiry.' The formal agretment io each case was to bo prodw 
ana Buthcnti(.-«tcd to the satisfaction of the Ccdlaotor or of ad i 
deputed by him. All other tandboldora were gircu the 
of rarigning their lands and pa;in^ for the current year 18' 
■mocamvDt at preTions rates, or of paying Ihv full stirroy 
the land was not rc«i)^i>d wilhin a certain date. In 
pereiatent Kfusal to ro^ign or to pay tliv surrey asseesnieal 
Korenoe Commissioner deeircd the Collector to proceed to dist 
by notice and sale of land, as provided by the rulea framed 
Mctwn 31 of Bomboy Act I. of I8C&. 

This E^rwitr opposition resulted in the great KiLnara Und 
which was decided in May 1875 by the Bombay High Coort.. T! 
decisioo was on ovory point in favour of Government.' An a|>pciil I 
the IMfy Council followed but was not prosocntcd. The agitat' 
died out and the main ([uestion of the goncnd riglit to revise 
aaseasment was s«t al rent. 

To lighten the preesm^ of the enhancement in individual 
Oovemmcot sanctioned certain concessions.' Tho holder of 
nncultivatcd at thotimo of thoHettlomont, ao Iongn8 tho hind rei 
tincaltivated, cnu keep tho right of occupancy op to five 
uftor the settleiuent on paying an eighth of tho full iu>ao9smeii 
This coucoHKioD npplica only to tho Kioara ton-lands and id tbrl_ 
only to holdiuga iu any oue village which pays an nutovsment of more 
than 12 lOa. iKs. 25). It was never tho practice to recognise tha 
right to hold land, whether cultivated or not, without paying 
assessment. In former times large bindholders had appropriat 
much land to which thoy had no title. This appropriKtiou 
still more general white tho survey was going on. Krcry holder ' 
ttlluwpd to point ont tho litoita np to whicn ho claimed, and tbc^ 
claims were admitted without question ao long m so coonter-claii 

> R<iT«nu« CbmaiiMloiiH, llM.2TUi Mu«h 1871. 

* Buvboy Btih Couit^ Rnnrta, XIL ApndKlii, pp. I - 1S4 

*OoT«WMD(B«a«ltitioftK73. Slrt OctAw \9:i*. 




«&a nab ap, or there appcArod to bo do noson to rDserve tiie land on 
belinlf of GoTcrnmenL Ko immediate pAyiii«til wiw inciirrod on 
this ktiU OS tlie old ss&e^sineiit remained iuic)iau|fc<l till the 
BettlE^ment, and, at the Hrttlcment, there was always the option of 
rGsi^iiiDg an entiro utrvey &uld. Thiu kuid was widely claimed 
withoot any former right and nilhoiit tbo imiuediato intention or 
the ability to bring it nnder tilbige. Lar^ tandholdt^ra were spocinlly 
«iucir>u9 to keep their tenants from becomfbg occupants nnder 
Goremment, as this would reduce the competition for their land and 
woald lower rontA. A second conocsston waa (hiit in all holdinge 
paying a surrey assessment of more than £3 10>. (Hs. 26), if the 
increase of assessment exceeded fifty per cent, only fifty per cent 
increase on the old BsseBstDent should be paid in the fimt year, an 
additional twenty-fire pur cent in the second, and in the third and 
following years tlio whole of the increased assoaiunent. This 
oonceaMibti wa.t necessary as mnch coltivated laud in the more 
outlying parts had hitherto paid a nominal land tax. 

As there is a conHidemblo differciico in the coontiy aboTo and 
below tbe Suhyiidriii, the incidence of the land-tax is shown 
separately for these two main divisions of the district. Below the 
Bahylidris, the average new or surwy ucro rate is, on garden land 
!&*, 2id. {1*8.7-9-8), on rice land 6*. Hid. (Ra. 3-7-8), and on 
dry-crop land 1 1 Jd. (7^|, annn»). Abore the SahyAdris the average 
acre-rate on garden laud is £1 Sjt. lOkd. (Rs. 11-6-D), on rice 
had 4$. bid. (Rs. 2-3-5), and on dry-crop land 9d. (6 annas). The 
conditions nbovo the Sahytidriit uro belter suited to the growth of 
the most valnnblc garden cropa and the average rate on garden 
lands ia therefore higher above than below the Sabyfldris. Moch 
of the rioe-Iand both above and below tho SahyAdris bean sngar- 
uanu in oocBsional rotation, and, below the Baliyidri*. a second crop 
of rice or of pulw is common. 

TJp to December 1682 there hare been surveyed and settled tlie 
ib-divittions of Tell/lpur with ] 73 villageit, KdrwAr with sixty-one 
9, and Kumtjk with 218 villages ; 243 villages out of 271 iu 
3npa, 201 vilUfres ont of 295 in Sirsi, and thirty-seven out of 142 
in JJun&var. The Sidd^pur Eub-division is iilunu nutouched. Except 
in 8upa whore details of the old assessment are not separat^y 
available for each block the result of the snrvey settlement has been 
to mise the aesesament from £4967 to £10,704 or 115-60 per cout 
in K&rw&r, from £14,493 to £19,760 or 3034' per cent in Ankola 
and Kumta, from £6187 to £<>9G9 or 12-63 percent in the thirty- 
seven settled Tillages of MoiiAvar, frura SJflQH U> £9293 or 6303 per 
cent in YelUpnr, and from £7502 to £10,567 or40'd5per cent in 
the 201 settled villages of SbsL 

Tho foDowiD^ statement shows the progress of t^ sottlcmeDt to 
the 3Ut of December ISSI! : 


Con ef t t hHtJ 


fBomtwr OaietUen 



nbsy SnrvBr. 

Kdvtra Sarttf DrtaiU, 188i. 



Ai iiimiTT. 








AnUU and SoMb ^. 
tl«oJ>*u ... ~. >. 


Sap* _ 

yMfa ,. 

WnT _ 

1*M ... 


















mnMt] ... ' a»jw 


Before tlio introduction of the siirvcy ttettleinont, and iitill in 
u»settlt.i! villages, hoKlings or rary» ru-e tritored in the Government 
accounts either aa wiu/» that is permanent or as geni tiiat is rented. 
This distinction propL-rly applied only to land in the old province <^ 
KlUiiira, that is, m tiiv land.s to thv south of the Gaiigiivali rivvi j 
but umlor Bntiith rule the temi3 liav« come to be asc<l over Uuj 
whole <Ujttrict. 

Tlio proper mooninf; of tvir^ in ncoouut, corresponding to khata in 
aettK'^l difitrict-s, wiUi thi.H diriKi-ence that if a var-jiltir taktw up 
foesh laud fn>ui Government, or by agreement or purchase obtains 
the transfer of a portitHt of auothei varg the additional land b 
not included in tlie ori^^inal vary but a new var<r i« vnUsrvd in the 
aoconnts. Hut at aik earlv xtage of British rule vary dune to bu uiwd 
as synonymouft with holding or estate, and each varg has lately 
bvcu known by the naiue of mtau pcrtton who held it at a former 
time, retaining' alao its original numbi-r. Ocouionnlly fMiryu have 
been subdiWded and new varga formed under new names, but Uiin 
has not been the rule. Generally there were separate varga for 
each village, but varys comprUiug lauds in different villagVH arc not 
unknown.* Within tlie village the plot^t belonging to a vary are 
scattered in all directiona and never oould be identified by any one 
but the owner and pcibaps the villogo aocouutant, and as Iheie 
were no boundary marks and no record of area, there wa» a 
cemarkaV'lu facility for enlarging tlio holding Without incur 
additional assessment. 

The meaning of the word mttli w disputed. Some Would conne 
K with the San-ikrit mautt/a meaning price ; thoso who do so assert 
tiiat mvti hoUliiiga were originally bought from Oio gov.-mnitint. 
This 9eemB to have been Major, afterwards Sir Thomas, Uum-oV 
opinion. In a letter to the Pn-sident and Members of the M*. .__ 
Board of Revenue, dated Sl^it May 1800, describing the rcvoot 
administration of Kinara under former goTemments, Munro a»~ 
' When a proprietor sUenated land for a certain rent for ever 
cither received a price for it, or he received no price for it 
or he paid a sum ot money to the person to whom the land was 
tiaDsEuTod. Which of these modei) wa.-« adopted depeiuled on the 

I Umro, 4Ui Migr 1600 ; Mi. BUao, itOth Septumbcr 154$. 




circuiii»t-aru<«:s of Uic parUca and the nitturo ot Uii> l»n<l ; but in each 
of th<! tliri>e caae» the ttiruint was titc same, and chv tvnaiit wuct 
calU^ teoant by porchase. When the govominent disponed of lauds 
which had rovi<rte«t to it by failure of heirs, it follow<xI the practice 
of iiidividuaU. It Hold tin: luud ahnixst always for a luutp paymeut 
or Ttasardna ; it sometimes mve the land free of eharg« ; but it 
never paid money, and itse^om or never advanced money to the 
new tenants or owners.' In this passa^ tho words tenant by purchase 
appear to be iiit«i>de>d m a traiuslatioii of mtiltjeniffdr, a daas oE 
tenant described l»low, and the whole statement Heems to be 
founded on the assumption that mwl means price. Former govenu 
mcntfi granted the nttili tijiht, to lands by mcaiis of iusCnnnents 
" i Tnulpaf III*. Mill thvJtc documi^nU .show that « paytniint call^ 
. iria or kunikc wait maile. Thi.t ha^ led Major Alunro to st«te 
thai the lands were sold for a rtazardna. But the word naiardtta 
dous nut (iL'tiut^ the consideration which formt) part of a sale. In 
the caN<» iti quu.stion it wotiUl mUier mcAii a foe paid for tho 
issue of an order, probably of a somewhat similar nature, though 

Sjrhaps differently applitxl. to stamp duty. Besides it is well known 
lat mvl doex not uican price but root, and the more probable 
MgniAcation of vmli bt permanent. The lands referred to in the 
mulpattd^ weTO granted for ever subject to the paj-ment of tlie 
assessment. Even the non-payment of tlic revenue did not 
nhsolnti.Uy iK-privo the holder of his ri^ht. Muuro says:' 'If 
he abwonde^l with balances standing againitt him, the land wati 
tran-iforred to another person ; hut if ne or his heir retomed at ever 
M> di^ant a pi'riod, the land was restored on either of them paying 
ft' reawiiabie compL-iisation for Uio balance and for Kuch extra 
expenses aa might have l>een incurred on account of improvemento.' 
This right was not continued under the British Government. Mr 
Blanc -says: 'It was not well establiished, but it is stipulatcil in 
aome permanent htutea or mulpattati gnuitwJ at the beginning of 
British rule, that if a descendant of a former permanent holder or 
mul^r appeared within twelve months and paid a reasonabla 
CompcnsHtiou for the balance due, the laud .should be nia<te over to 
him.' The heivditory right, savfi Mr. Eiphinston**, together with the 
power to alienate, constituted tne private property in land which 
' y many supposc^l to be [wculiar to kAnara and Malabdr ; but 
i'irs in the Deccau appear to have hod similar rights.* 
It is aswrted, and it is not improbable, tliat origioatly all tho 
cttltivated lands in K&iiaim wore held on muti or permanent right, 
and that each holder poasesMd a title-deed in tlie sliape of a 
mulj'atta, althoogb few authentic documents of that nature granted 
by former governments arc now forthcoming. During tho tatter 
part of the eighteenth century, under Huidar and Tipu, the country 
woM [Mirtially dejMpulated ami tho land-* deserted, and from tliis and 
othi:r caiLies >wme lands formerly cultivated reverted to Oovcrumont.* 




I*nd T«uur 

' Report, 31>t Uay 1900. pungrkph 3S. 

' Report ou tho TBrritoric* comiucred tmm Uio Posliwa, SSth (ktobor 1819. 

' Muuitt'i Lvttar tu CoUccton, !Hh Doottnbor 18IW, pan|p«ph <. 




il ToiKtre*. 

sme Lam-U. 


At first, nndcT Brittnh rnlo, lh« practice was to offer thom wiutte 
lands anniwlly t^ itie liifjhesc hidiler.' They wtr*! tlton callvil Hurkir 
geiti or rented from Oovomment and the cu)ti\-stors were mere 
tenants-at-will holding dirfMrtl}' from Govcmnmnt. Thu svstvni of 
giving out tliiHO wa^tv lantbt from year to year was not found t« 
work wi-U, M>(t JD 1807 the Madras QovemmiHit 8anctioiie<l the 
alienation of lands to respeetable pvr»on<t who would undertska 
to cultivate them and pay MMwmifnt on th<; i<anio ti.'^miH tu th* 
original holders.' This alienation was r«rri«ii ont by tru-aru" vi 
permanent^ or iHulpaUiu, which prohahly wt^re ^limilar to thn«e 
gnntcd by former governments, but no naaarana or handing-ovBi^ 
lee was takea. In this way, in thv laoguago of the district, many 
lands were convortv<t from »ari,iir-geni or government Icasva into 
muli or permanent holdinga. The proceaa did not go on so 
speedily as was deemed dcairablo. In 1834. Mr. Viveasli, ttw 
Principal Colloctor, after ittating that pcopK- who dci<in-d mvlpulbin 
or purnianttnt dwi^li* would gut th.,-iii on application, gavw an 
assaranco tliat thra«e who had paid the full aaseasment would be 
treated as mulgdn or permanent holders, so long as they paid tba 
fuU assessment, even thou;;h they had not obtained mvlp'tUaf and 
thongh tlic land vras not cntcri-<t tut mttli* From that timu all real 
disiinction iMitween if^ni and muli varg* ceased, but the two naxnan 
remained in the acooutitn, and are still used whore th« survey acttle- 
uent baa not Uwn iiitrodu<KHL 

The waste or d«*crt«d landa above referred to were al-w called 
k\dnaeht. that is lands which had lost their occupant Arable land, 
which, at least within the mcntory of man, hail never before be«ii 
cultivated, was callod rrkhAnanht or land which had loHt the ruoord 
of its aBBesament. It was given out with or witJiout mulpattat, 
and entored in the accounts as homgame that ia new accretion or 
cultivation. Snch lands wore not nocessarily formed into sepatsto 
boldtnga or vargt ; tlicv were more Frequcntlr entered as «iit)iori»!d 
additions to existing holdings. The name hoMyamt^ Ls .■(till in u»e, 
but there is no real difference between the tenura of hoaagama 
lands and of other lands. 

The term Alienation Menu to have been used by the E&nara 
officers of the Madra.t Onvernment in tlic sense of giving lauds For 
permanent cultivation subject to the payment of the'uiient. tt 
has bocn decided, in one of a large number of suits instituted to 
oppose the intnxluction of thu survey settlement, that the use of 
tno word alienation flid not imply a penuauent settlement of the 
osseMmcnt-or any remission ol revenue, total or partial. 8nch 
vemtssioos are fuw and insignificant Almost every temple in 
EtoarA has land attac)ie<l to it, which is entered in the name of ib« 
t«rople deity, but the full asae^ament in paid for the land, and there 
is no difference between the temple land and a private holding. 

' BmH of R«T«Dne lo Gortminait, 31tt AtxgMt 1807. 

■ SecrctMv of QorenuDont to Bokni ol )i«raaii«, SStli Oelab«w 1807. 

• VcrnMaW OMmt, Mtb Oetobw 1S34. 




EniloMnncnlA in ea.ili are paid to many tcmiil«3 in Itca of collM^tioiu 
formttrly intulH by tin- mitingers from private holdings under the 
nAmeaf AorWAnmioroiitAidechanty. TheaeMr.Read, who sucoeoded 
Colonel Uanro as Collector, attached and added to the aaaesament 
of tJ)o holding as itemi) of rovvnue. For a fow RoDi&n Catholic 
ehurchiMi und « few mosques a poitiul uxemptJoii from assesainont ia 
elaimcd, and at pT««ent allowed, hot the titl6» havu not yet beon 
adjudicated. In some partt of the district sketaandit, or sii)>ordinat« 
village officers, are allowed a romiiisiou of assessment on laud 
htild hy thum iu lieu of c&'ih payriit'iit»; but csth paynient« are 
beoouiin^ th*.* rnle. Tlio only oUivr olitmation of laud rcvouuc to 
be uoticeti is the reini^sjoii of assa-ument allowed by the Bombay 
Qoveniment in 1870 during the lifetime of the widows of 
Bulling Rtija, a descendant of tho jjafij/^ir orchiuf of fiUgi on the 
lands prcviou.'sly held by him. 

Prom what lias biwit statud it will be seeu that, although tho 
names mulgdn ot permanent bolderit and tjeniijari/ or renters have 
been k«pt, since 183+ there has been no real difference in the 
stomas of pcr.-Mas holding land <)iii>ctly under Oovemment. 
Wherever tiie Murvoy KvtUemont has Ift-en iniroiuced, m fur as 
Qovornment account^* are concerned, even the di-itinction of name 
has ceased, and the right of occupancy aa defined in the Bombay 
Survey Act Is the only reeognize'l tenure under Government, except 
in Uie few ca-sen whore tvmpomiy cultivation la allowed. In tfift 
surveyed parte of the district, indeed throughout the whole di.<d<rici, 
the only toal distinction is between occupants who cultivate and 
0' who do not cultivate. In lowland Kitnura cultivating 

(K< .u'eprobablymore numeroustlian non-cultivating occu[>antA 

but iu oih(:r parts of the district by far tho gi-eater portion df th« 
land is held by occupai]tf< who do not Uicnvselves cultivate. There are 
few people of any class who do not hold some land, as the purchase 
of laud i^ almost the only mode of investing money known in the 
diatrict ; but in mast ploci'-s the Ixilk of tho large landholders are of 
the ShenN'i caste. In many casus ihesi! people are the descendanU 
either of vilhwe accountants or of the relations of villt^ accountanta, 
o1Uc<;r.i who iiwi every facility for enlarging their own holdings 
and allowing those tn whom they were intei-ci*ted to enlarge theirs by 
encroaching nii Oovemment wairte. Moreover theae people formed 
the oducated class of the community, and rapidly became the 
moneyed cltk^i und acted aa village bookers. In course of time tho 
latid.t of tlieir debtors paased into their handx, and the dobtont fell 
from the rank of occnpant« to that of benantA. Almost all the large 
landhuldei-s htill unitt^ moni:!vUnding to their other occupations. 
In upland K^iara the rule is for occupants to cultivate tlnnr nwn 
taods, but everywhere there arc large landholders, and the process of 
the more ignorant cultivators being converted from occupants into 
tenants which is near completion in the lowland su>>-divUioaa in 
also in operation in upland K&iaia. 

It remains to describe the riglit'^ of thase who hold not directly 
from Government, but under a superior holder. Of these the 
highest are vtul^eHi^'ir* or permanent leasees. Fn the minnt« of tho 

Chapter TI 


I.*Bil Tanur 
A Ut mt K vMA 



IBombtT IHZtlU 





Mwlnw Bo«nl of Re^'enae recordod on the 5th of JiuiUAry 131 
tlicir fltntnfl is thos de^ribLtl : Thu muiyeni^^rt or nt>rmatit 
tOD&nts nf KAnara wer« a clawn of puopic unknown to StalaLAr, w' 
on eouditiou or the giayiiK'Jit of a spc^iitifit invai-ialilc rant to 
mulf or laii<llor<l un<l hU sxicfxtaor^ obtained from Iitni n i 
d^nnt of a certiiin portion of land to be held by them .. 
heirH for ever.' Tht» right could not bu i«old by the Ptvly^t 
his heirs, but it ini^ht I*; monj;«u<.-tl by tliuin ; and no lon^ 
Btipulatixl lent oontinued to be duly pai'l hi> and \as duMvndn 
iuhvriUid tlilt land like any other pait of their hereditarv proft^i 
The landlord and his hoire were preclniiud from mUinj; t)ii- r»ut 
the penaauont Ii>Ktix>. It wa-4. thui-vfore. originally ciUier hiffhur 
that pi'ocurablo from temporary tviuuits. or it wan Rxml at ttio 
or at a lower rate m ooiuudcmUon of a certain sum > >) aq 

prejnium or purcliaae-moncy for the grant in non.. r att 

favour confiTftl by thij landlord on Mtim; of hu dt-]f':niit'iibj.' 
amounted, in fact, to a permiinent (Uieiuitton of u ovrliun puriii 
of land by the landlord ; for it nercr again lapnod to him or ' 
daiccnilants oxcopt on the failure of heir^ to the pennammt 1< 
This clas)t of pt-oplo may tlicn'forc be constilurud subonJinatu 
lonls ratlii-r Untn tvnaiiU, eMpcctaliy (ts, thoiii^h many of thi 
cullivatiHl th>-irlAn<b)iy hii-iMl labourers or !ilave8, nthcra mjli-roo 
thi'iu to ch-iloemgdrs or 'temporary tetuuits.' This doscriptl 
applies (^ncrally to the mulgetii tenure of tlio prirseut day. 
Boniu ca.-w0 thv n^nt i^ tixm) in pi-oduci! ; in other coacs it u Sxod 
ca»h. A few tnufy«n» deeds belonging to the early part of 
century have been found which attpulate that if the asaiesamentl'' 
incn^a'wd tliu Iv^Mie will pay the euhjuicod amount, but the tnaji 
contain no such proviaion, and one of thu most iliHicuIt 
arising out of the survey aetUemeat re8ult«< from thv fact that 
reviseu osaesHment exceeds the rent fixed in a muly«ni 
Most of the mutgeni dctnls executed since the snr\'ey began ooni 
ihu stjpulstjou that if tlio tsaeBBUiottt is increased the lessee will 
the enhanced amonut. 

Auuthor .sub-tonuTi? of a pi.'nnaiient or quasi-permanent nature] 
nadayi or ardheli. This tenure which nnpliCA only to ^rdflL 
lamU pre\'ails to a considerable extent on tne oo<ast, especially |_3 
HonAvar and Rumta. The r«nl pavablo by the tenant in uximI 
genei-ully at one-ttalf of the produce, Wt it is somutitoes lixod ii\ 
other proportions and In a voi-y fuw case* in cash. The occupant 
bears tlie exjx^nKDof planting the trees, and tlie tenant hear:) tf 
expense of rearing them. W hen fnll-grown trees are niaiio over i 
a tenant, tbv tenure in called tulgi. and in thiu case the tenan 
r«oeiv€S one>third of thv produce- for liis labour. Tlie Undlc 
in both easett pnytt the UA.<te«ument. Tho leaiw is tunninablo at 
will of the tenant, but be canned be oitatcd by tlie ovcr^ho 
unless it is proved that the property has suBerct from urglc 
Tbeae tenures appear to bo declining as they pve rise to numer' 

' Thfa gracU wttt olwoja b wriUii;;, siuiy of tbon limT« bMU iMt. 
* Tlii* WH tbo raoM lr»iiMiil pnwtic*. 



The most £reqaent form of luul mortgage in Kflnara is mortga^ 
with possession, called bkogyaJi adhdv or nsufriictaary mortguco. 
Until tliu uK>rtgaK<^ ^ r&doemed tlio iriort^iigvti i» exactly in Uio 
position of the IttndhyMor, auil foniievly iTie land was frequently 
entered in tliea«OKiiiitt< in the tiiort^gi>es name. 

Thii ordinary sub-tenancy ia t«nure-at-wiil or chali gmi. and it is 
by tviuints>at-will that almost all thu hirgu landholders' rotates arc 
cultivated. A yearly holder or chdf-gtnigir may hold cither under 
a permanent holder or mulffdr, under a permanent tenant or 
mulgenigdr. or under Government as the occiipsut of a lapsed 
pennanont i<«tato or muli i-arg. If the yearly ]o.s»ce holdii under 
an ovw-holdor, hia name is in no way i*ocofj"iz<'d in the aoeount«. 
If an over-holiier found his t<>nfliit in aireai-s, under Uie Madras 
Bogiilation he had power to attach his property and report the 
attachment to the Collector, who, at thirty days' notice, during 
which time the teuant could appeal, sold the property by auction 
and etntlstied tJiw cltuni. Tho tenant genenillv holds a written leaso 
and gives an acceptance. The period for which the dociimentM are 
executed is generally a year, but fresh documetita are not executed 
every year ; on the contrary it is the practice to ctilttvuf! for many 
successive years on the same teiase, AJs a, rule fresh documenUt aro 
drawn up only when a chan^ in the rent or some other circnm- 
Mtaiioe makes a fresh deed necessary. The terms of tho lease vary 
in diSeroDt places. In Supa the rout is onlinarily fixed in 
monvy; elsewhent, except for garden land, it Lh almost always 
paid in grain As regnnbi garden assessment, Mr. Read, the 
OoUcctor. wrote in 181+ :^' The general practice observed in towlatid 
Kinara for a.ssessiDg cocoanut, bctelnut, and pepper produce ia that 
tot Duw coooanut gardens a lease or kaul is demanded, securing 
powtcssion to the cultivator until hia yoimg trees Ih^o to \k&t, 
which is generally the case in their sixth year near the sea-cootit 
and in tlieir tenth rear near the Sah)'iidr)H. The average assessraeat 
oE about 129. (R^. u) on each tre<e is then demnn<)ed on tho tree 
iustewl of on the prvHluce. The trees tlionet-forward oontiuui! to h» 
charged every year by the village accountant, and no allowanco is 
made for uufi-iiitful years if it is supposed that the proprietor has 
tile meaiLs of keeping up his garden, because in old gaiilen.^, while 
a few troeis each year Ixjcoino unfruitful, their places are supplied 
by those V-ginning to bear. Another mode prevails, which has 
been continued ilurinjj; the Company's Qovei-nment, of osse-ising tlie 
ground, not the trees, from the [jcriod of starting tlie garden at the 
AVcraga rent of tlic neighbouring ricu-ticlds and ilemanding nothing 
more when the tree:?! begin to Iii^ar, This in the prevailing nita^ 
between the Government and proprietor of whatever description ; 
but that obsorved by the landlords is to grant their yearly tenant-4 
orcA/iii^fnijarafromouo-fourth ttjone-lbird tif the gross produce and 
to their p-.rmntient t<'iiunt< or inuhirniijdrK one-half Die gi-oss produce, 
liCCaiLse tile l«tt>:r ai-e lM>nn<l to plant young trees in lieu of <iecayed 
ones and not to sell or transfer their right in the garden land to 


Land Ten' 


' t«tton rdttiiig to Bwly B«n«M AdtuiairtttttiiMi, S2, 93. 



liriiii« hf Mnm 

'mmT^mA TfUoife. 

IB«mb«j Qweueur, 

any h»i Uieir laadlurds. It is not cnatotnary to demand any 
wlilitinnal asscseroent for a few bcUJ or jiepptT vines inWrmixed 
with the cocoa-pulidit, bccaiuo it is i«uflicii'Qt]y Icdowd tliat ihoj 
injure the proauctivfi powers of th« trees they anj suifvpcd to 
erabrace. Pepper and betelnut gardcn!i are not asmsscl in any 
pftTiicular manner, hut pay accoriTinp to the quality of the rioe- 
field soil of which tlicy arc foruiwl, Tht-v arc found near Uic foot 
of the SiihydLdriN and are alniont all ciiltivuti<d by thi^' lundlunls 
themselvi-.s, uiuitt of whom are Havig BriUiinanM. Wlien any oC 
ihcsc gardens iapae to the Qovenunent they are rented at one-thicd 
the eatjmated gross produce, or, if tliat cannot be bad, they axe 
viven away to the hij^ho-st bi<lder. Hcoee it appears tiiat the uuuato 
division of tin- yrriss produce of gardurLS in lilalabiir bctwi^-n tiic 
Govcrniiient and the cultivator in not found iti Kitiiaro, where n 
Kptrcitic tax on each ta-t- or a (ixed ground-rent is demanded witltoat 
referoncc to tlic procloce of either. It ia coiijtvtured thut about 
two-thirdit of the prt^rietors of gardenH below the SahyAilrits jiay 
the land aRAesninent and that the other one-thirid pay upon the 
trocR. Before tho introduction of the survey settlement, and BtUI 
in nniiettlcd villages, t)ie tenants' rent was ordinarily calculated at 
double the Government asHeswnvjit. Owiii;j to the rt;vi«ion of thy 
aasmuunent thi« sy-tbtni In for tJie nreaent at least not sto comuion an 
it formerly was and the ivnt is tixed acnording to the nature of 
Ute noil and other circuiostances. In some patta of tlie district, 
particularly iu Honivar, an a^^recinent to divndc tho produoo, 
callfnl palu, is oonuiion. The occupant provides the Ncvd and 
sonietiinoH the oxen and toob. and after dedccting the seed witik a 
aniall amount for iateresty the balance is divided either equally or in 
proportions to witieli the occupant and tt^'nant have agreed. 

From time immeiitorial htmri, that is the raising of ragi Elcosine 
corocana, by cutting and burning bru.sliwood in the torvsln and 
Howing seed among the B&hes, haa been extejutively earrie<I on. it is 
believed that this forest tillage was never specifically allowed as a 
right, but only as u temporary itri\Uege, and it cannot properly ba 
eallod a land tenure. But in M>me i-stutes or vanjs there Is an entry of 
kumri osaesiUDent, which U oftf-n cjillol k/ii*ji( or .-ttaudunl aH.f«H.Hment 
ou account of kumri korlayit, that is a tax on the cutting of kumri^ 
and on that ground and also because some permanent leases or 
mwljmtlat mentitm kumri assessment, not only a right to forest 
tillage but jin>pertv over larg* trocbi of foresi-Iaml have be*n 
claimed. Before Id22-'^!J the revenue from kuTnri wtut entj^red 
in the aooountj! under the hood of^iiwtarjtha or village taxes, but in 
tbat year it was din'^tcl to T>c croditwT to land revenue' The 
system of aanm^ing the tax varied in difierent village-s. In aomo 
[Maces it wa« fixed at so much for a couple, a man and a womittt, 
or ao much for a man alone ; and in others acconiing to the number 
of billhooks Used in clearing tho brushwood in which case it was 
always of the nature of a poll-tax. As there was no reason to grant 
tho privileg« to any but the wild tribes who knvw uo othw nie^ms 

< Mimitw or CtwanUatioD, dj.t«d lltb Octvbor 183S. 



o£ gaining a livelihood, it appears at Bret sL'ht difficult to account 
for Uie entry of kumri asacssmeai in tho hoTdiucs of persons who 
had otbet regularly cultivatcl land. In 18^ Mr. FiiUicr wrote': 
There is littlt- roaito)) to douht tliat lli« only diflvrvucv U^twccn 
th« |^)vi-nimi^i kumri cttn^, tarkar kumri knrluyu, and thv kumri 
CMw IMiiii I'j regular holders or vargddr* coiihisu<l in the govera- 
uient cess being lo\4i'd dirt-ct from the kintiri cutters while the 
holders' or var^d'irs kumri etas was rv-covurvd l>y theni from tht! 
ktinwi cuttvra who either clt»red partit of the hoUluTs' liuid or 
wcrv otherwise under his influeitc«> on paying a specitied »tum sa 

Krt of the demand on their e8tate& If this is so, the system of 
'ying kumri afisossment from rctgular luudholdcrs was probably 
adopted for (Iio Miku of couvuniwiictf. Whfn tin; country whs Ii-as 
acciiL'sililc than it now is, it would not l>e I'aiy to lev'j' a poll-tax 
from every AmHnciitterand the adoption of thepractici! of using tlie 
rt^fular hol<ler, a man of inducnci' in the neighbourhood, as a medium 
for coTlccliiig the tax is intelligible. Ttiu dostnictive nature of 
kumri cullivntiou attractc<l the att^^iitioii of the Madras Boanl of 
Kevenui', Uie Ma^lras Government, and the Court of Dircctorst. In 
l^HS Mr. Blane prohibited it iu places from which timber could he 
conveniently exjiorU-ii "r i:i which the reserved kinils of timber 

Erew.niid direcUni thattliont! who elaiiiie<l a right U>eu)tivat<t kumri, 
:M»us« a kumri assessment was entered in their holdings or estates, 
should nut be allowed to exorciso the right in Nuch places and thai 
the a-Mi-^ment iihould he n^iittod. In other parts of the forest 
kutnri was to he allowed only to an extent p)t>)>ortionat« to (lie 
aawssmenL In IB^S the principle wa^ adopted of settling tltc 
assessment with reforoocc to the number of kumri cutU^nt and 
allowitig dugni. that is »o much produce as represented double the 
kui'ii-i iuisi'.-^iiKnt eiit^rwl in the holding or rarg, to such holders as 
held vtatos which paid a ftuwiriatsessmont.* In 1860 the Government 
entirely forbade kumri in holilings, and extended thU oi-der to holders 
of pennancnt leases or ni«ip«(f<M.* In unsettled villages the kuvxri 
a!K(.^sHuient i» still entered in the accounts, but the amount is always 
nutiitU^d.* Kumri is now re»tricte<l within the narrowent iwssible 
liiiiit-H. It is allowed only to those hillmen who at present have no 
other means of livelihood. The tax is tixcl at is. (lie. 1) the acra 

The rcvenuv adiuiniftti-ation of the district is entrusted to an 
ofTict«r fitj'le<l Oolb-ctor on a yearly pay varj-ing from £2160 to 
£27no (K«.2i,00O-Bs.27^). Thwoificer, who is also the Chief 
Magistrate and tlie exei-utive head of the district, is helpeil in liis 
work of general supervision by a staff of three oaaistanta, of whom 
two ore Covenanted servanta and one is an uneovenant«d sen'aut of 
Government. The sanctioned yearly, Kalarie:* of the covenanted 
assistanLs range fi-omfeOO to£L0t^(Rs.6000-Ks.I0.800), and that 
of the uncovenanted assistant is £960 (Ra. 9600). 

For ftHCal and other adminitttrativo purpom-s the lands under tJie 
Collector's charge are distribut«d over eight suh-divi^ona. All 

Chapter^ V 



land Tuini 



• l-coooMbnc*, S3td Jaawtr t8W. 

>Mr. Fidiar,9l.30t]iA>g. ISfiStankSO. 
• l-roco«dia«s,satdOatobcc 16617 



[Bomlw7 OaattMr. 



pter Vin. 



tJiew arc ciDtnut«fl to the two oovonnnted ambUDta or anRratii 
collectors. The fourth attHiMlnrit style<l the head-fioartcr < i 
duputy collector is i-utrusted ^-ith thu soptTvLsiou of the i ■ 
11h-^ oiBcors arv nlso uutiataiit laagutTnti's, atiO thane of tlu'iii whc 
ha\-e revKtiuv chui^jv of portionji of the tlltii'ict have, nndofj"' 
pi-eKidency of tht- Collator, t)ie chief influaeement of the iltf 
n<]iiiiniRtrative bodit'h, local fund and matucipal coiuiiutt«<!«, wT 
Ihc liiiiit« of tlicir revenue cliargea. 

UndtT thu »uiM:r\-i«ioii of thu Colloctor and hU aMlstants 
rcvemie chnrg« nf each tlHcai ilivltion of tlie district is placed 
the hand.s of an officer ityled inttiiitatdflr. These officers, who 
also onti'uiitcd with ma(jiitti<ri&l powers, have yoarlysalaruM 
from £180 to .C2W (Rs, IW)0 - R*. 2400), Thrws of the 
RU I vdi visions, Uonilvnr Vill.-lpur and Sii|in, contAJTi en-'h i\ P-'ttj 
division or J W'l mahiU under thi? charge of i>" .'>Siccr styled luiiliulLari^ 
who, except that hi'* han uo treasury to supt^'rfiiti.-tid, exerci»^H th( 
revenue and mn^Kt^riiU powi'rs f;uncraliy vntriiste<I to a nidndat'lilrJ 
The yearly pay of tlio mdhalkaris variert from X72 to JE«(i (Rn, 720i 
Rfl. 060). 

lu revenue and police matters the charge of the 1 257 Govoruineii 
vUlacCA is ontitisti'-l to j(42 headmen, all of whont arv ttiiiL-ntlii 
Of thci«e 108 heailiticn jHiiforni ruvvnue dutios otdy auu 7-H 
entrtLitod with both revenue and police charges. The yearly pay al 
the headman depends on the amount of revenue derived from W 
village It vurVi from 10«. to £11 4«. (Rs. 5 • Rs. 1 12) in KotUu 
villages, the average ri-venim rewipt.* of n it>ltli.-<l villnH-' amotiB 
to £72 (Ba.720); and from U IjJ. to £12 (9 '<ni..-R.-. 12C 
un.'H'tt led villHgm, the averH^;'! revenue receipta of an unsettled villai^ 
amounting to £88 2^. (Ra.S81). Of £2167 S& ^ (Rs.S1.87l-04)) 
the total Yearly clmrgi! on account of %'illagi.- headinen, £ 1 5U1 1 1^. 8|(f. 
(iU U,U'15-13-1I) arc debited to Land Roveiiue and £6»5 10*. 3£</- 
(Rjt. (»Soi>-2..'>) to Police. No hcndinen am p«d by Krauts of land 

To keep the vilUge account*, draw up stAli^tic*, and help Uiq 
village henilmen, thei'e is a body of otipendiary village accountant 
or thdnlboiff. Thene men number 239 in all or about one accounts 
to every- nvc ^'illaces, ooob cbai^ containing on an average 1769 
inhalittants and yielding an av«i«ffO yearly revenue of t'i7S 
(Ra.a7S4). Their yearly salarie.-*, which ore paid in cti^lt,aiii<>tint ii 
HOltl«^Hl villdf^-s, on no average to £13 10*. {n». 18'0 and varj- fror 
£12 to £1.'. (lU 120-R.H. 150) ; in uuM-ttled villages thev avcni{ 
£11 8*. (Rs. lU) and vary from £10 !«». to£12 (Rs. I08-R«- 120y 
Thpy rvproitent a total yearly charge of £3102 (Ka.31,0'20). B>isid« 
the re^iar aocountotits an extra MtablJ.thmeut of lUKOuntant'iij 
annually maintained to-Hirengthen th« ri^nlar staff pending 
introduction of the sorvoy i<ettlement into the unsettlcl parts of tJ 
district. At present (lbS2) about five-eightba of the district have 
been surveyeo and settled. 

Undvr the headmen and the villapi accountants ore Uiu villa^ 
jtervont'i with a total strvngth of 492. Thv«c men are liable both 
for revenue ati<l police duUeit. Mo»t of them are Hindus. Tlxi total 
yearly grant for the support of this estabJishmuDt amouuta Ut,, 




41995 12«. (Ra 19.956), Iwing £* (R'*. 40) on an avcmge to each 
mail, or a caei to each vUlago of £1 12a. (Ra. 16). 

Tha yearly cost of the ^iUage estahlishment'* may he thoa 
munnmii-wi : H.juhnca £2187 (Ra. 21,870). accountants X3102 
(R«. 31.0:iO) an.l Mervaiits £1990 <Rs. 19,960) making a total of 
.fc72K5 (Rs. 72,850), equal to a charge of £5 16*. (lU 5S) a vilUge, 
or tiiyht pvt ojiit of tno entire land revenue of the diftti-ict. 

Season report* uro available for the acrenteen Tears ending 

Tn 1865-66 tbo rains vrcru fieosonithlo nod fuvoiirnblo both to 
rice and garden crops. Fuver, dysentery, and small-pox pruvniled 
over most of the di.strict; fever chieiiy above and dysentery below 
the Sahyfidtis. The laud revenue ro-ie from £G2,si7 to £75,222 ; 
and the rupee price of rice fell from fourteou to seventeen pounds. 

The season of 1806-67 was on the whole favourable. The rains 
began well; in Septomher «iid in O(;t«l>or ihe fall was 9P«nty, but 
the failing crops were saved by an abundant supply in November. 
Public health was hotter than in provioas j-usrs; cnolpra and foror 
declined, though fcvor wm still prv^vnlent in Y(lliii)Hr and >Supa. 
Tiio land revenue fell from £7.%222 to £60,772, and tho rupee 
price of rioe roae from seventeen to sixteen pounds. 

In l$67-68 the rainfall was abundant and seasonable, the crops 
were richer and public health wa-^ better than in the previous year. 
Th<' land revimiie rose from £60,772 to £74,103; uud ihu rupoo 
price of rice fell from sixteen to tweniy-oue pounds. 

In 1868-ti9 the rainfall was generally fi»vourable, and the barreat 
fair. Public health continnodto improve, but cattle disease was 
^numl, and reiy fatnl. l*hu land reveuuu rose from £74,103 to 
£74,946 ; and the rupee price of rice fell from twoutj-onu (o 
tweatylwo pounds. 

In 1869-70 the early i-ain^l was scanty; and tat« rains in Novembor 
and Uef^emlier, though abundant, wore untimely and greatly damaged 
ripe rice and cotton and to a less extent injured Indian millet and 
gram. Fever was genenl uud there wnre some cmaes of cholent, but 
public hofdth ou the whale was good. There was no great mortality 
among cattle. T>ie hind revenue fell from £74,946 to £72,231 ; and 
the rupee price of rice rose from twenty -two to seventeen pounds. 

Except for rice, the season of 1870-71 wa« &Toarable. The fall 
to the end of August was good ; in September tbeaupply was scanty, 
and in Od^jber it was heavy enough to cauete mncn injury U> tlm 
rii». Public health was better than in the previooa year. The 
chief forms of disease were fever, small-pox, and bowel complaints. 
Oattlo disease also appeared in some phwc«. The land ruveuue ro«o 
from £72,231 to £75,761, and the mpee price of rice fell from 
MTontoen to twcuty-fivo pounds. 

In 1871-72 both above and belowtho SahyiUlris tho rain&dl was 
moderate, et*peeially in Supa and YollApnr. Ou the coast tlie 
rainfall was irregular. Tlio uuly sub-division which rucvircd a full 
supply was SiddMpur. Tho season was middling. Public lua.\v.Vv 

Chapter ' 








iBombay QuettMr. 

Chapter^ vm. 

t Land 

toMOB lUport*. 









wM good, and the amount of cattle dUeaso waa modcTate. Tlie 
land riirenDe rose from £75,761 to £80,921, aod the rape« price of 
rice rose from twenty-6ve to twentjr-four poiiods. 

Tbe soasoD of 1872-73 was favourable. In June and Jaly th« 
ntinfn]] wax good and limely. A lu-Mvy f«U in Aiignst floodt^d the low 
licfi lands and slighllj injured tho crops. Uul tfaia waa followed bj> 
regular and moderate raia and tbe harvest was better than it bad 
boon for ton years. Public health waii good ; (over and h^c wore 
on thu docliuo. Cattle dJsuaso broku out in some nulj-diriiuoui}. Tbo 
land revoniie ro30 from £80,921 to £S1,.149, and the rupee price of 
rifce fell from twenty-four to twenly-.Hix pounds. 

The season of l»73-74 wag modemte. The rainfall was at firei 
good, but tboro wait a long brcnk in August, and thongb lattn* on tbo 
Hcason improved tbe barresl was light. Fovor, small-pox, dvitftntoiy, 
aiid cattle diaeaae prevailed throughout the y^ir. 'l%e land revenue 
rose from l,Ml,54d to £84.254', and the mpeo price of rice remained 
nncbangod at twentj-sw pounds. 

The season of .1874-75 was fair. Tho rains began in May and 
continued favourable till AugitKt^ After August heavy niin diunngod 
tlio low-lying rico crops. Kovcr, Hinoll-pox, nnil olnilum wore more 
or lesR prevalent. .The laud revenue ro»e from £84,224 to IH'J.tii-l, 
and the rupee price of rice fell from tweuiy-aix to twenty-oight 

The aoafloo of 1875-76 waa on tho whole good. Tho raina licgno 
Cftrly in June, Hud were favourable, effpeoially along the ooa»C. Except 
in Snpa, tho crops were above the average. Fever and cattle 
disease prvvatlod taroughout tho district, small-pox lu parts of Kumto, 
Hoiuivar sod Yelliptir, and alight cholora m K&rw&r, Snpa and 
Yell^pur. The laud revenue (ell frum Je89,$43 lo£S3,3S7; Hi4 
the rupee price of rice foil from twenty-eight to thirty pouad& 

The season of 1876-77, one of the great famine years in the Bombay 
Karnitak and Maisur, was fair ou tbe coast, indifferent in the centra 
fA the district, and bad in tho oast bordering on Bolganm. Dh&rw&r, 
and Maisnr. The rainfall began about the lOtb of Juno aad 
continued itlntndaut till tho end of July. In August it was short 
and in September and October it failed partiality iu some placea and 
entirely in others. Tho failure waa greatest iu the eastern Tillage«i 
bonluring on Belguuin, Uh^wir, and Maisnr. On the coast the 
crops weie comparatively good. A fow milos along both sides 
of tbo Sahyddris they were below the average, aud in thti moat 
costoru villiig(« tho orops either entirely or partially failed. As the 
latv ntiii faili.!d, the cold weuthur crops wore generally poor, and 
during the hot season water and fodder wont scarce. Fever prevailed 
thniughout the district, bnt cattle disease and small-pox woru low 
fatal than in the previous year. Bxoopt in August, Septomber, and 
October cholera waa eoncral especially in tho upland sub- divisions. 
TTio land roTonue fell from £83,^87 to £81,y(j4, and the rapes 
price of rico rose from thirty to twenty -eight pounds. 

The season of 1877-78, th« second of tho great famino years, was 
on the whole favourable. The minfall began at tho eud of May 




(ind in Juno wiw fnir. In Jtily nnd early Anggst it faikd, but, in 
the Istter part of Augiiat uutl m Sept«niDPr the faU was well-limed, 
and continued bo heavy thai in October somo cropis soffurvd from too 
inoch min. Excepb in & few villa^, llid noo crops were good. 
Owing lo tliv failuri: of rain in •lufy, tlte garden produce waa 
below tlie average ; bet«luutfl did not yield more than half the 
average, and cardamomB and pepper almost vuMrely fniliMl. Oniog 
t" tho heavy minfuU in October, the cohl we«lhw CTop» were good. 
Di^alhK tvcTV nbuut foriylivo i>fr cent more than during the previous 
year, paHly owing to the excesaive rain and partly to the extreme 
dearness and Bcsntinees of grain. Both fever and cholcm were 
moro fMlal ihsn during the pruvioua yenr ; on the other Ituud there 
wax Ichh mortality •mougcattJe. 'Jlie and revenue Eel) from XSI,d&4 
to £81,214, and tlte rupee price of rice rose from twenty-eight to 
Iwenfr-two pounds. 

In l878-79tho rainfall wM tho heaviest ou record (132-89 inches) 
and the rioo harvoxt was nitiiioiallr fine. The gardens also profited, 
and ozcept crops on low-lying lands which were soddvn by cxocssivo 
miiiirtniM tho harvest was exoeptionally good. Tho land revenuo 
to&e from £81,214 to £93,9&l>, and tho rupee price of rice rose from 
tweniy-iwo to eighteen pounds. 

The harvest of I87d-SO was below the average. Most of the 
early sowings were, washed out by heavy rain and the lator kow- 
ings were mthcred by n long spell of drought. In August and 
September the ntindill wua good but hardly made up for the former 
loaees. Good lands flcurcoly produced an average and the yield in 
the uplands was poor. Garden lands euSered little. Thodrysenson 
crop Hown iu January and ruapv<l in April was good i but tlio cold 
weather or rabi crop wili poor. The laud revenue fell from £93,950 
to £So.760 and the rupee price of rice rose from eighteen to 
aevciitevn pounds. 

In 1880-81 the regular minfnll in June and July wus fwil^wed by n 
break which lasted from tho second week in August to about the 
lOth of September; a timely fall of rain in September saved tho 
cropH, but in the uplands IJio harvest was scanty. The rice crop 
was up to the averagi^ ; and the garden orojis and sugarcane were 
good. The land revenue rose from £85,760 to l8<i,GS&, and the 
mpoo price of rice fell from saveiiteen to twenty ponods. 

In ld.Hl-82, except in Sirsi, the rainfall was below tho average, 
but on the coAst it wns nudicient and svasonable. The open high 
lands above the Sahy^dris suflei-ed from scanty roiu, but in other 
part?! tho crops were good and the season waa on the whole favour- 
able. Fuhljc health w«s good ; there was no cholera and Ic-stf fever 
than nsual. In the i<outh there wore fomv c«u«es of small-pox but 
only elevon proved fatjd. The land reveune rose from £86,686 to 
£HKi,26-'J, and the rupee price of rice fell from twenty to twenty- 
toar pounds. 



StMOn Bef 





■ 8l«-3 

Chapter IX 

Early AcU. 

■ronncial Court. 



*FoR thv Four yean trndin^ )803 no iiifoniiation w avaiUb]« 
VQgimliiig Ibc ailiniiiiHtration of JiiNtk-u. The preamble to idadrait 
R^^alation ll.of 1S02 hhowa that l>«fore January 1802 no rela- 
tions wore in foroo. The Collector decided most civil suita at his 
discretion and made uvur must petty luod dixput<.vi tu arl>iti'ntion.' 
In districts wbure a penuaiK^it iu.-ttlument of the land aa»es9- 
niont was introduced, <li!<trict or zilla courts Wi>ro established 
uuilcir Madrajs Rotation U. of 1802. In 1803, whun tui Act lav 
the ttdniinistrutiim of crlniinnl justice wat iiititxluced, aectiona 56 
to 58 uf Matlras Iti'^ulatioii II. of 1803, enipowtrfd the Collector to 
exercLie magiatenal functions aud si^ctioas 17 bo 55 •.■Jupowt-rt-nl him 
bo decide civil suits. As the ptTUKUiciil .s^-ttlcriK'iit was ni>t upplitKl 
to Kiinara these rogulatiom^ were not introduced into the district 
In 1807, under R«;^ation II. of 1S06, a district court was vstab- 
Ushed at UunAvar with jurisdiction over SouUi and North Kiiuara. 
In 1809 the district court wa.s rcinovod from Houiivar to Mangaloc 
In 1817, under Madras Regulation IX. of 1816, the tna^'ist«rial 
powera of the Disti'ict Judge were transfertxiil to the Uollnctor, 
and, under Ma^lras Re^lntiou X. of 1816, tin- DiHtrict Judgi! was 
giveA tht' powei'S of a ci'imiiial judge for comroitting certain caws 
tor trial before the circuit court, tor trying and deciding pi-tty caaiw 
on their own sutJiority. and for paasing sentence not exoevdiiig two 
years' imprisonnient. Tlie District Jwlgc was aiubject to the Provin- 
cial and Circuit Courtof Ti-ltlcliorrL 

Under Siadras Regulation IV. of 1802, a Provincial uml Circuit 
Court cormistiiig of ttireu Judges was eebablished at TuliioJierri with 
power to hear appc^U.^ from, and to decide on circuit criminal csaes 
committod for trial by. the Diatrict Judges of K^nara and Malabar. 
To hear such coses, one of the three Judges of the Proviucial and 
Circuit Court left TellicheiTi for six uiontti^ every yi-Jir for the dia- 
tnctj) uoi1.h of Ti-llicherri, an<l. on hin rct«irn, another Judge set oat 
for th« remaining six montlis of tlie year for the districts south of 
Telliclierri. The Circuit Judge visited evetr district irtalion on Iiia 
way. la deciding cases he was helped by tie hiji or Muhammadan 

tavr officer of tho Proviueiul Court At tlic close of the trial the 
haji gave hm opinion ctiiWl fali<ea, and, iT the Jitdgu »^tttA, decitucm 
WAS eiven on U)« Hpot Ca^a in which the Circuit Judge ftnd tho 
ilii/i dtsagreed were referrod to the High Court or Sadar Faujdiri 
A^^st ftt kfodnLs. 

In 1807, under Uodrits Kwgulatioii XVI, wf 1802, native commis- 
sioners wcr« app»int«d in Kilnara to dt^ide tmita relating to personal 
property not exoeedina £8 (Rs. 80) in value. Under Madras) 
ItegulatioQ \'II of 1809, tho power* of the native commis.'^ionei's 
wero oxtondcui to the hearing of such auits under £10 (R«. lOO) as 
wvre rn-forrtsi to them by the Judge. In 181(1, under Matfroa 
Regulation VI. of 1816, native commissioDcrs gave place to district 
mvnsiff*. Und(*r Mwlriu Kt-jjulation IV. of 1816, village tiiKan^a 
wcrv appoiiitod witJi powers to decide suits relating to personal 
property of not more than £1 (Ra. 10) in value. The office of 
village muitai^ was in most cose^ given to pdlUs or village headmen. 
Under R«guuttion V. of 1816 the \illago council or jKoieluiytit was 
apptjinteil with power to decide suits referred! to them by the vDlago 
mtmni^s : and under Regulation VII. uf 1816 thi.' dirtnct couucU or 
pnnrhnyat vtoft appointed to decide suits referred to them by the 
di-itrict winwi^jt. Village and district councils or panchai/ata con- 
tinued in KAuaro, until ttm transfer of the district to Bombay 
in 1862. In 1817, for North KiUmra including KundApur, throe 
mnniifK, one each at Hhatkal Qokarn and Sirsi, were oppointeil with 
power fo decide suits not exceeding £20 (Rs. itOO). Between 1821 
and 1823 the Bliutkal muntiff wa.1 removed to Honivar, and the 
Ookani murist'/f to Ankola, and an additional Mun»iff was appoint- 
6d for YelUpur. In 1827, under Madras Regulation I. of 1827, an 
assistant judge was appointc-d at Hoiiiivar with jurisdiction over 
KundApwr, Honivar, Kumta, Ankola, Sirai, Sid<litpur, YelUpur, 
and Supa. The assistant judge beard appe^ from the decisions 
of the district miitmifft, and, besides having crimina) powers, heard 
original civil nmU( not exceeding XiJOO {Rs. fiOOO) in value. Appeals 
from the deciaions of the assistant judge lay to the District Judge at 
Maogator. In 1827 a tadar-aatin'a court was vMablished at HonAvar. 
in 1830, undLT Madras Regulation VII. of 1827, a native judge waa 
appointed at Sirsi with jurisdiction over Sirsi, Sidd&pur, YeTUpur, 
and Supa. In 1833, under Regulation III. of 1833, the jurisdiction 
of the mumiffii was extended to suits of £100 (Bs. lOOO) and that 
of the iwiar^tmim to suits of £250 (Rs. 2500). In 1836 a native 
judge's court was aulistituted for the assistant judge's court at 
Hoodvar and, uudtr Mailras Act XXLV. of 1836, the native jodgas 
at Sirsi and Honiivar were stylo] principal tadar-amim. 

In 1843. under Madras Act VII. of 18*3, con.'<ider*ble changes were 
made in the judicial administration. The offices of tho Provincial 
CHrcuit Court at T«liicherri, of the District Judge at Maiijjalor. and of 
the two j)rij]cipal nadar-amiim at Sirsi and Honivai- were abolished ; 
North KXuara was separated from SoutliKtoara injudicial matters, 
and the offices of a Civil and Sessions Jadg« of the aecond class and 
of amu/K ladar-amin at Hondvar and of a muJar-anttn at Sirsi 
were e«tabliahcd. Und«r this arrangement the Collector and bis 

Chapter 1 


1807 -ma. 

[BombAj Qatetteer, 



Chit[it^r IX. 


assUtant continuetl to perform ms^ittenBl work. In 1852 s 
principal fidar-amin was appiiitiUtl tiuilur tliv Jdtl^f-an^l u mvn^ffs 
cotirt at Kuinta vtm itfUkCtionHl. In 1800, tbe iire.sent North 
Kinara, witJi tbc mh-division of Kundipur, waa maa» the separate 
chartfo of u District Jtitlgu who hcM h'w court at Honiivnr ttU 
1806, when thu court was nunoveal to Kiii-wAr. In 1862, wh«n 
North KiUiara [in.VH.^1 to the Bomliay Presidency, Kundiipar 
continued to form part of South KtUiara. 

Of tlte strength of the judicial etaffond the numbvr of eaM« 
dpcidt-J in KiUiitrA thu earliMt uviulnhUt di^UiiU nrti for 1S62: In 
that year tlio iiumUir of civil courts wa« nine, the number of suita 
disposed of was 4;{0.5, and the average duration of i-ncli isuit was 
Bvu tnoiiUiK. In I S70 thi^> nuinWr of courts wh« reiluoi'ii to Hve, 
the number of suit^ dtN)>asedof wa»S4C0,and the average duration 
was thrw monthH and seven davB, In IS74 the nuniltcr of dvil 
oourbt was Bv«. the number of suits hod nxu to 26<HJ, and tlui 
avera^ iluration had fallcii to two ntontIi.-« and Iwenty-fteven days. 
In 1880 tJie nunilnn- of civil court-t wa» five, the siuts numhered 
2303. and the average duration waa two months and (if' ' s. 
At present (1881) the diitrict is provided with a District ■ .id 

four 8uhOTdiria(r juil;.;e». Of the four .suh-judg«a Uie Umt claan 
sob-judge of Kiirwir, Ixisidiis special jurisdiction above £500 
(Rfl.5000) over the whole district, has ordinary juriHiLiction ovw 
KArwAr, Aukolu except the Eulonod mdgni or rill^e-groap, tlie 
Chionipnr village-^roup of Vt-lliipur, and the charce of the Supa 
mabAlkari ; the wcond class sub-judge of Kumta nas diai^Ec over 
Kuiiita and the Kulvnail vilhifjc f^oup of Ankola ; iJie miTwindge 
at HonSvar has charge over Hnndvar and the lhrc« vilhi ■■/% 

of Hiru-avattalige, Chikka-avattalige, and Hir«-kode in > . r ; 
and the sub-jtidgu of Sirsi has charge of Sirsi. TcIWpur cxn-pt tho 
Chinn^pur \ill«g<^|:!TOup, the Supa nt6inluUUr'.i division, and 
Siddipur except the villn^ groups of Hiie-avattalige, Chikkm- 
avattaligc. and Hire-kode. The average distance of U>e KArwAr 
court from its furthest six villages ia sixty-nine miles ; of the Sirsi 
court f*vt-nty mill-* ; of tho Kninta court forty-one milea ; and of the 
Honiivar court thirty-nine mih-.'^ 

During the twelve years oidin^^ 1881 the average number of suite 
decide<l wnx 2776. During the six years ending 1875, the totab< 
show alternate rlsK-t and falls, the total Ix-ing 2467 in 1S70 
and thi- highest 'H^'A in IS73. For the next thi-e« vcars the 
returns show a continuou? fall from 3002 in 1S75 to 2272 in 1878. 
In IS7!Hhe total snd.l.>«Iy nwo from 2272 in 1878 to 3589 ot 
an incri>asc of nearly fifty per cent; but in 1830 it again fell io 
2306 or to pretty m-ai-ly tlie former level. In 1881 there was a 
further fall to 2095, llu- loweat totjil during the whole twelve years. 
Of the total number of caso* decitled, lorty-(«ift per cent have 
on an average been given against the defendant in his absence, 
the Irtwix^t being thirty-two in 1879 and the highest forty-five in 
^*"' Except in 1879. when there was an unuBual fall to thirty- 


two or nine per cent below tho average, the proportion of cases 
decided in Uiis way ahowcd slight variations from the average, th« 




i-ixv or fall Iwiiig generally one or two and at the iiiont four per Clitptor 


JTita^im Bf-parf. Dn-ryt*, tS7i> ■ JSSI. 




•"srii ^"-- 




iB» -, ... 

IBTI -. 

IS7» -, 







11 M 





WT .. ... 



UBO .„ ... 


TMd ... 











Of cont«i<iv(l cases, during this period of twelve years an average 
of 2.5-21 percent Imvc been decided for the c 1 1; fondant, the per- 
centage vurj-ing fi-om 81J9 in 187-3 to 16 fiH in 1880, and the 
number kwping above 200 Iwfore and below 2oO »ft«r 1878. In 
sixty or 2'8G percent of the suits decided in ISSl the decree was 
executed by puttingthi! plaintill' in poewcmion of the immovable 

rropertv cfajniwl. Th<> number of ihia class of ca»c.» voriiy! from 
W8 out' of 3193 in 1873 to sixty out of 2095 in 1881. In 287. or 
13-fi9 per cent of the 1881 decUioiw, decrei.'S for money due wcro 
executed by tlio attachment or sale of property. Of tbttsu 201 or 
9-59 pi>r cent were executed by tic salo of imniovablo property 
iui<( 86 or 4'10 per ctoit by the sale of movable property. Tho 
number of the attachments or sales of immovable property varied 
from 571 in 187(J to 201 in 1881, and of movable property from 155 
in I87fi to ttixty-five in 1878. During the twelve years endiuf; 1881 
th« number of decrees executed by the an-eat of debtors vnrivd from 
II 18 in 1873 to 380 in 1881. Durmg thcfit^t five years th.> number 
rose frxnn 895 in 1870 to 10-58 in 187+, and ort«r a sud.len fall to ft49 
in 1875, gra<iu«lly dwindb^l to 380 in 1881. The following table 
8bow« that during the same twelve years (1870 -1881} the number 
of civil prisoners variwl from thirty-live in 1873 to twelve in 1877 : 
KtlruiTti Cirit Pr'Houen, IS70- tSSt. 


































TiM twcMjr turtBDcn In im nn til HMo*. 

Th« follo^'iog ntatcmcnt showx in t«biilax form the working of 
the district otvil courts during the twelve yeara ending 1881 : 


ptCT IX. 

ivfl RniU. 










»!• * „ 








un _ ... 








»» „ ..- 
























IW* -, 








1K« . .. 








1«7T _ .„ 








ins ._ ... 
















un . . ... 

















KKTmiC { 


an., fc....* *.* B>1. 






u< fropvtj. 













in* ^ .,: 









tsn -. ... 


















isn _ 









in* _ 



























un _ ... 









ins _ 









in» „ ... 









un ~ ... 



■ « 






un _ ... 








«f . 

There la do Small Oauae Coui-fiii K^aia. SiDoe October 1880 tbd 
sub-judges of Uonivar aiid KunitA have boen given tlie powein of 
a Dtnall causo court ju(l|{c. In i8Hl the QUiubvrof sniatl CUUM suits 
decided by tbciii wa» 526. 

There is no Mbitration court in Kiinjirn. 

The work of lUffistratioQ employs ten sub-rcgistrare of whom 
vight are epi.'ciHl officers aoil two aro head clerks to inllmlatdArs 
and mahilkaris. The special jtub-regisirars have 1>een anpoint«d 
since April 1 882. One of theae sub-reglitrars i« stationed at each 
petty divbionul and sub-divisional head-quartere. In addition to the 
supia'viaion of the Collector oh District R^j^titrftr and hU ai^istaat 
and deputy colteetora, the .tiib-regi.strars are subject to the control 
of the InspcctoT-Goneral of Registration and Stumps. According 
to the regi8tmtJon report for 1881-82 Uic rcgi.ttration receipts for 
the Ti'Ar amnunted to £1078 (IK 10,780) and the charges to £787 
(R8."7870} lea^-ing a balance of £291 (Ra 2910). Of 4! 55, tho 
total number of registrations, eighteen were wills, 66+ were decdtt 
relating to iiiovoi)Jo property, and 3473 were deeds relating to 
imtnovablt- property. Of Qtv 3473 documenta relating to iniinov> 
able property, in addition to 1448 misceUaoeoou in^traments, 
ogbteen were deeds of gift, 976 were deeds of sale, and 1020 were 




mortgage deeds. Tho registered value of the total immovable Ch»pter 
property transtcrtt-d was £101,784 (Rs.lO.17,840). Justice. 

At praaent (1883) tw«nty>six officers share the adrniniittnUon jj^ 
o£ criminal justice. Of these »ix are inagitttratee of the tir^t class 
and twenty of the second and third classes. Of Uic nii^Lstnit«8 
of the lii-st cl«.ss thriNs arc covcnuutud European civilians, on« 
ia a EuixtiK'an uncoven&iited civilian, and tvro are nativea Tho 
District Magistrate had a general &uper\-ision of the whole district, 
whii« e4u.0i of the first class niagistrut««, a» as-^i'^taut or deputy 
collector, has an avern^^c clinr^gu of 782 Mjuare miles and 84,3^ 
puopl«. Id 1S82 the tirst class miwistratea decided 227 original 
ci-iiiiinal canes aad fifty-fotir criminaTappcal^^. Tlic average charge 
of the twenty »eoond and thin! cla-t.< matfistrates, all of whom are 
nalivKS, is 195-5 square milo-i with apopohtionof 21,092. In 1882 
thesuMiftfiistrfttf^dccidtd 1:127 original criminal tasea BeeidesthQir 
magLitei-ial <liui<.-.f tli<.v>c utEccrHiscrcisu rvvejiue powers as tntolat- 
dArs or the head clerks of maiiilatihirs. Beaidea these, 74-t police 
paiiU who also do revenue work, are entrusted with petty 
magisterial powers under the BomVuiy Village Police Act (Vlll. of 
1867). Of the whole number, twi-nly-five, under section 15 of the 
Act, can in certain cases fine up to 10^. (Its. 5). The others under 
section 14 camtot fine and can imprison for only twenty-four hours. 

There is no regular Village Police. Tho revenue headman or Viiu^ Pg 
patil, as a rule, performs the duties of a police headmaa A new 
revenuo head is appointed on probation for six ntonths or a year, 
and, when he is coiii<id«[t;d to have gained sufficient experience, is 
given a police deed or »mitd undrr the anthority of the Divisional 
Com iui.-sst oner. Both in revenue and police duties the villago 
headman in aMuitbed liy the village watchmen, sheUandis or militia, 
and ugranin or messengers. In villagi--'* wlien- the headman has no 
pol!«u-di.-ed the headman of a neighbouring villago looks to the polioo 
work. The t3upi;rintendcnt of Police has no power over the village 
police. The sj-stem of patrol by tlie district police is carried OB 
in the Ti'gular w^, eacn post having it? appointed area wliich i» 

fatrollt'd by the omecrs an<i mt-n in charge of tlu- pott. The village 
eadman has no separate emoluments for his police duties. 
TIiu chief local obstacles to the discovery of crimo and the Criiaa. 

conviction of olT^nders are the difficult natuT« of the country, its 
hilts forests and broail e.tluarteH, and the neighbourhood of Qoa in 
the north and of !klai^ur in the south. Forgery and the fabricating 
of f<ilso documents are tho characteristic crimes of tho higher 
classea. Orinies of \'ioienct; are rare an<l serioiw agrarian olfcnces ate 
unknown. During the rioo harvtwt disptites constantly arise about 
tlu^ right I") out the crop. But the ground of dispute in posse-tiion 
and the tjuarrels do not lead to agrarian ditturbimce. Few if any 
crimes arise from the pressure of creditors. Coses of professioool 
poisoning arc rare. 

There are no unselticfl hill or forest tribes. The low class CrimiiuK 
Ualepdiks and Komdrp&iks, who wt-re formerly bandits and gang- 
robbers, have now taken to husbandry' and in ordinary time:* ore 
as orderly as Eunbis. Tliere are few wondering tribe« except 

I Bom bay OuattMi* 



hftpter IX. 



LeiiihiinU. Tlic LatnMnU or Vatij&m paaa tliroagh KAnnm 
coiiM'Icrnlili; nauibera iluring the fair svaauu with Uieir l)uUf>ck« 
cftTTjinffcrain from BeJgftuui and DltArwiVr t«i the coul or Ui rivj 
portk Forniorly ttK-j iixii) toootumit rohborioa ou thuir rati 
joum^jyia. luiil llie sp^eH with which tlicy luovet] nml thti nrjinic 
of MnUtir anil Ooa ofU'u preventol th« puHct' from liriuifii 
offfiidci-s to justiw. Tliu dittrict U At present fn'n fivim I.aiiilMlnr 
dopivdntiuiu though nUiiir giitig-itililferi oocaftioiiitlly cotiiv fniiu 
or Uatsur oiwl oomiait oflenoes in the district. 

In ihv yiair 1681 tho total utrongth of the dimria or 
police force was 6ft3. Of ttiiste, iiiider the Di:^tricl Sii|i<rinl>'ri"J 
two Wfr« »uU>i-<himte officers, 105 inferior MlI>o^tina^- 
£2J> foot conHtahle^. Tlic cott of niuiiilaiiiiu^ this f ot< ' 
Sap«nntem)<.'iit n tot«I yearly MiUiry of XISOO (R-s l:;.(».i<i), for 
subonltniUeoflicerson yearly sslaricA of not le.-«lhnii £120 ()U. U 
and the inferior sahoi-dituilw oliioon on yearly saUriBs of iiuw , 
£120 (lU 1200). B total yoarlv co«t of X2785 1 U (Ra. 27.856> ; 
for thi: fool cutuUhK'H a co»t nf £5tii6 2«. (Rs. &0.461). BesidcH tht 

{toy a total niiin of £240 (Ra. 244)0) vaa yt^arty allowol for tli 
ioi:se and travellin^^ allowances of the SuporinU-ndent ; £-'i'JtJ 1( 
(Rs. 3£65) for the |»ty lunl travdling allovnuiocx nf his eAlaUinhnioat 
X341 6it. (Rs. 24i:)) for the horse luid travelling hUoitiuicoi 
sabonliuate othccrs ; and £7(15 4«. (It». 7QS2) a year for contin^aide 
and petty churgM. Tliutt tlu; total yoarly cost of nuuntaiiiing tl: 
policcfoKciuaouDtcd to£ll.204 14(. (IUI.12,047). On unarcB' 
8010 square wiles, and s population of 421,840. tlie.te tlgnn^s g)% 
one conslnlilo for every Sfl si)i>an! niilwi and ti3(> people and a coa 
of £2 I7<f. SJ.i. (Ri 28-I0-6) to the s^naro mile, or tijd. (H .la.) ' 
each heuil of the population. Of tho total strength of 063. i-xchitii 
of the SupcrinUndfiit, thirteen, one otiiccr ami twelve nmu, wcra , 
18S1 cniptoyud ns ganrih nt diMrit:t, central, or subsidiary ja 
seventy-nine, four of them offlcert and scvuuty-tivi) num. «•« 
encaged as guards over treasuriea and Iock-upi«, or itt (■■■ 
prisoners and tr<.-asurc ; 570, eiRhty-five of them officers npd 1 
were i^atioiied in town.s, nitinioipnlities. and cantonments W th 
vhole DUnibttr. exclusive of tlie KutN'rint^iidi^itt, 580 wore proviilu^ 
with fire-arms and nine n*ith sworaa or with swords aii.I Imtona] 
and 273 wurc provided with batonit only. 239, of wliom tiftv-eighl 
were offic*^ and 181 men, oould read and write ; and lifty-nve, o| 
whom four were oIHchts nud tifty-oiiv men, were under iuvlriiution.] 

Except the Superintendent awl one constahle, who were Europea 
the menihers of the police force were all nnlivos of India. Of thea 
thirty-M!t officers and ^28 men were MuliAinmailans, twelve officer 
and sixteen men Br&hnians, two officem Rajputs fifty-four oH 
and 201 men Maiithis, and two officers and forty-five 

The police arc rocniit«<l chiefly in the district, and in ItatnAfrit 
and SAvantv&dl, oud to a le«s extent from Belganm, Dhorwiir, 
and Uaisur. Strides the local recruits there are alMiut half a doKool 
Pardealtis from Ca wnpor and Lucknow. Nearly half of thit forev 
RatnKgiriund .Sitruitviidi llluhitinmniUiPt. 




The return* for tlic eight years cndiDg ISSI show a total of 
thirty munL-rs, thirty-six ciilpiihli; homicitk-s, thirty-nine cases of 
gntvotia liurl., 124 gang and other roViIierii,-,t, ami JC.ftTT other 
ofiViices. During these eight years the total number of offcncej 
gaveaycnrly avcrag« of 2100 or one offence for every 200 of the 
population. 'Hie number of inuniers varied from two ia 1S77 
and 1880 to aeven in 1^1 and sverage<l four ; culpahle homicides 
varied from two in 1)^75 to nine iii 1830 and averaged fourjcaacii of 
griovou-s hurt varied from two in 1S76 and 1^79 to ten in 1875 
and avc-rnged five; gang and oilier r»h1":rit.'S vari<.-<l from ei^ht in 
1871 aud 1«75 to thirty in 1877 and averaged fifteen; and otlicr 
offoficcs varied from 1544 in 1S74 to 260^ml87S and averaged 
£07:J or 98-06 pt>r cent of the whole. Of the 'whole number of 
persons arrest^ tlie convietionit varied from thirty-»ix |>er cent in 
1873 to sixty-three in 1677 and averaged fifty-three per eent. Th« 
percentage of stolen property recovered varied from thirty in 1879 
to aixty-nine in 1875. The details are : 

Jtdiwra Crimt and Foliet. lS7i - lS3t . 



CrnciCBi iSti CMTionmi*. 

Hortci M>t AW«S(4 








Orkiodi H<tt. 



« M 

w \u 



Orrams txa Coii'icnoii— wnlimnf. 1 























































■ 19] 























































IMl ... .,. 
Tt«»l ... 


vn\ inm 




















Besides the lock-up at each mamlatdir's office, there is a district 
jail at Kj'invar. Tlie number of convicta in the Kilrwjir jail on ib« 
SUt of December 1881 wo* ninety-six. of whom eighty -nine were 
moles and seven females. iJuring the year 1882, I6S convicta, of 
whom HO were males and nine ieui(Ue». were admitted, and 179 



Chapter IX. 





o£ whom 167 were males and twelve females, were disoliai'ge^. 
During the year the daily average of paaonen ms oinety-fi've and 
at the close of the year the nomfaer (tt eoDvietB waa aeTmty-iwf^ of 
whom sixty-eight were males ami four females. Of tibeae twenly- 
eight males were sentenced for not man than one year ; aixieem 
males and two females were for over one yoar and not more than 
two years ; nineteen males and one female were fi» mon than two 
ydhrs and not more than five years; four mates and one female 
were for between five and ten years ; and one female was for over 
ten years. There were no life-priscmeis nor any oonvieta tmder 
sentence of transportation. The daily avorage nmuhei of nek 
was 2*1. During the year one prisoner died of bowel complaint 
Tlio total cost of diet was £170 (Ba 1700) or on kvuiage of 
£1 lbs. 6d. (Rs. 17}) to each prisoner. The chief Jul iDdnstrioa aie 
cane-work, weaving, and carpentry.^ 

' DeUili n« g^ven ftbors p. 71. 




The earliest baJuioc-Hlictct of the distiici aa at present constitated 

for 18B3-(J*. Thoogh ainee 1863 many account changes have 

een Diaili*. tlie dlfTerent items caa in luost ca»c-i lie lin^uj^it nntlt-r 

[corrcspoiwliug hcwLs in the fono now in utw. Exclutiive of £527 

(Rt. ii£70), uie a4lju.-4tincnt on account of alienated IsniU, the total 

ctions ent«i-od in the district halance-shwt for 1881-S8 

ItunoanU-a under rt-ceipttt to £261,590 [Rn. ^Ar>,900) Against 

T*300,223 (RkSO,02,2SO) in 1863-B*, and under charges to £266.577 

(lU 26.65,770) agwnst £313,396 (Ks. 31.38,960). Leaving aside 

depftrtincnUil inisovlhuioous ruceiptA and paj-ment^ in return for 

services rcndei-e^i snch as po«t and telegi-aph receipts, tlie revenue 

for 1881-82 under all heads, imperial, provincial. locttl.andiuuaicipal, 

camo to £14^1,976 {Rs. 14,39,T56),i or on a population of 421.MiO an 

indiviihial .than: of G». 9tl. (Ks. 3|). During the la«t twenty years 

the following changes have taken place tmder the chief head» of 

receipts and charges, 

Lan<) ttvveiiue rec«ipti», which form 49*^ per cent of £207,400 
{Rs. 20,74,000), the euUrc r«venne of the <listrict, have risen from 
£05.912 to t\00.2SS (Ua.6,59,420-Rs. 10,02.830). The increase is 
cliicliy duo to the introduction of rvvisixl rates of awiciwinvnts under 
the nurvey stittlenient. Lanil Revenue charges have risen from 
£12,801 to £18,H32 (R«.1.2S,010-Ra 1,8;J..'J20). This is partly da« 
to the increase in tlie luiiuWr and salaries of revenue ofBcers, and 
partly to tvmporaiy charges in coiiiiecUon with the revenue survey 

Tlie following statement shows the land revenue collected in each 
of tho twenty >-eant ending the 3lHt of Marcli 18S2 : 
Lam Btnicv*. IS'H'CS to ISBI-Bt. 









ia»n ... 


im;-« .. 


Mli-TS ... 

81. M« 

18TM8 ,. 


UMM ... 


IIMMB ... 


1HTJ-T* ... 


m*-iM ... 


UM«t ,.. 


,iM»->a .. 


ini-m ... 


laTU-iH) ... 


IM»M ,. 


li»I»Tl ., 


IB75-M ... 


ItUO-KI ... 


UMa7 - 


un-n „ 


i8»-n ... 


ISil^i . 


Stamps receipts have risen from £5757 to £6834 (R». 57.570- 
Ra 68340) and stamp expenditure from £183 to £220 (Ra. 1830- 

Chapter '. 

Beveane i 

Duirict I 


■ Thi« totnl i» iBxIe of tfao ttilowli^ itMna: £151,446 Uad n<r«nii^ ■t4Un]n, 
«x(aM'. nmtsmi tax«, »jti«tiatioo and edaMlicD ; £ll>,M6Hlt ;aDd£ll,93S local uiil 
nitiiiiuiiMl tunii* ; total £143^6. 



Bs. 2260). Tli<> iocreaM uudcr Inth beads U owing to <^i«i^ei i 
BUM and ^''*^ '"^ "^^ Admiuislrmtioii of tlic Btatnp rc%'GDae. 
IMIIM- EJtci.HC receipt* have rif.eii from £5137 to ill,164 (Rs.ftl,3; 

Rs. 1,1 1.640) and charges from £4 to £Cn7 (Rs. 40 • Rg, 637' \ " 
iDcrease in the cxciso revenue is purlly due to groatet coi, 
for the litiuor fanns and portly to the imposition of a Kejwmu? Ut^4 
tax fur Uie right to tap cocoanut, brah, and Iwttnrd sago-polmi^ 

There were in t&8I-82 four licensed nbopa for the n&lv of Ed 
and foreijjn liquor, two nt Kdrwar, and one in each of tlio f 
Kumtaand Sir»i. Each shop paid a fee of £6 (Rs.50). In 
the amount realized tm account of tea* Icvifid on shops cauMi 

The total rcx-CDiie from the farms and tapping fees was, in 1B81- 
£10,860 (K8-10S.600), of which £6605 (Rs.66,050) were njtHi 
from the farms of 187 sliops and £42^ (Kii.'i^,ol>0) represented 1 
tapping fees of 8285 (rees. 

Id theooaat s^lb-<li^'i!iions of Kfu'wiir,Aiiko)B. Kumta, and Homff 
countrj- liquor i» mnnufacluretl from cocoa-palm iutec. In thi- nplaiij 
Bob-diviftiona of Supa, YelMpur. Sirai, and Siddiipnr. li'}U[ir ii 
manufactured mo<itly from sugarcane molasses or jtiiiri tlavouivd 
with the bark of Ok hevra tree. Tod<Iy U drunk to a ' 
in Siddiipur and jiai-ts of Sirai and Su{>« wlnru the ' 
bMtard B^io-palms. Car>~ota orcns, in tlie evergnitn i'ureat. 
tapped. The manufacture of Iir[Uor from the cashew fmit is 
carried on in the coast .iiib-divimnA, and fmin the fiower of the ip^ 
Bttsaia latifolia. in Sirsu The quantity made from the Ia.><t twj 
aources is very nntall and is mostly for medicinal piirp<is<-4,^ 
easbow and bassia wine Itcinj; u«ed hotJi tntomally and extemallT 
in casea of cold and of rheumatic pains. The bark nf the fu-mi tn* 
which is used to flavour tite local rum or sufjOn-cnne spirits, i| 
brought fron> DliArwAr and other neig^libourin? dbtritts. I'alttH 
ioioe in dnink both fivsh reriin'nt<'d and distilled. Tlio fredj 
joiott is aho nuule into mola.t.M.'s. Tim chit-f liijuor-drinking dl 
aro Christians, B&ldis. Oudigars, Khirvis, KIulnile-Khi 
HalcpfUks. Padtis, Arers, Gongdikars, C'haudhrU, KaUlf, Wad 
Dombars, EaliivuntH, and Mn&rs ChAmbhfirs and other jmpti 
olasaes. The usu of liiiuor is made to yi(.'ld revenue ii\ two vran 
Ucenaes are granted to tlic makers and Aelh-nt of spirits and'o 
toddy ; and licenses are granufl to persons who wish to tap pali 
trcea. The system of levying a fee on tin- inukiog of spiriLs atu 
toddy was introduced in ld02-3 {Fu»U 1212), wlicn North m 
Soutli K^nara formed one colK-ctorabv. The farm was every ye 
eold for each division to the highest bidder. Tlie fai-mcr sublet hlj 
farm to difforent persons and gave them, permits allowintj theii^ 
to make and sell »piribt and toddy, In IS(tI-C2 fiums were doI^ 
by the Ua<.lT«8 Go^■o^l^H•nt for five years for i-acli di^isiq 
aeporately. In lS(jO-fi7. wlinn the five ycare' farm cauie to 
end, the syAtem of selling eacJi ahop .to[>arately was intnxlw_ 
inider the Bombay laws and rules. At prcjteul (188S) one liijuo_ 
shop is generally fixed for one large vilWe or for a group ol 
bamlcK and Uie right (o aell «pirit« and toddy in each slwp, or f 




ChKpMr X. 

ReTenne and] 


«ach eroup, or in each sab-divtsioii. according to ciKamatoDcea, ts 
Bold by public auction to the highest biculpr. As regards the 
reveuuc from pftlni-tapping liceiiiH.-:i, bvfort; August 1880 no foe was 
litvicd For th« right to tap. Everj' pei'son was auppot<c(l to have 
the privilt^ of tapping palui-trees on lands for which he paid 
assits^iienU ThciX) wtm no rule Hgiiiii»t using the juice of tliase 
Irt'cs for home purpoiso-s i«it the liolder could not Rivc 
•way the juice or sell it to anv one but a spirit aiid toddy 
farmer. m> tapping fee was levied on liquor-yielding trees on 
Oovernment lanuK, of which tlic cotninouctt i» the baini or liastard 
KBf^O'pahti whidi grown in large nuniberH in the evergrecu 
forests or bans in Sirsi. The pri\-ilcge of tapping was sola by 
auction aloug witli the privik-gc of gtkthcrin^ fruit, honey, and 
other fon.-.-it proiiuce 4:very year, and the proceeds were credited to 
fonst revenue as the kant being nnassessed Gos'eminent waste 
formed pai-t of the ^ese^^■cd or protected forests. WTien these farmi 
were bought by any person other than u li<iuor-farmer, tbo 
purchivter could not sell his suqilus palm-juice to any person except 
the liquor-farmer, though ho could use as much as he liked for his 
home coiutituptiun. He wiu al.'v> for1>i<ldcu to make »pirit.s from 
p«lin-juic<' tapped in his owu land. Under thi; new sjiiteiD, which 
was introduced in August 1880, no tree may be tapped without 
a Uoeiue. No liconw to t4ip in ussiu-d for less than ten tre^s. A 
licence to tap entitles the holder to sell tlic Juice drawn by him, 
Trhether fermented or uufermented. only at tlie foot of the tree. 
A tax at the rate of Qs. (Rs. 3) for each tree licensed to be tapped 
h levi<.-d for coooanut and bmh trees and at the rat« of St. (Rs. I )) 
for dtiU- and bastard w^^-paIllm. This tax i.-^ rt^covt^rAMe in tliK-e 
j&Htalmeuts. The pri\'ilcge of tapping trees on (Jovoriiment lauds 
is farmed, and the farmer is requirctl to pay the autboriz^'d tree- 
tax on th.j nuiiiln'r of trees tapped in addition to the sum ollered 
for the farm. The privilege to make spirits from palm-juice and 
to sell palm-juice and spirits at sliops is sold, the Collector being 
allowed <li.-<cretii)n to sell the shops separately, or by sub-divisions, 
or in groups, as he may lind most advantageous. 

The only intoxicating drugs sold in tiie ilistrict ore gdnja and 
hhany, "thvy arc iiniwrtetl from BvlWri and oUier parts of the 
country bIjovu (bo Sahy&dria. ITie number of shops licensed to sell 
iutoxieiiting drugs was fifteen and the revenue realized was X278 
(Rs. 2780). The consumption of gauja and fcAanfjr was 84 tons 
(228 vM}\ii). In 1881-82 tlic total excise revenue from all sources 
was £1 1,164 (Rs. 1 ,1 1 .MO) and the cost of establishment in the same 
yesx was £t^7 (Rs. 6370).' 

Law and Justice receipts have fallen from £1651 to £791 L*w tnJ J<uiia 
(R.-*. IC^lO-Rs. 7940), and expenditure has risen from £ll,*4fl to 
£i:j.ll3 (Rs.l,14,490-]U1.3I.130). The rlie in expenditure is due 
to an increase in the pay of ofEceis and eatablishniem. The increase 
ia also due to the system under which a portion of the salaries of the 
revenue establisliuient is debited to th« nea«i of Law and Justice. 

■ Thtw Ggunw Iniro b«aa taken titan tbe I8SI-SS AbUtilttfiort. 




ipter X. Forott raccipts liavc riflen Troiii C3S,8+t to t i Ra, 3.3f^ 

WMAud Kfi- 1.13.500). will chai-fcrt-s froi.. £3222 to . / (Rs. 32^* 

JaMMM. R'<.2,4.'V2~0). Tho increase in char^t-s is partly >iu£! to thy inc 

slTuu^h of th<- fori'st estabU^iliiutMit, unO partly to large expt-nditi] 
on aooonnt nf f<;liiiig timlwr, planting, sorvej-ing, <lL-marcatiitg, . 
and road -milking.^ 

I TuM. Tim foUovring table shows the amounts realiiuMl frani the di 

asaened tuxea ln%-it'<il )«twcun 1862 imd 1S82, Owing to the 
of ratus and incidencu it Ls difKcuU to make any 
eoupamon oC the resulta : 






TlXR. UMUnk 

Umu no. 






AmMml * Tm>. 

»!• .Ihrlil 



CoAtotus and Salt ivci>ipt« have falli-n from £4tl,S36 to tSt>l 
Rs. 0.13.360-K8. 3.07.900). llio decn-asc in tivi n-v^-T- 
due to t]i« abolition nf tho land customs and to the !>.. 
the excise system in place o( the monopoly system for thv- .W« > 
salt. A lurf^v nuin was al:w I'cnliKvd by sale of salt in store nt 
end of 1868.C*. The increase in the charges from X4577 
£4722 (R«. 45,770-Rh. -17,230) is due to the revision of the 

Military charges have fallen fwm £7076 to 4958 (Rs. 70,760 
R«.9''>80). lliis reprt^m-iits payments made on account of pennioj 
to retired .soldiers. Tim large expenditure of £707(> (R.-s.70,.f'"' '- 
1833>C1 was due to the pi-e.seuco of a military guard for the ci 
(^ convicts employed on public works. 

Postal receipts have risen from £960 to £10,029 (Rs. 96 
Rs. l,)lC.2ilO), and charges from £7*6 to £^806 (R.i. 745C 
It«. 38,C00). The tt-ccipt« and charj,'e» shown in tlie 1881-82 
balance-sheet, besides letters, books, and parcvis, include monaj 
r«c«ivcd and p«i<t uniler tho ntonoy-order system, llic incn-aae 
the ]881>82 revenue is al^o due to the sale proceeds of seivic 
DtampA credited to the postal department. 

Telegraph receipts liavc risen from £70 to £S0O (Bs. 7(! 
Rs. 80O0), and charges from £6& to-£807 (Rt.6dO-Rs.S070). 

Registration is a now head. The 1881-82 receipts aniouut«d 
£lW)y (Rs. 10,990) and tho expenditure to £848 (Rs.8480). 

Education Tvct-ipta have risen from £t8 to £39& (Rs, ^oi 
BB.39&0}, and cliargcs from £17 to £1311 (Ks. 170-R*. 13,110), 
The incToitse is diiotly due to the estaUishment of new English 




Police charges have risen from £12,750 to £12,043 (Rtt. 1,27,.'>(I0- 
Ba. 1,211,490). Tlio increase is duu to the reorganizatiou 'of tfio 
poltco force. 

Hixlical chaises have risen £rom £1883 to £230G (R«. 18,830- 
Ra, 23,060). 

The 1S81-S2 rcctipt.'s £320 (Tfc.. 32O0) aKwinat £71 (Ra. 710) in 
1863-G4 r(!ptv--«nt the oamingi* of the KArwiii- jiiU. The charges 
have fallen from £4172 to 1&87 (EU.41,720-Rs.»ti70). 

Transfer rwn^ipU* have fallen from £110.510 to £48,920 
(Rs. 11,05,100- Il8. 4,86,700). and transfer clmrgvs from £146,598 to 
£145,229 (K8.14,66.y*i0-Ral4.52.2i>0). 

In the following hulaiiue-^lKxtA for 1863-04 and 18S1-82 the 
figures shown in nlock type on both mhn are book odjuitments. 
On the receipt »ide the item £oS7 (Ra. 6270) n.!piv.<si'iit.>! the 
additional revenne the district would yield had none of it.s land IxHin 
aUenated. On the (Icbit side tlie Kaue items, shown under 
allowuucvi an<i a**igiimeut8, included £27 (Ra. 270) tlie rental of 
land.-* granted to the Biliji R^m during het lifetime and £500 
(Rs.50UO), former granti continued to certain temples and mosques 
for rcligiou.4 and charitable purposes: 

KJxM^i Balaxck Siumts, IS6S-64 axd ISSISS, 













Ltaii .„ 







































Ultmwna „. 







Ut ." 




Vtndoiia ^ 

Bcda^HtlcU » 


MMta* ... ... ^ 



K*fuBd* „. .. _ 



pQbile WMto -.. v. 



mimaUmwmu ... _ 



HIUbiT ... -. _ 



CuMaoM _ 



r«i ... „: _ 





a«|[SMUaD " Z 



»(«!"» _ 

rniiitu »-flik» 





' lA 






Puft _i ,., „. 



Ml> ... .. 
Stoar IWfnttiniriU ., 

~ 71 




EdacMliiD ... 


fftctl ._ ,„ ... 





Torii .. 



11k ... .„ „. 
PriMl-c ... ._ 






Tf^v/ff Ittmt, 





DtpnIH anil LoUM ... 



DbpmIU ntt (dwu ... 



CMh RtnilCiMaB 









bwl rmdi 

UnndT'Ol -. 



Lowirnadi .^ ... 

OnadToM ... 








Ml, cm 





Chapter : 

Revenue and 




DIST Bid's. 

pierX Revexue other tiiax lurcitUL. 

ntteud District local fiimU tihvo bevn colU-cU-^l since ]S63toprniiK 

IMC*. rural education ami supply roads, wi-il-i, ntst-hon-sw*. ')i'-"p<?nianBi,l 

and other useful vrorlM. In 18S1-S2 the recoipu «■ tu'l 

ieiO,505 (R».l,05,050) and Ui« i-xp«ii.1ituro to£10,820 (i; . ,J.K% 
TI>e local fuii'l revenue in dffrivwl from tlirwj »ourc«8, a special 
of one- sixteenth in addition to the land tax, the proce<.*d8 uf oc. 
sabotdiuate local funds, and certain miscellaneous it«nut. In t6{ 
tiie special land cea, of which two-thinls arc set apart tut a 
fund and tlnj n-jA as a school fund, yielded a revenue uf £'tt 
(Ra. 5*5,960). The sulwrdinate funda. indndin^ a toll !' 
fund, a cattle-pound fund, and a school-fee tund, yi. 
(Rs. 25,880). UoverutDcut and privatu subscriptions amount^ (o 
£1838 (Ra. 18,880); and miscetlanwus teceii»t«, inclnding certain 
items of land rovenae, to £^8:1 {Rs, 3S30). Tnis revenue k s>iiniR-^ 
istored by district and .-tub-divisioiial oon]m)tt«es partly of offictall 
and partly of private mcniher.*. Tlie. district ooinmitt'ees cor 
of the Collector, tlie assistant and deputy collectiir, the cxo 
engineer, and the education inspector as official, and (ho pn>p 
of an alienated village and mix landholders ae non-official, nmnibm^ 
Thu 8iib-divi.-<ional cotamit(e«8 consist of an assistant collectorj 
the indinlatdili', a public worlu officer, and the deputy oducatic 
inspector as official, and tho proprietor of an alienated villaj^c an 
three landholdvn ait non-omciul, mcmbunt. Tb« sub-divi-tionidl 
committees bring their requirements to the notice of the distiictj 
committee who prepare the budget. 

For administrative purpaies the district local funds are divide 
into two sections, one set apart for public works, the other fot| 
instruction. The receipts oud disburaententsduiing the year 1881>S3 

KJx^xa Local fvxD$. ISSlSf. 
Pvsur WoBKiL 





ntbrna -.. ^ 


OlkgrCMM* _ 

TOIIt ._ 

rcrrin ... 




QuuTj r«c* 

rtft ... 







B«lhtllllDMIlt ... -, _ 

NnWcrk* , 


OanWIIniUoD to P. V. DtputinM 

>i*<H>i r^-. 


Bdu» ... 

* — 









Mia» ■ .- 

Opt-tblrdol Lwd cm ... 
BdiMl l« rui>d 

( UtisrnnMiit 
CUnferfbaUanJ HunldiiJ 



aAotlOmitm ... 



Since lftl>3 ii\o rollowiii)^ local fuii<I worka have been carried 
oot. To iiiipi-ovc roiDiiiunii^tianii 701 miles of road with eighty- six 
bridges and culverts liave been either mode, cleiurcd, or repaired, 
ainl {tortious plaiit«d with tive.s. To iinpiuvc thu w at*! r- supply, 
109 well-"* aiK) nixty-ott<! ponds liave been made or repaired. To 
help vilbtgA instruction. tJiirty-aix Hchoolfi, and, for the comfort of 
tnkv<.-llur8, fifty-five reet-honsvs liave bvoit citJier built or rt)pair«d. 
BeHides tliesw works niuv <iljipf!n.sarit«, forty cattle-pounds, twenty- 
five staging bungalows, and thirty-tive miscellaneous public works 
hftvu been made and. repaired. 

Ill 18$1-8S, under the pro%-ision8 of the Bombay District 
Hanicii>al Act VL of 1873, thvre vrcro live town municipalities each 
adiniQiHtered by a body of commissioners with the Collector as 
presidont and the assistant or deputy collector in civarge of the 
8iib.divi.siyu M vice-president. In 1831-82 the di-strict municipal 
roveaue amounU-d to £3822 (Ra 38.220), of which j:i833 
(Bs. 1 8.330) were recovered from octroi dnea. i:727 (Rs. 7270) 
front houiic-tax, £2^ (Bs. 2»aO) from toll and whi^l inxtti*, £{20 
(Rs. 3200) from assessed taxes, and £687 (Ks. 6870) from 
misccUaneoas sources. 

n»o following statement gives for each municipality the rccmipta, 
charges, and iiiddCDCO of taxation durim' the year cUiling the 31st 
March of 1882: 





M April ISIO 




ttLh UuTh IMt UB 


















t 4 

KJk*»a Uariarju. PttAiUf, ISStSi — oontiaiied. 










Mctml ftepkJt*. 









KUwfa ... ._ 

















































B 6I6-3; 

Chapt«r X. 

BOTcnuo aai 


IBombnf OuettetT. 

ipt^ XX. 

1681 -ISIU. 




In 1831-82 thcrt- were 113 Govormnunt sohooU or an average of 
one nclxx)) for u^'l'^y tt^ii iiihaUtMl vUla^'ixs, with 6256 name-t on the 
roll* ami an average aLt«ii<lancfi of 47+iJ pupiK or 8 Qi per cent of 
54,9t>2, ihe male popalatiou betwei^n six oikI (utirtvun yr-ars of a^ 

Id 18tM)-81 uniltfi- the Director of Pii1)Uc Iiiniruction anil Iv1dc»- 
Uon&l Inspector ^tittit-ni Divi-jion, the ediieatioQ of Uie dUtriet wa» 
con<)i]ct«<l by a local suit' 2 17 Htroiie. Of ihcst-, one was a deputy 
eilucatlonal mapector with general cliargf all the M^hotils ol the 
district, draniiif; a yearly pay of £180 (IIh. 1800), and the rc^ wtni 
masters and a.-«suttunt tiiaslvrit with yearly salaries rangiug (row 
JE3 12«. to tl80 (Rs. ;i6 ■ R«. IhOO). 

Of 101, tho tolal nuiiil>er of {iovernment ttchooU, in seventy -eight 
Kiinarese only wa« taught, in ten HidiisUUii, in five HinduHtAni and 
KfLnarE«e, in five Mar^thi, and iu tho remaining six Iwtli English 
and Kdnaresc. Of thv nvvvnty-vighl KAnarese achool.1 Four were foi 
girls anil seventy-four for Iwya, 

Excluding miperintendenco charges, the total expenditure on 
scconnt of UiiMe hcIiuiiIh lUiioiiriU'd t^ £4176 (Rs. 4],7ti0) of nhid) 
£U10 (Ua. 1 4,100) were ptud by Uovuruincat, and £27C« (K8. 27,GtiOJ 
from local and other futtd& 

Ik>Kid«s thvHC Government .schooLs, there were two primary schoola 
inHpecttyi hy the 1-^liiaitioiial DepHrtmeut. of which one \» attached 
to tJie jail and the rttiuT to the police heAil-qiiurturM. There w«n> 
HO private schools aided by Oovernnient. 

B«for« Oo%'«rnment took the education of the district under their 
care c.\wry laraje vilUgit had a school, kept generally hy a Shenvi 
Drahnian ana atti-iidvd Iiy Ixiys under fifteen. The-sc pri\'at« 
schixjU fnifl'iu-e*! greatly by the intixxluctiou of state cducatiun. In 
]880<8I only eight i-emained with an attondance ostiniated at 
attuut l.'iO piijtiU. Att a rule tlie tcjichers of private schools are men 
who have failed in other employment-t. Thovigh jMwrly triuneil 
they have nii uxevUvut «y5ti-ni of teaching reckoning lalileH or 
ti/'i/nui and the elementary rtileA of nrithmctic. Their teaching (A 
reaiiing and wriling is Ie«« suocessflil. They have no fixed fees.and 
depend on what the [Mirents and guardian.s nvy incliuei) to pay. In 
addition to their few thoy levy small contribiitiniM once a fortnight 
and receivu ucoasional prenents. The entrance fee which is offered 
(o th<! teacher in the naiao of Sarosvati. the goddees of learnilig, 
, varies from iW. (2 ag.) in the case of the poor to ». {Rv. I) in the case 
of the well-to-do. NNHien a hoy has fiiiisheil his fit's! or ujntni course^ 
and is ready lu write on pu{>er,the lci»chcri"tceive.s Jirf. toi*.{lantta- 
Ro.1). Such of the parvuts as are friendly^ tho t«acbGr oral* 



pleasetl witK their childreirs pnngress. on Damra, Dimit, or on some 
Othei great holklay. or on a thread •^rding or otiier important faiiiiiy 
ceretDuDv. prr--s.-iit the miksti^'r with cAsii or ii tiirbiui or n pair of waist- 
dothic rroiii tlit-Ai! liiiiiltrii nomve.'' of inconid s privnte t«a«her tn^ea 
£8to£12(R&80-Rs.l20)a}'eftr. Boys of su to eight sro taught 
reckoning tabl<\s. Thoy then k-arn to write hy ti'acinp; li-Ucrs on a 
Baixkvi hoan) ami hy writiiij:; characters witJi wot chalk or Uiadi od 
a black board. They t«e)dom leani to write well, Imt mental arith- 
metic is tauijht to perfection, and thispartof their teaching has Ix-en 
adopted ill Gi)V>inunL-nt «:hof.>ls. Tin; boys go to toiopK-'i or rest- 
houw's ilhnrm^hiila:! wlK:ro th« .scIiooIh aro held. The position of 
the raa'rtera, and the religious element in some of their teaching, hi-lp 
them in their cointH'titioo with the purely secular instruction given 
iu OovcriitDunt schoulif. TIiu eourac of ittudy in tlicse Kchoolft is won 
finished, and hoys generally leave their teachers before they Are 

Ill 183&-Gt> there were eleven Qoveriimeut schools in th« distTiot 
witli 830 names ou tlic rolls ; of thtvw- thrcu were Hccon<f griidv Anglo- 
Ternacnlar schools aii<I the rest veiTiacnlnr schools. The tirst three 
Oovemment Anglo-vemacular schools were opened at Haliyil, Sirsi. 
an<) Kunita, uikI tho (ir.itt Urdu i«c)iool was opened at Halijttl. In 
1860-fi7 the number rot«u to thirty whooln wiUi 1714 names on the 
rolls and an average attendance of lA'M pupiU. In 1^07 •tUJ the 
nunilx-r of schools rose to forty-five, the number of names on the 
rolN to 2100, and the average attendance to Itil/. In 1868-69 tJio 
namber of schools bail risen to fifty-tive. In 1871-72 there wer« 
sixty-six schools. 2Si5 names on the rolls, and an average 
utteiidiviice of 22S4. Out of the sixty-sis schools six were 
Anglo-vemacular schools, two wcra Unlu schools, and five were 

S 'iris' schools. In 187'i-7.3 the number ofscliools rccte to seventy, 
to names on the tolls to ^23 1, and the average attendance to 
2i)6S. In 1874-7a the number of wheals rose to eighty-six, the 
names on the rolla to 8976, and the average attendance to 2718, 
During the next four years (1874-1878), there was no increase in 
t3u> number of schools, but the names on the rolla rose to 4431. In 
1879.80 the nnniWr of schools rose to ninety-six, the names on Umj 
roUs to 4!l78, and the average attendance to 3598. In I8SU-81 there 
were 103 schools with 6323 names on the rolls and an average 
attiindanoc of 450A pupils. CompArcl witlt t865-t>6 the returns for 
1680-81 give an increase in the number of schools from eleven to 
103, and m the names on the rolls from 830 to 6323. 

lii'fon! ld65-<>6 there were no girls' schools in the district In 
1 8<)(J-67 two girls' schools were opvuod at Kunita and Sirsi with forty- 
five naint's on the rolls and an average attendance of forty-five. In 
1867-68 the number of ^rla' schools rose to four with 131 names on 
tlie rolls and hu average atteudatice of ninety-eight. Four years 
later, in 1871-72, the number of scliools rose to five with 193 names 
and on average attendance of 117. In 1872-73, when tme of the 
five schofjls was closed for want of sufficient attendance, there were 
179 nanitts and nn average attendance of 122. In 1880-81 the 
number of four .wliools hau not increased, but tli« name^ rose to 208. 
■nd tbtt average attendance to 147. 

Chapter XX 

Privala ' 



Oirb* Scho 



•lien ud 




'i'h« 1681 Gemtu returns ffive for the chi«f nctn of ihc dil 
Die follouiiig proportion of peraons able to r^ad &nil n-rtl«. 
*52,997, Uu- total HinJa pofmktion. 6207 (males iflOO. ftouj 
217) or 1-62 p»r cent U-low lU'U'cd amJ 1 138 (iiiakvi 1112. fenudtf^ 
26) or 0*29 per evut ahovo 6ft«en were 1111110- in.ttn]etioa -, SOS 
(males 7oi>. feiiial«A &•)) ot 0'21 per cent below fifteen fuid 17.S~~ 
(iMks 17,14!), fenmk-s 178) or i'>i ytei cent above fifteen r 
instrurit^l; i;U.6-25 (nialiw 65^:10. f<^nuilr» 66,19'.) or 34-31 
cent twiow fiflvcii and z2Gfi9l (males 112.flQ7. fenial.>it ll:),4S4L 
OT 6903 per evflt abovo fifteen wen- illiterate. OF H.-iSi. Uw totsl 
IltixaltniLn popolation. itSQ (itiales itSi, fviuulua 5^) or 241 per cen 
below fifteen and 140 (lualua IS2, feuia]«a H) or ()'57 ptr «cnt sk 
fifte«» wen: untlvr iiiitiruction ) 63 (males 55, fetn&leA 8) or 0-iii 
cent below fifteen an<l li'J'i <mal«» 1197, females 35) or .V07 , 
cent above fifteen werA iit-'itructe'l ; 8ti7S (inal«s 4321, Cemak^ 
4352) or ^9-71 l>er cent betow tifleen and 13,&8S (malvM 607( 
females 7->\9) or 5&-fia per cent above fifteen were )lliterat<& C 
14,fi09 Chrutians. 281 (maltw 233, femalut 48) or \i)3 per een 
below fifteen, and 45 (males 40, femalea S) or 031 p«;r evnt aktn 
fifteen were under iustructjou ; 20 (maloi 17, females 3) or 013 pc 
cent Iwlow fifteen and 512 (males >152, females 00) or 3*52 per g«e 
above liftaen were instructed ; and r}127 (male? 2-530, females '"^ 
or 36 32 per cent below fifteen and 8524 (mate» 4^o0, femidvK 
or 5874 per cent above fifteen were illiterate : 

KAajiMA BofKAttoM Btrcmr, iSSl, 




Omnusa,- ^ 








Ikon OlMca 

Brb» anMn 

























it.m 1 ii,«N 



Before 1866-67, no returns were prepared nrranginjr the pupil 
accordinc to race and religion. The toUowing KWtumcnt shoi 
tiiat of too two cliief races the Uindus have the larger profMrtion 
their boys and girls ooder inKtruction : 

Pvrat sr HAa, 1866-07 Am ISSOSl, 






T«tkl .. 









Purua. I 












ToUl . 
































Atkkui t^ni 






I9«»M. ISIS^Jt. 







1M.1 - 


















ira M» 









Omt nm Prrik 

iBu-«c. 1 ms.71 


19M4a. 1 ini-T*. 


niKti «b«t ... - 

RiflUb wlu"l 

IpUJ .,. 


Iff. ud It. 


Si. uilM. 

B *U| 

1 I lOi 

I 1 H 

A >. d. 

10 s s 
1 > t 

ail < 
u 11 



Of 60^7, the totAl nombcr of pupils in OoTCrnm^ifc schools «t the Chapter XX 
eu.i of Ducwmtxtr 1881, 2299 or S8-G percent were BrihmanB; lajtnictiiMi 
507 or 86 per cent tnuten, including AIS Lin^^^yuts, and 51 
Jaiim; 1022 or lii-32 per cent caltivator»i 451 or"7'4 por ount 
artiHaos; &44 or 901 per cuut »i>rvnut cliuisD*(; rtixty-iiiue low 
ca^ti-s; 181 or 2-9 per ct-ut other Himhi.'); 712 or 11'7 per cent 
&Iusalmdii.4 ; 2+4 or :J7I per cent Chriatian-i : and noven Jews; and 
one I'&r&i. Of i!2i. the total iiumWr of girls enrolled in 1S^-8I 
in the four fftW tfchoolM, 202 or 90" 17 per cent were Uindoii, two 
^wern Muiialniiliui, and twenty Others. 

The following tables prepared from special retarns furoi/ihwl by Sd)Dob. 

the EttiicnttDitttl IX'partinent show in detail tlic ntunber of mIiooIs 1S0G-1^. 

ninl pupil.'* witli their cost to Oovemment : 

XJxAMA fornxu. RsfVMxa, JSese«. IS7S-7t, Aim OSMl. 













[Bombay Qnentn 

KJM4MA Senoot, Annm, isssse. l^TS-n. amd iSSOSl—tiMtiaaed, 1 



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KANARA. 215 

KJMau &1V0OL SMiukxs, lacsse. WS-74, **o ISSO^X -otutdikiiea. 






Jg7)-Tt.j IWMl. 




l86S-6n. |gT»-'l. 


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t-u i 1 


A comparison of the present (1881-82) pro\-i»ion for teacliing the 
town aiiil the country pupulntion gives the following if«ult : 

Id K^wiir thfrv were t«Q Qovernment schools wiUt 839 names 
And an average atteadancu of about 633, Of tho tt'» Ooverauittnt 
sehooltt tlirt'c wcr« Kiiiarit-M* schools; tlire« were Marnthi schoola, 
two for boj'ii and one for girls ; two were Urdu iichoolfl ; one was a 
Jail school ; and one a Polico sdiooL Tlie avfraftc yearly oost to 
ouvh pupil was 6*. 2id. (tU 3-1-8) in tliti Mnntthr ^hools, I7». 6d. 
(Ri. 8-12-0> in the girU' Hchool, 6«. i^d (Rn. H-A-O) in the Urda 
schools, and 5«. I l^tT (Rs. 2- 1.5-8) in the ElUiarcse schooK 

In Ankola there wore two Govornment »chooh with 167 names 
and au averafrt" attinid«nctt of V-it\. Of the two whools one was a 
Kiiiiurf-^e mcIkwI ami the otlier an Urdu school. The avurugu ywirly 
cost for each pupil in the KAuarese school was 9«. Ujd!. (Rb. 4-10-3) 
and iu the Urdu school 6». Sd. (Rh. 2.10-0). 

in Eumta there wena fonr Oovcnunent schools with 449 namett 
nn<\ nil average attendance of 315. Of these fonr itchool.i thn?o weT« 
for Iwys and one for ^rls, Tlie averago yearly co»t for ea«h pupil 
in tht; Ixiys' nchooU was 8». Sd. (Rt. 4-5-4) luid in the girls' school 
12#.7id.(lU 0-5-1). 

In Hon&var tliere were two GoTernment achooU for hoys witti 1 96 
names and nn averiurc ntt<.-iidHim^ of 150. The average yearly cost 
toeochpupilwfcs3*."l0id. (Bs. 4-7-3). 

Iu Bbatknl thore were two Oovemiaent sdtook with 202 namea 
and an average attendance of 163, C>f the two schools one taught 
KiinarvsvamlUie other Urdu. The average yearly oa'tttoeach pupil 
iu the K&nareae hcIiooI wa.i 8». 9^d. (Rs. 4-6-4) and in the Urdu 
school 7«.58<i.(Rs. 3-11-9). 

Iu Sidditpur there was one Kdnarese school for hoys with soxxnty 
nanieH and on average att«ndaneo of thirty-seven. The avera^ 
yearly cost to each pupil was 10». d^d. (Ra. 6-6-4)l 

In Sinn there wore four Government schools with 341 names 
and All average atten<liutce of 262 pupils. Of the four schools one 
was a second grat'e Anglo- vernacular scliool, Mie an Uida school, 
and two were Kioarese schools one for hoys and one for pris. The 

Chaptor XI 



Town 8«tio 



arcra^ yearly cost for cucti popil m the second oradc Anplo- 
vcniMcnlarschool was 13*. id,(Ra.6^-7).inUwUnIiis<-Iic>ol 12-- ' 
(Rfl. C-t-0). in the K4tmr»»e bojTi* 6». 2JJ. (Rfl.a-I-11) and i., 
girls' wbool I2s. S^d. (Rs.6-5-<>>. 

In Yrllilpur lh«re wiw only one Government Kinaroso scbo"! f"- 
hoy», with eighty-five names, suil an aver^pj iitUn<iiuic*i of f 
ti\e. The yearly cast to each pupil wii» l-U. Hd. (Ra. 7-2-2). 

In Haliyil Uiere were three Cioveriimi-iit achoctls with 2W 
aamos and an average attemlance of 200. Of th« thr^' tichoi>1 
w«» a flecom! gratio Anglo- vtmacular whool, one an l"n!" ■ 
and one a girls' school The average yoarly ci)st to each pu , 
(tecninl iirmt! Anglo>vGrnac»Iar -school was 11*. 5icI.(Ba. 5-1 1 -r,;, 
Urdu school 9t. H- (Ra.*-8.S), and ui the girls' sclnwl 12*!. 

ExcIuMvv of tho nino towns of KAmAr, Anlcola, Kamta, Hon&var, 
Bhntkal, Sidditpnr, Sirsi, VelUpnr, and Ualiydl, the diatriot of 
K&nara was provi<lod withaeventj'-four schools or an avorfi_ 
school for cvi-rj' tiftcon inhahitpd viUagt-s. Tl>c following - 
allows the diAribution of them; schools by suh-divisions : 







S^ *™». 




AakDto ^ 
Kmm* _ 
BMilnr ^ 





1* TcUtMr -. 
H [ HM|n 







In 1880-81, ih.n- w.-n; tour Ithranes one wicli «t KinifAr. Sit 
Kumta, aiid Maiiv^l The Kjlrwiir (j«neml Lilirary and MnHeni 
was fouudLsUu May 180*. In 1S80-S1 it containod 1709 booli 
with thirly-cight members whoso monthly sahscriptioiis varii'^l : 
Is: to (i«. (8 a».- B8.d). The Sirsi Ocnvrol Lihi-ary wm foiimVii 
July 1870. In 1880-81 it eontainod SOO hooka and ha^l forty lueinl 
wboae monthly Rnhwriptions varied from Cut to 4*. (4fl«. -Ra.: 
Tho Kumta Native General Library was fotindcd l>eforv I87u. 
■1880-81 ttcontiiiiifd 150 )>oolcs,anil Iiaii twouty-tive members who 
monthlv subscriptions varie<l from le. to is. (fia*.- Ra. 2). 
Hnliyiil Lilirary contained sixty books with a lew eabscribera 
paid for by the niAndattUr. 

I^o newspaper is publislied in the district. 




Compared witli the uoiffltbouriug (lUli-icbi of Bclganm and 
Dliiinvfir, Kiiiinm ii« iiiihi'altny. In spit* of an average rainfall »f 
130 incliB^ till: count, .tub-iliviMioiM are more healthy th&n the forest- 
covered uplatida. (>f the feverish inliuul tracts the valleys of the 
Kitliimili Hiid Us tributaries mtv perh«p.f the ino»t unhealthy. 
Tliriiughowt th<! diiitriei, espi-cially al>ove the SahySdris, tlie two 
limit unhealthy stiftsonn of the year arc June and July the first two 
riiijiy uiotiths, an^J tlie four oool mouths froiu NovwUiUrr lo FL-l-marj'. 

The ino«t prevalent discHso i^ roiiiittemt and intermittent fever. 
In 1801 Buchanan uoticod thataliout 1750. and again in lUOO, roany 
people hotl died of fever in North K^oara. It was like ordinary 
fever for three days, then the patient K^came deliriou-i. (in<l diid on 
thtf lifth duy.' AVnit ISyO fever prevailol Ut niiinn exli-nt in tlic 
nphmdii; l>ut fn^mi 18.35 to 1H60 tin? forest -co veretl upland» were 
healthy at all times of the year, and fever waa as little kAoKi] as in 
B'.it;auni or DhiirwAr-' For about eight y«u'» betwet-ii 1860 and 
l!S07 Kiiriara suflew-d severely from uii outhr*-ak of fever. The 
people lii'liev<.'il that Hw fuvcr was due to the Howeriug of the 
bainloo^ which takeii plaee a1*out once in fifty years. According 
to the Sanitfliy Commissioner, Dr. Liith, wlii> wws «ler>uto<1 by the 
!■ iliiiy Goverunivut to invwtjfjut"' tint oulbreak, the fever was 

ij. timcH n;mittent, hut iiioHily intermittent of tlie u-iual daily, 
third day, and fourtli day typ*«* Many of the hutspital admiGBJoaii 
were relapse cones, almost all with enlarj^nient of the splevii. In 
»omc Uk-M-s where there had V-en little or no fever, there was 
.swelling of the .spleen, and in M^veral vmten of children the sweltinjr 
was enormous. In pi-otractoil cases there was great want of 
blooi) and often dropsy. The fever was oi!Ca-*ioimlTy coniplicsted 
with dinrrluca. In all these points the di»e«.se rewmble'l Uie usual 
malariou.s intermittent fever. The fever attacks were readily 
chicked by treatment, hut thei-e was a great tendency to relapne, 
which was natural so long as the person continued iu tlio malarioua 
locality. The outbr.-ak Tx-gan in l»60. It oh«tud in 1801 ; but 
in I8(i2 again- incieat*e<! in severity, Thn epidemic api-ea«i over 
the whole district; tlie only places free or little affected wore Tadri, 



> Riifhinui'* M«wirc, ni, )(W. 

' l'..:,,iL. : \:;il 1, i.'. ijr..y Rcp..rt, I M ii( 3r.l FcbrDkr^ 1872. p«r». 8. 
' I>i- ltti\:,\ v-n,'tv,'n['hi^-M and 8>i^tary li*iKirt vn Ncotli KiUun, IWk Fobniary 





Kotnta, HoD^X'ar, ami Bh&tkul on the sea-coa^t. Iri 
no pUou i-acupi-il tliu ^lifM^'iuc- diuI it was Dunrly v-jinilly 
atl thv «ul>-(iivi!U<HU*. Fn>rn ttii; uuvn thut eiiinr Uii'ltr liin 
tioa Dr. Ijvitli found thiit on tb« inicawooit itcluMtn luiU 
bearing <ii» or Tenuinalia toinfjitOM forest, tho ratio of sic 
29'6 ; thst on trap rock or ur^gilUcoous schist bewtng 
tvak fon-fU. it wan 14'9 ; and thnt ou thv ]at<.'ritu nvu- tliu 
CoviTinl wiU» A'ii-i'i or StroUilajithas it was HH^. T' 
taoiit fftvnnral'le t^J the productiun of fever were (leu 
vallej*a,rann»s, anil swampy riix--lan<l. Iii 1664 thv eifijcl« ol tlit 
break of fuvL^r wen: so scvi-ru llial in ihu uplauiis iiiativ vil' 
towns wore (lotolata. At Sirni tlie fovor liltulvKxl the tr 
of buflineas, and aeverol Dative meidianto who \tai\ lived Uii 
years lt>ft tlio place to vscapc thv sickiiesa. At Sir^i the fv 
scconipiuiii.-'l hy choli-m. At Ualiv&l tliu fw^r ni;^-d ho vie 
that thi- town wiw alinoNt di5»ei-t«l.' F>'W ptvipU- wi-r« si**^ 
Btri>et«, and those few. in nine cases out of Umi, Wfi 
hollow-eyed Fifty tu a hundred houses were entiix'Iy h 
peoplu eithuT Avtul or 'Ai.A. HuikIisouk- new houses wi-ru falli 
decay hvfoi-v they had Ik^iii intiabitvd or cvko fini.'<h>-il. 
house but had its luvk nnd dyinj;. The outbn:ak Itut'>l for 
yeai-s, the fever relaxing onlv during the hot months.* The 
eating claii'M-s suSere*) Ws tliuu thu resi In connectjon 
outbT<.-ak it ix worthy of noU^ that apart fntin ihu 
diHi'ifX; there is a cenernl belief among llir iiilvlltgcut [t^f 
dintrjct that outbruoks of i^ntull-pox, cholera, and fever 
pm-iotlieally aiid in order.* AEu>r uti outbreak of fever.tliough ordi! 
fever is always prevalent, tliere U gcni-rally a hiU of two or 
years. Before 1860 sninll-nos raced furiously in many pa 
the district. It was followed by cholera, and, while clioK-n coal 
suiall-pox (tltuotil di.sup|)L'ari_'d. shortly after choli-m die<1 awL 
tKVvt of the worst tyjte l-n^kL- out. After the fever hail spent 
there wa.t ft lull for Honie yeftrit and thvu small -pux a)>|".'tir 
WA.i fatal l>elween ]H72 and 1874. For two yoai'H more ruittUI- 
contjnuetl though with less severity, till, in 187G-77, in the tr 
of famine cholera broke out and small-pox disappeared. In 1( 
cholera gavo pineii to violent fever, whicn lias since continual 
than usually fatal though mndi UrKu fntal Mian iu 1S78.* 

lu IHS2, there was one civil hospital, and seven grant-in-a!^ 
one Uovei'ninont dittpi-nKarifts. The numbi-r of patients treo 
34.692, of whom 3:1,80.1 were out-dooi- aiid 8Hi) in-tloor patients] 
cost was iildS (Rs. 2li)iiO). Tiio following details are tak<:ai 
tho 18S3 reports : 

The Karwtlr civil hosoital baa a building of its own. 
eommonost diit^^atMis aru iniuai'ioiLs fevvra, syphilis, aSectJona i 
breatliing tiyHteiii, bowel couiplaints, spleen, and skin di>M-asui.' 
1882 tliere wa-i no epidemic duteose. Llevoti ini\)or o[M'mtiuiirt 

■Til* Pollw Huperbitawbat Ur. Cuontwlt'tdbry. ITth JnanaiJ ISM. 
■ C'o1uii«l Aaiknun • ftnn-DT It«pOft, IM of 3rd Kcbraar* 1879. pttrwC^t 
* Mr. 1. R. Um<1«(u>1(I, C.& « Comptrc tha l>«>tli K«UinH at V ' 



MX aft«r-de«th i?x*niinftiion« were macle, and fifty-four primary 
and fifjlit re-v(icciiuitions were performed, 55S3 oiit-iloor and 375 
in-door piitienta were treated at a cost of £863 10#. (K.s. 8625). 

The Knmta dUpensarj- was opene<l in 18fi7 hy tite municipality, 
and fasN a good building of ittt own. The commonest dist^iases are 
:> ' .[ ions fovvi^, womi.*. nkin diseases, afitictions of Ihv )>r4;alhing 
11, rhetiinati»in, and svphilis. Tbcro wa» a niilil epidi-mic of 
tiauill-pox in April May anil June, in which of fifteen caseH two 
pix)vc'l fatal. Then.' were tliirty- fight major operations and 298 
mici.'i^H.<fiil vaocitiation.^ GOlO oub-door and 136 in-door patients 
were ti%at«d at a coat of £404 (Rs. 4040). 

The Honivardiapensary is in a pui-tion of (Jic old sub-judge's oourt- 
housc. The prevailiti^j ifi mi ■iuo.'fl ai-e malarious fever, rhenuiatism, 
alfei-lioti-s of Ihij hrviuhing .sy.item, bowel complaints, and !<kin 
diseane^ There waft no epidemic The numherof cliildnn vaocinattd 
was .seventy-nix. S489 out-door and forty-four in-door patients 
weru treated at a co«rt of £72 8«. (R* 724). 

The; Supa dispensary was e-stablUhwl in 1866. It has a 
Ititililin^; of its own, an<l U supported from local funds. Tho 
prevftjtiiig ili.ien.sct ai-e malarious fevers, skin diseases, and bowel 
com p lain (.s. In 1882 there was no epidemic Only sixteen childrvm 
were vaccinated, l(t»H out-door and thirty-six in-door patients 
were treaU-d at a cost of £10* 14*. (Ra. 1047V 

The HaliyAI dispensary wa« opened in 1865, and has a bailding 
of hn own. It IK supj)orted by the mnuiciiMdity. The eotiiiiionis^'t 
dLsea-te.H are malarious fevers, afliftions of the breatliing system, 
bowel coniplaint-s, and skin di»ea.ies. 128 children were vaccinated. 
Mid 3372 ont-door and twenty-one in-door patients were treated at 
a ox< of 190 8j.. {R.-^ &64). 

The Tellipur dispensary was opciii-d in 1863, and is supiwrted 
from local funds. It Inw a ImiMing of its own. Tlie prevailing 
di^-aives are ninlariou-s fevers, bowel complaintn, and skin diseases. 
Twenty-two p^-r^ons were vaccinated and 2441 out-door and ninety- 
two in-door patients were treated at a cost of £1'>7 4* (R.-*. 1572). 

ITie Sirsi dispensai-y is supported by tlie monicipaltt}'. It is 
held in a bulluing of ib< own. 1'he commonest diseases are 
malarious fevers, worms, skin diseases, syphilis, and bowel 
complaints. In 1882 there was no epidemic. S«venty-two chitdrea 
were vaccinated, and 6523 out-door and ««vonty-nine in-doot 
patients were treated at a cost of 1311 14*. (Rs. 3117). 

The Siddiipur dispon.-<nry wat opeued in 1873, and is supported 
from local funds. It has a huilding of its own. Tho commonest 
di9eas<^^s are malarious fevers, intestinal worms, skin disea.tes, 
alf'^tionii of the breathing systi-ni, and rheumali.-<ui. 2;j3fiout-doot 
and forty-four in-door patienta were ti'eated at a cost of £110 10«. 
(Rs, 1105). 

The Mun<lgod Oovcrnment dispensarj' was established in 1864. 
It has a budding of its own. The cniof diseases arc malarious 
fevers, rheumatism. Fn^hilis. and aflections of tha breathing system, 
bowel complaints, intestinal worms, ulcen, and skiu dia»Aca. 

Chapter XI 









{Bomtuy QaMl 






There was no cpMomic. 2190 oul-'!oor airl Kiity-tw 
pHticiits w«tv tr>.-HU-^l nt a cost of £78 12*. (l\«. 78Ij>. 

Aocimltiig to thv 1881 c«nsm 8.11 peinoas (males 404, fom 
367) or (H!) piM- «ent of the population were tntinD, Of ilin 
number, 741 (males 420, females 321) wor« Httidiw, fiS dual 
fvmiilcD 29) Musfilmtius, ninl 32 (iiinlf.'* }•>, f>- ~ . 

Of 8JJ1, till! toUl nmiiK-r of iiitli-iii [xii-sons, U> i 

82) or 1179 jht wnl w«re of unsound mind. AM (inuli'^ I 
females lOS) or SSM per cent were bluid. il^Q (mali^-< 207, fi*m. 
152) or 44'SO per cent were denf a»d duml>, aud Tti (moles 
fcmslwi 18) or 6'49 pur cent were lupvrx. TKe detatle &rc : 



/irruur pKon^, 





Tauk. ^J 



Mdak. IFdiBli-. 



lamtit ... 

l«|Hn ... 

TutaJ .. 
























In 1882-83, Uinl«r tlie supervision of tbo deputy ftanitarl 
oommiHsiuner. tl»e work of vaccination was carriwi tin by twcN*^ 
vaccinators with \'early salaries varAing from £10 18». to i.'2S l(l< 
{Uh. l<tK - Rs. S88). They were distributitl ov.-r the rural parf' 
of the diatrict. llcsidi^ tJio viiociimtors th« medical olficcrs i>r nil 
dispensaries ciin-i«i on vaccine operations. Th'.- total nnml 
pcrMiits VHCcimiU-d was 12.034, hesidea tl.:)2 rc-vnciriiialc-d comj 
with 0579 primiuy vaecinntionB in 1869-70. 

Tlio followiiu; stat<>nHMit shows Uio ms. rdigitHi, and Bg« o( 
peraons primarify vaocinatovl : 

K^xAiu VA(!airArH>xDtrAiu.ia63-70AiiD tsassa. 


Pmios Tubo'tb. 1 
















iaO»-» .. 
inua - 









In lS82-8.% tln! totnl cost of Uhn.; opi rations, exclusive pf th 
perfoniurd in dlspi'iisArii^, wa-^ .tiiK2 8.%. i,R-i 6824) or about 1*. SJJ 
(lOJ ait.) for each stieci^sfiil case, 'i'hc cl>arge« iudmlid uji 
following items: Supervision and inspection, JE332 is. (Ks. 3222)1 
c»t4ibli8hmeut, lUiS I8«. (Ka 3489) ; and contiiiycncics £1 1 8^ 
(Rs, 143). Of Uicse the supervising and iiisiH-cting chaigc^t woi 
met from Oovenmient pti)vin<;iai fiiii'ls, while j£;J60 4*. (K-s. 86C" 
were born* hy the local funds of the diflerent .■suh-divlMomL 




Tliree forms of cattle disease are know-n in the ilittrict' ; Idfpvg or 
foot-fiisease, mtihdniy or gr^M Jiswise, aiii.l c/tcndurog or thrnat- 
ditieaHO. The Mijmtf or fi<ot-<Ii»i?-«.se i.-* yciicraUy first %Tsihlc in the 
lower pjirt of tho feet, which decays if care Ite not t«k(-n. Son* are 
foiiii'l iu the feet betweien the toes, and sometinics one of the hoi>f.i 
falls ofi'.and lai^'o inai^ftot^ am frt-quontly found in the sores. This 
foot-di:j4:asti is aci>jiii{>»iiH-<l with tilct^Ts in th<! mouth, and the whole 
body is Nonirtiiiii^s atlecttsl with rtoren. In oixltiiar)' lUtucks tho 
tuiinml livim for a week or two. 'Die disease which is i-allod 
TtuihtUtig or great discasu is usually accouipanicd with diarrha» 
or watery purtpup; and for a day or two spit^Ju tlow» from the 
animal's luoutK The stomach uriet and the animal l>v«onics vofy 
tliin. TIk; disKtase lasts a fortnight or three weeks, and i» ^en«;rully 
fatal. In thediseaso known as diemlnrot} or throat -disease the aninuLl'8 
neck swells ; it app^uiRt in much i|istrv--is and refuses toftd and water. 
Tlic disL-aso husts ^ix or seven days ami i.-nd.-s futoJIy unlfSi strong 
rvmediv^ arc taken. 

The total nunil»er of deaths shown in tJie Sanitary Commissioner'^ 
yearly reports, for the seventwn years endinfj 1882, is 105.25ti or 
an avcrnjio mortality of 11,486, or, according to the 18S1 census, of 
twenty-seven per thousand of the population. t)f the ftveraj;c 
numlxT of deatl)s (WOlJ or 57'51 per cent were returned as duo to 
fevers, 317 or 27ti per cent to cholera, 2;)7 or 2'06 per cent to small* 
pox, ysOor SlSpcrcont to Iwwel complainttsanrl 3!.57or 2749 per 
cent to miscellaneous tii.seasea. Deaths fn>m \'ioIence or injuries 
avera{,'wd 219 or TOO per cent of the average mortaUty. During 
the twelve years ending 1932 the uuiiiIkt of births was returnea 
at 1 SS,09U, or an averajje yeiu-ly hirtJi raU* nf J 1 ,S08. or, according 
to the ISMl censii.*, twenty-seven ner thou-sand. An e.\Aniination m 
the returns shiiws that fever which during the iteventecii years 
cause<) an average yoiirly mortality of 6o(l6 or 57'51 per cent 
was below the average in twelve years and alwve the average in 
the five years ending ISbl. Three years, 18t>6, 1868, and 1S73. had 
loss than SOOO deaths, the lowest total being 4825 in 1873 ; six 
yew«. 1867, 180!). IS70. 1S7I, 1«72, and IS"!., liad between MOO 
•nd 6000 deaths ; and three yeai-jt, 1 87->, 1 ■470, and 1882, between 
,6001) and 7000 death:*. Of the tive years above the aven^r 1880 
bad 7181 deafb-s 1881 had 7244. ISTU had 8807, 1877 had 10,002, 
and 1S7S, tho year of excessive rainfall {13289 inches), 11.5*2. Of 
Uio dentil!* from cholera, which aiiiounte<l to 5S90 and averaged 
817. 280+ or 5202 per cent h«ppi;ned ill 1877. The only other years 
which were over the ftvoragt' werr-, 1870 with 929 dcfttli.'s, 1806 with 
8S9, and IS<J9 with sai. In none of the other years were there 
more than 100 deaths and seven vears, ls71. 1872, 1878, 1S74. 1S79, 
1880. and 1882, were free fn^m cliolem. Of the deaths from kiiir11> 
pox, which amounted to 4021 and averaged 237, 11 70 or 2909 pec 
G«ut happened in 1S72. Besides 1872 five j-ears bad a more than 
averag.' mortalitv from sinall-pox. IS71 with 702. 1877 with 478, 
1873 with 432. 1870 with 329, and 1874 with 284. Six years had 





■ C«iliKtor'a Lettar S316 of 5th Hopl«iut>«r ISTA 

ClKpter Xn. 
Birth* aiul 


lemthiuiahnDdnMl. 1807. 1868. 1869,1876, 1878, ud'l 
yean Kad less tlion ti:ii. 1879 with <iglti. anA IS80 and 1»81 
one cikIi. Of tlu^ <l<'ntli!> from boivi-l cont{>Uints. wliicli 
to l6,HiO or 9'tO a yvtvr. eleven years were below tlie av. _ 

six, ihn six Tears ondin^; IST'J, wcr« above tlic avuntL,".-. The 
auudleat number of deaths fi-om bowel ooniplHintf tn nny out- of U» 
aeventoen ywirs was 5+7 in 1867 ami the largcjit was 2:145 in 1877. 
InjuriM), with a Uitsl mortalitr of 37^3 and an average of £19. 
variwi from 169 in 1869 to 304 in 1866, Other cwiiws with a total 
mortality of 53,(170 and an uvvra^ uiortalily of 2157 variml from 
5015 in 1877 to 1350 in lft66. 

Bivtii returns are available only for the twelve years ending IS83. 
During thf'-'"-' twelve years tJio number of births averagtxl I ],5U8- 
The j'early totals varv from a loweiil of 8057 in 1878 to a lught^ of 
13,264 in*18S1. TliG aclailt arc': 



































IBM - - - 








UW ... ^ _■ 








un — _ - 







10^ tn 

U7t _. — . 







11. m 

un ... -. 


















IM5 ,_ ... ^ 

















un ... 










ttn ... ... ». 


















11 jm 












TMal -. 

























■ TImm IIg«CM a» of doabtfnl BcoiiN«y. 




K arwa-r, ' in the extreme north'Vrest oi the district is bounded on 
the north Uy Goa Hiid Kiiita, on the east by AskoU and YelWpcr, 
on the south by Ankola, and on the wo»t by the Arabian aea. 

It contaioB sixty-one vilUgos ivith an nrou of 281 tiqture milos, a 
pojxilfttion ri( i7,742 or 1 70 to the square mile, antl a ycmrly lund 
revenue of £i 1.071 (Rs. I.IO.XIO)." 

There ia a coast line of eighteen miles. Looking north from the 
rocky outstanding brow of Karw^r bead n strotcu of sand fringed 
with caenariDS troc* runs thrM milo.s from Kiirwiirtown to Eodib^. 
Eaat of tbo strin of Kaud lies a plain with patcbeii of Hoe-land and 
coooa palms and raangoe gardens e<ach with its red-tiled homestead. 
Behind, from a rugged biickground of granite bills, covered with 
forest and rich undcrgrowtb, spurM swoop forward almost encircling 
Kirw&r, and passing on Io«« themseWea in tbo itoa. Beyond 
Kodibig winds the broad Kilinadi which, asit entors the sea, throws 
np a bar of sand impassable to any but smalt craft. To the north 
OE the Kalinadi stands tho fort of Snd&shirga<], and, firom 
SiiiliUbivgad, abuub two miles to Majali, a Rolling vithige nt-ar tho 
(ioa frontier, stretches a sandy shore green to the water's odge with 
Qoco a pal m a. Along both banks of thu Kalin^df "broad belts o{ 
nco land, brnken by grovw of piilms ami other fruit trc^s, stretch- 
oust to wlicro tho Siihy^iris clo»« the riow. To tho wvst i^ the 
light-houiieiHliiudofDevgad, and about four miles south-east, Anjidiv 
rises steep from tho sea, dotted with trees and the houses of it« small 
Portuguese settlement. To the south-cast tho Hue of thu coast is 
broken by several largo btiys. It is fringed by a narrow bult of 
cuUiviit<.-d sandy soil fnjm which here and there cliffs riw nud form 
a plateau over which the Arltail pass road rnna and which rises 
CARtwards in a series of hills to the Kaiga section of the Sahytidris. 

Or the plain thu soil is aandy, and near the hills it is much nttxed 
with' granite. On tho banks of tho Kniinadi and along tho »oa- 
Bhore are large tracts of iitjni land, a bhick alluvial deposit strongly 

Chapt«r 21 





t Th* tectiaaa «b mdcc^ soil, obmtt*. and wkbir liavo bacn oontribatcd by M^ 
U. E. tjMrfy, C 8. 

' As tlio wholD dlairict hw not b««a nuTe}<«d nb-divudoa dcuUi of tb« ai«a of tho 
diOcrmt cliuaM ol aoil md of crofa are not avMliUe. 

'Th«tMUdirlriaupc>p«lstlpBMt<treT«ciiMSpnM«nttuo«Khout (or 18S1. 

(Bombfty Ot»t 



^UrXm. charged ifitli baU nnd liable to he floodwl kt hif;h tnlisa To b 
l-DirifioaB. tl'^'^' £r'V''* 'nmls undur lillage n atruug niJl must t*p biiill tn I 
out tbo HQit. A Iteuvy maufall is wiuttc] to Hwuuicn tliu Ituiil 
then, wilboui much m»nun<, if duo cni-u \s taken (uiil iho 
fakTourable, rich crop.* are raised. I'hese recla mat ions ureo 
tbo; pay if oni-e in threo yoara a good crop is Bocured 
plote of hill land lie waste from want of Inbour. 

B{r. K^rwiir bas a moist climate whose warmth U teoipcrud by ' 

Bca linieu.-. It is never cold. Povor is raro on the oast, batj 
Boon ax tbo hills bu^n, tho fonsttt damp causi's affile niid fuvor. 
Kirw&r ou tho cotutt during the tun yoarn ^tiidtiig IS'O tin? r«inl 
variM &om 78'0 inches in 187^ to 111273 inuhos in 1^7tf, 
averaged llli'6 inches. 

Along thu cuikiit all the watvr tn from wells and is good. 
•Iso the well)) yield good water, but, oxcopl on tho cuut, v 
few and the chief siippir h from tho unwholoHonic wulcr of 
omneroae etreams. Tue Kdlinadi vro^oa the aub-^livititou fruia i 
to west. It onti-rs from tbo north and iluws Wt\- 
batilut, alonf^ a bud of rocky boutd^TA. in alleruau 1^ 

Further vn^t, with inauj u ciirvd, it pswson out uf tbu tiiraC 
winds avrosti an open tract with villages and fields, the rillaf 
Erst scattered and poor, then liirger and better tilloiL At Ivi 
about twenty miles from tho eitt, (he limit of tho tide, ts a I 
plscoconnecled with tbu Bombay-Knro&tak road through tlio Ai 
pose which is lit for cart«. 

The north of Kirwar has n one of the betnlnn t gtirdi>n». the pt 
of KAoara, the hikndiwork of fTTo U»vtg Kribmans, who have not T 
taken the placoof the k<ASHkilful Konknaa. Gh £dla, H a' : ' ' V ' 
a ndl'adli ft. Througluti))ihoriulir(1ivi>siontIionI1agosur< 
into siroeiB with houses, shops, and mnrkott. TIil- I 
scattered along na rrow janoa , standing in xliady cocoa pu1< i 
ebmo oniiem tiled iend'some of them tbatchM, each with it* 
bathing- place, fuid eattlc-»bcd. Uero and there is a well 
tempio, and a few villagoa have a Romiui Cotholie ohurch. 

According to the IRSI-82 ret iinin tho farm slock iucluduk 

Sloughs, 1+2 carts, "TCti butlnckii, Gi'2:i cows, I7i'l ahe-bi 
720 be-boffaloes, 38 horses, and 232 sheep and goats. 

Thu whole itixty-one ^illngen of KAm'Ar were settled' bot 
]809-7(} and IS71-72. The reBult of the anrrey was to raisi) 
assessment from £41*117 to £10,701, that i^ an incrcaso of iA't 
or 115'&0 per cent. Thu sixtj>'*onc villages form three suri 

' up t4 the year IS73-7^ the iiirvej scttlcmcnti wliicli v«re intTnilncwl sVimr* 
SahyAdrii wvrv suuviiIuhI iii aonx cue* lor Iko nnal term of thirty vMn Mill 
oUinroiMi (oribarterparuidavstyingfnim nrditj-fiTetatbirtfj'okr*. Afl^ IbTS 
owiiif to t)ia lUlt* which ««» tfaen Iwaufht iMiaat OoTtmuneDt no ffunmiu* 
aW«B •ltb*r ill tbo suti-iliiiMnia bdow ot is Ilia •nk-iliTUtgu aboTs u« ■■-■—" 
Thvnew Mm wore wnctinMil Mit iatnxIuMdwJtbuut ti«l»ggaknalMl.l 
of fwn. Mill tb» mmoxnt «m mllscU't (rora jtmr to jrau, ** ' 
Btaclation (llfiO ot Uio 19th u( Oitobtr 1S91. thai Uio as ' '" 
aiif bl bU at wltabln intenala. uu*mit««« Invu Iwco i 
wueh bava b«uii atMwl HMM 1S7S-73 (or pcrioda vuytng 1 




blocks, the drat of which was scttloil in 1SC9-70, tbe eecond 
>■! ! ^70.71, iinfJ Uio ihird ill 1871-72. The firal block, which was 

-.1 ia lSQii-70, li&B eighteen Tillages lacludiug the purL of 
i\.(ir.TAr,' with an area of £0.022 Bcrea and in 1871 a poimlatlon 
of 17.595. Allarecitti<M-niMU-thuMA and the high road frum KArwAr 

<i or uciir thu Kiiliiindi Hvi-r. The villages coutained 7813 

- 'if rice lunil, 1 l&y acres of giirden, and 5^7 acres of dry crop. 

In addition to theao there wero 1^21 acrea of puhin or sand; noil, 

'"■' ■ndly near the siia. Tho resnll of the snrvey waa to roisie the 

nwnt from £lii85 lo £4061, au increase of 109*33 per cent. 
iiir liigheat (kurvcv rxLes are, ISs. fur garden land, 1U<. 12k. and 
lie. for rice l&nd, a*. 3». 7\d. aud J», lOid. for pttUui hwid,' aiid 
IJK. for dry-ti-op. The old asucnimcnt wn.s oxi-otfditigly m)e({ual. 
In ilie CA-so ul largo uud iniluoutiiil holder:! Lhe Hurvey increase was 

f^freat, and in tlie case of small holdors tbe survey frequently 

il a reduction. A Ui^ proportion of the land is in the bands 
of Hrihioanti, who rarely ctdtivalo thotn«olves uiid who arc bard and 
exacting landholdurs. Ordinarily thrv auhlel titeir lauds from jear 
to year. Tho settlement of the eighteen villages was the first 
•urvoy settlement in I»w)aad Kanara. Thu introduction of tho 
survey was keenly oppoHud by tho richer landholder who denied 
tb© nght of Oovcnimcnt to revise and enhance tbe assessment. Tho 
qneation was decided by the High Court in faronr of Government. 

Tb© aocond block, which was settled in 1870-71, included twenty- 
eight villages with an area of 20t square niile» and a popidnliou ia 
1871 ofl],033.'' llie block 18 divided into two gronps one of thirteen 
villagea at some distance from ihe port and trom communicatiims 
by river or road, tbe other of fifteen villa^a mitud with or close 
to the eighteen viHwgM which wero sattled in 1869-70, The rosolt 
of thesettleuiontof tho twenly-eightvillngeA was to raise the tt3.-«eM- 
ment from £lo73 to £39.17 or au increase of 150'28 per cent. The 
maximum rates for tlio fifteen well placed villages are tho same as 
those Bxod for the cighu-on villages settled in 1869-70. Tho 
highest survey rates for the thirteen remote vilJagea are Id*, for 
garden land, Vs. and 8it. for rice land, aud li* for drv-crop. Of 
129,221, the total aroa, 115,425, or 89-32 per cvnt nru nnarablu 


The third block, which was settled iu 1871-73, inolndea Gftccn 
Tillages with a» area of forty-seven square miles and a popalation 
of 6:ii6.* The result of the survey was to raise the assessment 
from fl-l-ol) to £2716 or an increase of 8t> 15 por cent. The highest 
rates are, 18jr. lor garden land, 8». 6(f,, lOs-, \'2f., and ISs. fur rice 
land ; 2». 4}^., He. Ilii,, and 3«. lO^d. for putan land ; and U«. aad 
14». for dry*crop land. 

The 1881 population returos show, of 47,7*2 people, 40,916 or 
8570 percent Hindna ; 5890 or 81C percent C'hmlinns; 2909 
OP 6-09 per cent MusAlmAas ; aud 2 1 Jews. The details of the 
Hindu castes are, 3921 Brihmaait; 895 V&ais, 152 Vaishya VAnis, 

Cbapttr : 




t8nn>«7H«port,16SorsiiitVi9b. 1871. ■ SanvT Beport, I<8<rf3lrt P«b. 1871. 
* 8ttrr«y Report, d3 of SOtb Junwy IVH. 

> vie-ss 

l3omb«7 Qftuttiu, 







and 29 Ling^Tsts, tmclors and mercluiotB; 405 HBr&thAa, S8 
ItnchovAm, und 22 Kaipntx, wxHiicQ dMei-s ; 6149 KoknAs, 
2032 Pndlift, 21)10 Halyakk i Vakkalg. I.'j85 Kun^u, 7!}9 Giin<Ib, 
Boothsavera ; l-W KnreTftHaU, 80 Jains, 14 N?3ore. and 2 (-'fi<tris, 
husbandmen; I3S8 Sondrs, gold and silver smiths ; '■'■ ra, 

carpont«n>; 164 Knmbiirs, putU-rs; loi> T^oMrs, bWk 44 

ShtmiiiH, tailors; 27 QaundiA, mavms; 10 Kiain, cop 


124;i Paltu&IU, ailk-oordmalcei-a; 31 TelU, oilmen; Si'iG l>l.:iud.tnB, 
and 40;}7 Kon^rpiiks, palm-tappers ; 46ii Gaulis, oowhoraa;T307 
KoliB, 841 EKf^Snw, 837 Giibiu, 728 Klijlrvi><, 7tC AmhigTt, 117 
Bhoix, 107 V6.g}», and 101 Me^.n, fi^herm^n; HIS Hi\W V.-ijiuitris 
and 33 Bbanddri V&jantna, muaician^; 227 Kalsraata, Bingerii and 
dancers; 1376 Derbs, temple attendants ; 1320 IJl(ndis, serrauls; 
230 Parits, wiishitrmfii ; 210 Hiydmii, biirlit-r.t ; 78 Bunids, basket- 
wearers ; 158 Jog:ia, 45 K&nph&te ioah, and S Th^kura, beg^r»; 
65 C'hsnig4u«, alioetuakcrs ; 1 29 CbchalT&diB, 304 Mb^ and 68 

Agors, dcpresaed dasgft . . . 

Ankola, ' on the oon»t, is bonaded on the north by Eiimnir and 
TeiiApiir, on tho south by Kiinita, rm the eaat b? Sir»i, and ozi the 
wecit bj the Arabian sea. It contftins ninety villages vritb an area 
of 367 square miles, a population of 34,189 or 93- 1 o to the sqnare 
mile, and a yeariy land rcvonuo of £9006 (Itt. 96,660). 

Tho coast lin» iM^ginv at Karr^da, a Bioall fiahicg rillaffe tivvln 
miloa south of K^nara, and stretches abont sixteMi tniTes to Uis 
Gang&Tali river. There arc no navigublo riv-crs in this part of tba 
const. But there are two inlet* at Bi^likeri, about two ntile« soatli 
of HarvAda, and at Ankola. At high^tide boats under one ton (4 
Hindu] pass np tho inlet about three miles to tho Uatikeri brtd^ 
on the A'rbail rciM]. At Ankola, obont fonr miles «M}iith of Betikeri, 
boats of one ton and under pass abont three uiile» inland. In 
thp five mtlc3 bctwoeu HarvAda and Aukola the shore is a finA 
belt of sand, pleasant for walkers or riders, lined with groves of 
ODOoa palms, and in places broken by rocVy ridges which ran into 
the sea. Id tho five miles between Ankola and the GangllTali bloS 
rocky cliffs overhang Uie shore and the coast road mna about a 
mile inland thningh rioe-fielda and over latcrito plntcnus. Three to 
five mites inland stretches a plain coverotl with lice fields, eoooaniit 
palms, mangoe, cashewnut, jack, and other fruit treeci. Then small 
nilla beg in, covered with stones, coarse grass, and brushwood. 
fttrtEereast the hills grow steeper and arc more thickly wooded. 
In all suitable spaces riov-Sulds am laid out in tiers, nnd, in tho deep 
well watere<l valleys, wbieh, between Bpnra. run into the Ijsm oF tbo 
Sahy^ris are large and valuable betelnnt gardens. West of tlio 
Yeliipur boi-der tho forests are not of much value. Near Belikeii 
sad AnkoU the hills are bare ae in furmer years Urge areas vrero 
cleared for wood-ash tallage. 

Tho coast villages are healthy and free from fever. Belikeri 
especially is a favourite resort for Europeans. Towards the 

> Ankola n-u a p«tty diriiian b( KuntA tip to tfct your ISSt wben U WM miut* a 
(•pwkt* ■ub'fllnnoii. lu >arriiy ilcMtl* uc gir«s wiUi Eunta, 




Sahy^ris tho climate baoomos moUt, hot.and feveriah. Achro and 
BoiQO otlior |)liioo» bave ao bad a name that it ia difficnlt to gut 
labourora to go there. As Ankola {ormcd part of EmutH till l&Sl, 
no Bepaiate rain retnrtis am arailablo for tlio sub-diviKiou. 

Along the coast nnmorons wuIU yield a i^ood and pure supply 
of wntcr. Tlio OwiHATftli flow.i from tb« Yelldpur frontier 
dividing Ankola from Ramta. It is navigable for craft of one to firo 
toiis('l~2U kkandU) about fifteen miles tO Onadb^o. Its water is 
of no oae for irrigation, as aboru tho limit of the tide its banks 
are covered witb forusts. Among the Subyddri iiilla wells yield 
good vrator, but tlio chief source of drinking water is the rivulota 
which flow oat of the hill sides. Their water is clear and beautiful 
to look at, but it is full of vegotaUv matter and oauHas fever and 
other sickness. There is no lack of water for irngation. Aa the 
olitnalo dooa not snit oattle, the welU are worked not by bnllocks 
but by a wooden trough which moves upon a pivot, or by a leather 
basket scoop called dotte, which is swang thi-ough the wittor by a 
man on each aide of the pond. 

Most of the land along the coast is sandy and reqnirm much 
manure to yield fair return. Between the »«a and the bills are 
many barren tracts. The soil of rest of the inlands is red. 

According to the 1881-82 returns the farm stock of the ninety 
villages of Ankola includi><l 4715 ploughs, 85 carts, 10,865 bullocks, 
10.006 oows, 1395 she-buSaloes, 2468 he-baE^oes, 6 horses, and 
124^ sheep and goata. 

The 1S81 population returns show, of 34,189 people, 82,781 or 
9i>'88 per cent Hindiui; 1013 or 296 per cent MusnlmiUis; and 
395 or 1-15 per cent Chri-iiinns. Thu details of tho Flindu castes 
are, 38150. Urihruana; b'i'i Viiiiis, 20-> Vaishya VdoLs, 102 Niirvokar 
Vdnis, 62 Telugu VAuis, and 1 7 Ling&yats, traders and merchants ; 
79i UAnithiis and 3 Rajputs, warlike classes; 6221 Halva kki 
Vakkals, l.'>63 Nidors, 1218 Kunbio, IlOl Kare Vakkals, lS?7 
Pidtis, 290 Koknaa, 243 Gilm Vakkala. 65 OhidU or soothsayers, 
and 3 Jains, husbandmen; 1621 Sonars, gold and silver smiths; 
2 till Kurnbur^, p<>IIi!r< ; 191 Suture, carpenters ; 61 Shimpis, tailors ; 
00 Lohirs. black^-imithH ', 31 Jingar«, siuld Ic- makers ; 519 Telia, 
oilmea; 2307 Koiuiii-])dika, &10 Bhanditm, 1949 Halep^ks. [lalm- 
tappers; 16 Ohangtrs. shephordit ; 934 Kh^rvia, 929 Harkantras> 
597 Oabits. 248 Ambige, and 111 Bhoia, fishermen; 120 lUller 
Vdjaiiln-i, mii^iciana : 24>5 Kaidvants, singers and dancers ; 806 
Bandia, servants; !99 Pnrits, washermen; 110 Hnjiims, barlwra; 
98 UcvliH, Hur^anta; 13 Lambiiiii^, carriers; 101 Cbunglin, shoe- 
makera ; 1502 Agora, ISO BiUiadfl , 178 H aslant, depre^iHed claMea. 

Kumta , on the coast, ta bounded on the oorth by Ankola, on 
the east by Sirsi and Siddipiir, on the south by Honiivnr and on 
the west by fcbo Arabian sea. It eonlnins 120 vilUgCN with an area 
of aboHt 230 sqnfiro miles, a population of &S,578 or 26o40 to the 
square mile, and a yearly luud revenue of £12,122 (Rs. 1,21220). 

The coiutt line which begins south of the Qang&rall rirer consists 
pf long Btretchos of sand, fringed with oocoanut gardenB, ciosmdi. 

Chapter XI 












by froqusnt rocky highlaodi and headl&nds tind \iy tidal o 
IuVn<l thu plain rim\s in pinc'us into spurs aud blocks of hi' 
to 700 feet high. Closer to thu Si»hyil<!ri* tli« hills are liifiher a 
steeper, separaiifd by uarrow viilii^yx which rati to Uib roots o£ tha 
Sahrddri range, in the centre of the sub-division are n fow 
busn-corered Uterito pl&toaus 7oO to lUOO feet bi^^h. Thu high- 
lands on the coast nro oompanittvcly bare, but oight to twolve milus 
inland thu hilU are ix>Terod willi funsHt wbidi liecoities dentter in ibo 
UKighlxmrhMod of the Sahyddri hills. Along the coaat a btdt of 
flonrishing cocoanut gardens has behind it a atrctcb of fiurly fertile 
rice Lmd. Soyond the rice land ia the central iilaiu croEsed by rico 
fields with a few patches of sugarcuw. Fartoor inland rico givM 
way to rdgi 

The coast Tillagea are healthy. It is hot in tho iDmmer aad 
there is little or no cold weather. The deu.s« foreat and heavy 
rainfall of the cn^tftm villages make thorn feverish. At Eumta on 
the coniit. during the ten vuarA cmling 1879 Iho rainfatl vim*.«d fnjm 
96-2 inchM in 1877 to 26l-28 iuehea in 187S ami iivttragud YA^IU 

Thtougbont the Hub-division there is no lack of water either for 
drinking or for the fields. The wnt«r on the coast is i;ood. fn tlio 
forest villages the Hiipply is abundant, but tho qnntity is bad. 
Besides wells and streams nianr Tillages hare a gi-'xl .-qipi'h' of 
pond water. From the coast to the Snhy^ria evety inhabited 
surehasiteweU,andnmnfronsr)vulet«snd watercourses, flo win ^j; .<..>m. 
tho hills into tho I'adri and Qangivali, are iioed for watering the 
twfgi or hoi-wealher rice-crops. 

I'he soil of the coa^t villages is sandy, fnrtlier inland it is i«d 
mixed with sand, and in tho extreme east it is red. 'I'he rice landft 
of the coast villages are fairly prodo^tivc, many fields ,3aclding two 
crops a year. The Suhyddri gnrdon lands are fertile, the chief 
products being coooaauts, rioo, botcluuta, pepper, angnrcaoe, and 

According to the 1881 -S2 returns, the bkrra stock amounted ia 
4900 ploughs, 14tJ carta, 12,010 bnllocks, 11.2U cowa, 2910 ^he* 
buffaloes, 2183 ho-bufFalotM, 11 horses, and 253 sheep and goats. 

Between 1S72 and 18S2 the whole of the Kamts sub-di vision, 
including the ninety Tillages now in Ankota, hiw been bp>iight 
undor the survey settlement. According to the survey, the 213 
vilhtgeM of Eumts iind tho ninety viUngos of Ankola have between 
tliein :>7,S£rj occnpitHl and unoccupied arable acres assessed 04 
£20,288. Uomparoa with (he old rates, the survey niwssnieut oit 
occupied land ha^ caaaed a rise from £14,493 to £1!>,7tiO, that is an 
increase of £5267 or 86-34 per cent. The highest aurvey acre 
rates vary from £1 to £1 4«i. in garden land, from 7s. to Via. in 
rice land, and from \i». to lif. in dry-crop land. The detaUs aro : 




Crjrrj ^sd Axkola Sckvwt Dbtxom. 
















ff _ 


H ... 

iwt-re ,. 

IS7*Ii .. 
UCWT ... 

ifTj-ni ,.. 

U»Bl _ 
TStol ... 


























0£ tfae sis surrey blocks the firet block of forty-nine villages wliich 
was settled in lf72-73 bus nn wcft of 97,906 ncres or lifiy-nma 
niitus nnil a populittiun of 31,020 or hdG to the Rquoro mile.' These 
vUIage.1, including the towns of Kiimta, Ankola, and Qoknrn, are 
either near the hca or clow to freqncnted and vrell-made roads or 
navignbto rivors. Rice is the Mtnple crop. Some rice lands yield 
two crops in the year either both of rice or a lirat crop of rico and a 
second crop of pulsa or brinjnls and sweet potatoes, and frecjavntly 
DTory third yimr h crop of sti^ircano. Xdchm or royi' is the chief 
dry-crop. In the gnrdon hindi* cocoanuts are the principal prodnoe 
but many villages grow the betel-palm alone or with cooounnt palms. 
SfaDRD, cashewout and jack trees, and undig or Alexniidrino 
laurels grow in gruut nnmbum in iho gardens. Tho water ia from 
ponds and Iui!« coiiimouly from atnmms and wells. Over the whole 
■ub-dirision tlie rainfall is so heavy that the ground is Indon with 

The result of the survey rates wae to raise the aasesament from 
£4»31 to £diS2 (Rs. 48,310 -Its. u-1,220), an imrreaso of twelva 
per cent. The highest survey acre rato^ for the different classes of 
Ytllaged are, £1 for gardeo land, I0«. lt». and IS*, for rice 
land, 8fi. for putaii^ Iiuid, and l^*. for dry-crop land. I'his 
compamtiriily small iucroase vrm duo to tlio fiu;t that in former 
tlii:<vi tlio villages were strictly managed. At tho Kama time there 
wure many cattsa of unequal aseosameut. The greatest dccrouo 
was ihirty-two per cent- in the villap.' uf Knlhaif, the 8ur\'ey reducing 
tho aMOHsmont from £7S2 to X.'jOO (I^t. 7320-Ra. 5UO0J. The 
highe«it increiwe wm CI I per cent iu the village of Bilohoynngi in 
which the aasesameut was raised from £2 to £13 (Rs. 20- Rs. 130). 
Tho former inequalities were chielly due to the corruption and false 
repreiientiUiuns of villngo and dii^trict officers.' The area of 
alienated land was 324 acres a»Ae.4it«d at £127 {H». 1270). 

Chapt«r XII 


■ Snrr«>- Ri>e«ft, SWnf %tli fVbnwrjr IST3. 

' Fulwt or Mito u ■ Mtiily oMurt («l which grows coooaant trco*. It eu be 
DKd to gryw ri«« hy Knpiue off Ute larfaoa litjvr at mikL 

■ Tlw riUuD of Tun^iuidk i> • •paoial «aM of fraad. It vm gnutail at tk« 
1.-b' lining of BritMb rak tooiM Liiis*pp», the fatberofft writer auuailSubirlv in tha 

■ Kt oSm ou ao aMcMHaoDt of CSflU.SOl. SubtrAv by (oIm lapvaMntatiui* 
:.4il a redaction of WMMKcnt in l$S8-39 whw K* wm lubiiUkUr. At the tin* 

(Bombar QuetlMT, 







The second block of twenty villages ti dose (o and mixed witli 
thQ lirst blook of furty-ninu rilLiget). Tho aarroy r»UM wcro fixod 
in 187:1-7*.' The lima of Uiew Iwonly Tillages ia +1,271 acru* or 
aixt^'four Bijuare miles and tlie popnlalion was 7265 or 114 M 
tho square mile. The diatribatioD of the population is very 
aDOqaaL Tbo inbind trnots DOar thv bills have fuw people, while 
near the coast the oreasure ia over 30O to th« sqtuire mile. Rioe ta 
tbe staple crt>p, and there are alao 824 acres ot excellent oocoaaDi 
and betelnut gardens. The asseasmeat was raised from £1248 to 
£2301 (Rs. 12.4S0'Ks. 23,UIO)or an increase of Sl-37 per cent. 
Tbe liigheet survey acru rutcti are, £1 \a. for ganlon land, 7«. SJa. 
10s. 11*. 12«. and ISjt. for rioe land, and 14«- fer dry-crop land. 
There were no cases of reduction, tbongb in many cases tbe survey 
rates are 1ms tlinn one-third of the rates in tbo first group of 
forty-nine villaeen. The iucretMc iTtried from liriiiiLy-Gve per coot 
in tlie village of Ulgeri to fifty-four per ount in Udlur. 

The third block, which was aettled in 187<i-77, iDcliidos forty- 
one villages.' Bxcopt a few among the bills in tJio oxtrvme 
north-east, tho Tillages of this group are eitber on the aeo-ahore or 
ou or at a short diaUince from tho Gaugdvali. The total area of the 
villager ia 'i'l,Wi acrea or 143 annare utiles, and the population at 
the time of the survey was 16.328 or 113 to the equaru mile. Aa 
in the other blocks tho duusity of the popnlatton varies greatly, 
from au nTOnigo of 51S to the square mile in tbe coast villages to 
twenty in the bill villagee. Some of the rillagea are crossed bv 
the KArwir-lIubli road through the Arbail pass. Tbi-ra is ninon 
traffic on this Kiirwitr-Hubli road and products filU>d for local use 
and fodder command high prices. Rico is tbe staple crop, and 
much of the rice laud bears a second crop either of rice or of poUa. 
A crop ot sugarcane evurj third year ia not uaoonmoQ, utid fine 
fields of caue may bo acen up the Qangirali valleys. The garden 
lands on and sear tlio ooaal are excellent uud ni^' iit the stapki crop 
of the dry land. Tbe result of tbe survey was to rajse the 
asacssment from £3300 to £4480 or ou increase of 35'75 per cent. 
The highest survey acre rates are, £1 for garden land, 7<. 8i*. 10«. 
11a. 12«. and 1-5*. for rico land, and \\s. for dry-crop. 

The fourth block, which was settled in 1877-78, includes the lands 
of tn-enty-two villages, with an area of 26,978 acres or forty-two 
Tsquare miles, and a populatiou of 4737,' Moat of tbo villagi.!« of 
this block lie between tbe two tidal rivers, tbe Titdri and Uangivali, 
and some villagea contain gtyni or aalt noo htnd. There were 408 
acres of garden laud, some of it of superior quality, growing large 
numbers of cocoa and betel palms. The result of tbe survey wm - 
to raise tbe assossnwot from £1369 to £2046 (Bs. 13,690> 
Rs. 20,460) or an increase of 49'4& per cent. Tbo highest surrey 
acre rates are, £1 4«. for garden land, 10;. \\^». 12». and 13a. for 

ol mrvty 906 unva tba wbols uablo •»■ of tbe vflb^ wm ooeopfsd. Tlw 
WM rabed from £7 t» £90 (R*. 70.R*. WO} vt u inor««M of Via pw coot. 
> Snrrey ncport, 406 ot 3nl Mareh 1874. * Zamy ItrjK.rt, 405 of 4Ui APlil 1077. 
■ tjurrty Baport, III of SOtb Apnl 1878. 


rice land, and 1}«. for dry land. The former rotes had heen 
oxtremcly aneven. lo eome villagos tbo nuw rates cousi^d a 
OonsiderubUi full ; iu thti villagu of Jagti tbe rediicUon wns tliirty-tJirco 
per oout, wltili!!, with new raUM slightly lower thou tJiose in Jugaj the 
survey caused a riao of 153 aod 169 per cent in the TiU^^ of 
KolginstiUa and Karebail. 

Tho fifth block, which was svUlod in 1879-80, included ntxty- 
eiffbt nllag«s with an area of 88,9'iO aores or 1 S'J square miles.* 
Of the sixty-eight villaffea which formed this block five are on 
the north of the Kumta nver, two are in the hiUy north-oasl, and 
sixty-one are in the south, some on tho coast near Kumtn, and 
others on tbo vulloy of tbo Kiimtiv rirer uj> to the hills. J'opulatioa 
ia dense on and near the coast, ^bont 139 to the square mile; 
rice ia the staple rain crop, and eome landH whc-ro the water 
anpply 18 abundant yield a second crop oilhvr of rice or of pidse. 
Tho coconnntond hotelunt giirtlun.t of some Tillages are exoeedingly 
good, with aa m»ny as tiOO to 800 betelnut trees on an acre. The 
Tillages are well placed as regards land and sen communication. 
Thoro waa no record of tho aroa fonnerly under occupation, and the 
old rates were exceedingly unequal. 'I'be result of the survey waa 
to raise the a&sa-tBnient from £.20i:i to £3114^ or an iacroow of SoOl 
per coot. The hight^st survey scro rattis are, £1 43. for garden 
lend, 7*. 8J», I0». II*. ISk. and 13*. for rioo land, and Ij*. for dry- 
orop land. Tho increase is less than ia the other Kuratagroaps 
be«anse from the first a majori^ of the sixty-eight villages were 
much moro closely managed Dy the Madras Uovvrument than ths 
Tiltugm fnrtbcr from the head-qtiart«r9i of the sub-division. 

The sixth block, which was settled in 1879-80 and 1880-81, 
included eighteen villafifes with an area of 87,845.* Except four 
Tillages in tlie centre of the snb-diTiaion, the eighteen villages of 
thin hl'K'k are iu tho north-cast among tho hills. Rioo is the staple 
crop, but in some villages the garden land is particuhtrly good. As 
owing to their outlying position the former ratea were extremely 
low, the result of tbo survey was to raise the asseesmout from £S20 
U> £1^1)5 or Hu incmoso of 90'85 per cent. Tho muxttmim acre 
rates are, £1 for garden Land, 7«. 8}*. and lOt. for rice knd, and !(«. 
for dry-crop. 

The 1881 population retorns show, of 58,758 people, 55,102 or 93-77 
percOHtwcruHindux; 2093or3o7pcroi*nt MosnImlSnB; 1530 or 2-60 
per coot Chri^tian.s; 17 Kirsit; »nd 111 Ituddhistd. The details of iho 
Hindu castes ore 1^327 ItrKhm&us; HGt VAnis, 121 Bh&tiaa, 119 
Vaishya Vinis, Qi tingdyata, and 8 GujaMt V&ais, traders and 
nnrchants; 920 MarAthAa. 50 Xityers, and 29 Rnjpnia, warlike 
olassee; 8983 Ualvakki VakkalK, 5140 Onm Vnkkals, liJ54 Nildors, 
6SS Sudirs,369 Kare VakkaU.21(>Ghddis, soothsayers; 122 Kunbis, 
92 Jains, 56 IVUis. 37 PaDchamsalia, 28 Are Martlthils, and 22 
Chetris, husbandmen ; 1928 SonJlr*, gold and silver arniths ; G63 





Black fir. 


<8«>rv«y K«Mrt, 310 «( Ttb April ItSO. 

* 9uiyvj R«pi>rtJ, 410ot2&tb April 1880, u»d 96 «( 4lh Fnhnuj 1S8I. 







SnUrs, carpenters 461 Knrabire, 
47 Lohira. bUckHoiitlis ^ £d Knair- 
iniutotis ; His TulU, uilinoa ; 678*) 
2D2 KunuLrp&iks, palm>UpperH ; 897 i.>..i^j i'>m>ii' 
cowk«epon t 28 Dhangors, sbephonU ; 1712 J I 
Ambipt, 712 Uogon, 6>ti) Gibit^. 3<)l Kk/i 
Kolit, fialieniiwn ; 470 Hiillcr ViLJAniinM. ' 
Bhaodiri Viljantrui, inuaiciMis ; - uts, 

dsaoen; 1006 Uaudia, servauta; _., vr^- 

Uajama, b«rbars i 1 19 Padiy&rs, semiata ; 64 
ntU.'niJftiit« ; 87 Karoharus, c»Ulo>brc«dore ; 13 T-- 
77 OoHfim &cd 61 Jogit, bcgKkrs; 1G9 C^au' 
02 mdigan, tasnera ; 228S Uokris, o^G A^vrs^ 15u Ci 
J7 Bm1m^ WtJ '-^- MMre. depresae ti claasea^ 
HonaYar is boundiKl on ths nortli by Ka. 
SiddApur and Maisur, on th« wrath by K'''''iv.T ,,, ._-,,, mu 
and on the weet by the Arabian aoA. It - 140 

an area oF 446 tiqa&re Diiles, a population ni ?..<.i " 
nqOMV milo, and a land ruvenao of £15,97^ (Km. 1 

A little to the nortli of Kumta n high laUjri' 
as it ittrotches south betwiwa Maaki and 11.-..., ;,, .,, 
eacroacheflon the coastbelt of garden aad rioe laitd, t.ill, i^ 
it leares but a very narrow Bln^ of sai) I '■ "n itsi base 
sea. Beyond thv Hon&var cn^vk tho InU r .lu niffiir'. 

r^SSdSS^ and ia oonstantly brtikeu by tt|>ui-!< rv 
coast. The plateaa disappears to the north of Mi.i 
agniti ap|K»n) betwiwa thti Shinili crook and Itluttk^. The 
Tilla^s are like those of Kumta, bat in suujd villng^tt noptli] 
Hunivar lari;^ tracts of late rioo laud mn a oonitidumbla disl 
inland. Tho aub-dirision is well watered by nufailiti^ ati 
Near tha middlo it is divided by tbo Oors-ippa river, ivbtMn 
have many rich villains filled witli cocoa-palm 'In 

north of the sab-diviMon from the coast eastwn: li-aied 

valleys with gardeuB and rice lands, barren and Lrwiliun later 
plat«aafl rise one behind the other till they lose thBinsalves in 
Safay&dris. Near the spurs of tbo Sahy^ris, which hers 
stcvpvr tlinu in Kumta, tho forest begins, and, as in tbn rest 
Kinnra, grows deeper and richer ia tne upper slopes of the hil 
In the south of tho sub-ili virion the \iit- 

in a series of hilU cuvered with a thick, l!: '^1. 

trees. The centre of the petty dinsion of Uli&Lkal is very wild 

Except in a few of the eastern villagcH the climate is good, 
tlie eostom vill«ges, durinir the cold weathur and the rainy mont 
fover is prevalent, and in the hot weather tho hmt is moi;t oppreasii 
At HonAvnr on the coast during the t«n yt'are unding 1879 tl 
rainfall varied from 91*48 inche.* in ltl77 to ISt'Cl iuchcs iu 18S 
and averaged 139'8J^ inches. 

Tho >Shir&Tati or Gorsappa river crosses tho sub-divLiioii 
east to wceu In tho vast it Is divided into two small cfaaniK^b. oi 
of which agwn breaks into three branches. The water except 



„ — 233 

ila higher reaofa is andrinhable. About thirty-six miles )toutIi<«ast 

Sf Hon&vor, the Shir&vttti forms the famous GersappA (Ma vritji a 
rop of about 830 fci*t. Tho north of Uon^vsr is well supplie<l 
with stn>aui« manj of wliich How tiin»iKhout the year. 'I'heso 
ativami flow into the Cliandivar river which lU Hnldipur, turning 
■t right ant^les to the sea, flow§ into the OiT^nppa or ShirAvatt 
rivor at Ilou&var. South of the ShirAvati are uumerouH Hmall 
rirulets a fvvr of which last throughuitt tho year, and at Sbirdli 
and Uhatkal tbero are rivers whosu> wutur is (Irink&blo above the 
limit of the tide. The vilUgea bare many wells uud a Dcarvity of 
w»i<.*r is eoldom felt. 

In tlie coast villages the soil is sandy, and the villages liv che 
■idu of tho river ShirflTatj have a dark alluvial soil l<x:ally known as 
italt or blnoic. Near tho hill.'< the ttotl is red. The !<andy coast soil 
requires mnch manure. In the hill; ti-aots where thoro is «artb 
enoni^h haluil or dry crop cultivation is carried on. The ehief 
{HVhIiicI^ are rice, sugar, coc-oannts, brt«lnutfi, and pepper. On the 
ooaat and rivtir l)iink.'« o>co;i- palms inixtxl with oittvl-paltns are 
largely grown. Inland, tho ohieE products of the valleys and of the 
Sahytidri spurs, are betelnuts mixod with plantains, pepper, and 
b«tfil-vini^. Tn tho lowlands rice iii much grown and ovoasionally 
■agarcane in the bettor rice lauds. The dry-cro]i tillage i« of little 
importance and h chiefly confined to ndckni. 

According to the 1S8U8:j returns, the farm stock amounted to 
79(>7 ploughs, 29 carts, 15,9+2 bQllocWs, I5,7t>0 cows, 3718 she- 
bufTalou'4, 'Vi30 ho-bulTalovs, 13 honw.'*, and 'm2 sltcop and goats. 

Of the US vilkg08 of Hon£var, up to thu 3Ut of Ueoembor 1881 
only thirty-seven had been brought under the survey settlement. 
The result of the survev of the&o thirtv-sevon villages was to raise 
the nesossmont from £(JI87 to £0909 (it;. 01,870- Us. 69,690) or an 
incixra.'te of 1203 per ooiil. Tho max i muni tu.Tv g-^rden rat«s vary 
from £1 bo £1 4«., rice i-ates from lltt. to 13«., and dry*cn>p ratoa 
Kro I J<. Tho details are : 

HojtAVdK Hcurtv Dtrjuu. 




8<a*«i. 1 















B ... 
1 ... 

W ... 

MOM - 

UIS-W .. 
Total . 

















The tbirty-aeven villages which have been surveved form three 
blocks of twenty -seven, nine. Mud oue villages each. X'he &r8t block, 
which was settled in 1880-81, contains twunty-Movea villogM 
including the town of HouAvar, with an area of 27,421 acwsj and a 
population of 23,548 or &B1 to the square mile.' AU of ifad 

■ Snivay Bepert, MO of 8tli h.frA 1881. 

■ 916-30 

Chapter Z1 













Bfeti rrr. 

rillftgca of this Uork arc on tho oMst. Tho fiulds, n» n 
wt'll tilled and tho crop* good ; tlie people are pWKjiornu*, 
woll-built hoiiCM, each in a separate eoctosnre with a cicanlj 
giain-yard in front Thoagh, except in Hociavar. carta 
conimnnication is eftsy, botli by water and olonfr f^crd fo 
The result uf thu snrroy was to raise the asaesftut<!ot f- 
£•1396 or an increaKO i'hO of per ceoi Tbe inaximui. 
for g»rdon laod, ■!«■ I2«. and 13«. for rica land, and 1 ^k. fur" 
crop IsDcl. 

Tho necond block of nino Tilla^fM, irbicli were brought tinda 
surrey settlcmmt in 1H61-8S, lias aii am of 20,760 acn'ji'. 
viUagw of ihii block are in the north of the aiili-division, 
for tlio most part are somewhat inland. The ^r^lon land 
exceedingly good. Rinds run from Hon^var to ISirKt by 
Ucviniani and Xilkond pM»ii», bnC thcy carry no ^roat traffic, 
result of the surrey was to raise the assessment from £1371' to i 
or an increase of 23'78 per cent. The maxiiDum rates nn>, £1 
for garden land, I1«. 12«. and I3s. for rico land, and l^a. for 

Bendes theso tltir^-six villages, the villnge of Mask], fimr mila 
south of HonArar, with an area of abnat thirteen squaro auleH < 
n popaUtioa of 446i, was speciallir settled id IS76-TI in com 
with certain land prowetlinga. Tho rosuU of tho sarrey 
raise the aweetmijul fn)ui £<>0& to £866, lliat is an increase ofj 
or 43'2 per cent. The niaximuui acre tales were, £1 for 
land, lU. and 12«. for rice land.and 1J». for diy-crop.* 

The 1881 popolation returns kIiow, of 85,625 paople. 74,43£ 
86-l>2 per cent Hindus; 7443 or 8'69 per eeut MnssImitiN ; 
3754 nr 4'38 por cent ChristiaDs. The details of tho Hiuda caal 
we. IMftOBrAhtimiis; 285 Vinis, 83 Vaiah™ Vdnis, 21> Lingftj 
and 16 Mallnvx, traders uud merchants; 4286 Mar&tbis, 4;i Hiy 
and SO Kaj}>ut4, warlike clnsKOt) ; S855 Qin^ Vakknls, 
Ualvakki Vakkals., 2427 Sadira, 327 Chctris, 270 Jains, 171 
Vakkais, 04 K&dors, and 51 Padtis, husbandmen ; 1973 Soniirs. j 
and Hilver smiths; 922 Sutdrs. carpentorsj-SOS Kumb^rs, |)ot 
336 Gaunditi, ma-song ; CC Louirs, blacksmiths; IS Kuwir 
coppiTsmilliii ; 10'>4 Telis, oiliiioii ; lol PatwUis, »ilk-c«rd makers™ 
1^4^0 ilalep^iks, 2034 Komilrpdiks, nud 043 l)hiind)ln>;, palm- 
tappors ; 2016 Dhangars, whuphcrda ; 277 Qollara, cowkfep<rs ; and 
32 Oaulis, cow'Befds; 31J0 KhiWif, 2209 Mogcrs, 877 A-.l^n- 
591 Harkantraa, 191 GAbits. and 128 Bhois, fishorm 
SappaligK and 761 H&ller V^jantrb, musicians ; 96 K.i'ut:iiu~. 
singers aad dancers ; 1695 Bandis, senranta ; 757 Parits, 
washermen; 462 llajimft, barbers; 137 Padiyirs, servant*; 
4 Lambinia, owners of bullocks; 148 Jogts, 21 Daaas, and 2 
niilknrs, beggars; 311 Madigars aud 117 Chamgirs, \er' 
workers; 1867 Mukris, 700 Hilars, 692 CbobalTfidi*, 257 Mi . . 
and 106 Bakads, depressed clasaea. 

*Snnrsy Bif«H.48I of 3M Msj- ISSl. *Surr«y Ropoti, 3831 ot Slid May I8T1 

SujML. in the north of the district, ia bonnded on the north hy 
Bi'li tn Bdganm and DhtlrwAr in Dhitrwftr, on th^ ciist hy Ealgbatgi 
in Dhiirwiir, on thu Houth hy YulUpitr and the KAlinadi, und on the 
west by thu SaliyitdriH and Qoa. It oonlaiDs 269 rillogee tvith au 
area of 979 square miles, a population 61,164 or 6246 to the Kquuro 
mite, and a yearly land revenue of £.10,669 (Ra. 1,06,690). 

The nort h and cas t ia a n open pla in ; the south and w eat, escept 
tomv ricv plots »nd f^rdcDA,nru (nil of hills and toreats. Tlio Supa 
fon-!tt!«, Konic of wLiVli are the Giieftt in KfinaVa, ai'e both )oaf- 
aheddingand evei-green. The whole snb-diTision is waving uiilands 
soamed by the K&Iinadi and iU tributaries. Host of the amall area 
under t>illn)f<? is held by i^honvt Briihmatui and Marfitbits. Some of 
ihiTSu Mitr^ttlia husbandmen are de*dis and nome are wood-ash tillers 
liriiig near Iho SahyAdrts. The chief crop are rice and sngarcaiie ; 
Docoaanta and bet^luuta are aUo grown to a small extent. 

As moat of the sub-division ib surrounded by hills and fo«?sfa, the 
clirniito ia oold and fcroriah. There ia a heavy rainfall during the 
8oiith'we«l monsoon, scvoro ccld in winter, and moderate hdut in 
summer. At Ualiyitl in the north-east of the anb-diviaion during the 
t«n yeara eadiug 1S79 the rainfall varied from 29-70 inches in I87I 
to 8'iO inches in 1872, and averaged 47'8 inches. 

The sub-division is supplied with numerous targe and small 
9trean;ui, some of which last throughout the year and others dry tu 
the hot seaAon. Dying and deadleavea, though thoy do not lessen 
ite clcamesa, make the water of many of (ho unfailing streams 
dangerona to drink. Tlic K&Iinadi rnnH in the south with deep 
JMOU 200 to 300 y»r<l8 wide. On the bankx are the Uanddi forests 
vhich for nciarly lialf a century have been famoua in the recordn of 
Bport. besides with stream water the north and south are fairly 
aopplicd with wells and ponds, some of which la«t thrmighout the 
year und fithcrs for eight months. The water of thoae ponds and 
-veils is nnwholeaome and nnsuited for drinking. 

In the north and east is a black and fertile soil which yields crops 
without mannre. To the south and vtnt the soil is partly red and 
partly white, and (ho crops depend on the water-enpply. The chief 
product* are Indian millet, rdgi, gram, eami rice, navani rice, peas^ 
sngarcane, castor-.'<«ed, and CMna. 

According to the 1881.82 returns, the farm stock included 8085 
ploughs, 1376 carta, 18,961 bullocks, 20,011 cows, iilOO «ho- 
DuSdoee, &&d8 he-buffaloes, 147 hordes, and 1616 sheep and goats. 

Of the 271 villages of Supa 2-13 have been settled betneen lS6-i 
and ism. AooonSng to the survey returns these 243 villages have 
69,062 occupied acres assessed at £9080 and 7S99 unoccupied 
unarable acres assessed at £399. The higheot acre garden rates ai-e 
]().«., and rioc rates vary from 8». to 1 2>., and dry-crop rates from 1«. 
to 2o>. The details are : 








Of tlir (our survey blot-ki* iutit which the 24U Hur\'eyed vill^ 
nru divided, the first bItKrk of 126 Tillages, with an am cJ 
49,697 acroB were brought nndor survey Brttloinpat botwcon 1 ^''- '-'"•* 
and 1 8flG-67, twenty in I86y-61, forty-four in 186-1-65, f 
ill IftC'i-Cfiandlwen^-one in 1866-07.' TheTillagres of thi- '.-nxt, 
which includes the towu nf Hiiliydl, aro in the north-oast, of thv ro'ei- 
diviHion OQ the borders of Bolgaum and DhArwitr. llie Till 
little nioro than cloarings in a grvat fora»t. Rice ix iho ntjif < 
the btisb«ndry is g<X)cl, the fS<>ldH iM'ing well and can;fully tilled ani 
mnourod a« plentifully ao the Rupply admits. At the time of tb 
Kiirvoy nisny of the upper classes, ihe beadmoo and acconotanU 
of the Tillages and their relations, were fonnd to be thriving- ' ^^^ 
eipenae of th« poorer husbandmen. Neuriy every viUn^o '- 
throe or more excellent tiled houses, mo«t Aub»lantiallj buUt, ^mX 
with niasstvc beams of sqoared timber. These houses wore altuntf 
always the property o( the village offioerB or their relatiunM. Tkt 
houtie* of the poorer hntibaadmcn wore either small tiled dwelliofp 
or thatched unts. In 1863-64 the people were auffering from a 
terrible epidemic of fever which was especially sevoro in tlie 
Doighbourhood of Haliy^l. Except six acres in one village, vahuil 
at k.1 Sa., thorc is no alienated land in the 1S6 villages. 

The survey showed that of a total area of 44,668 oceapied scnit 
12,839 acrc« lin<l not formerly been brought to aooonnt. The offset 
of the iiiirvey was to raise ute a»sct>-snicnt from £S487 to £6717 
(Rs.:i+,S70-Rs. (17,170) or an inci-ease of 9262 per cent 'Om 
highest acre rates arc 10«. 11«. and I2«. for rice land, aul 
l]a. and 2«. for dry-crop land. On account of theuno<iuivlnu8s c^ 
the old rates the increase of assessment was far from uniform. The^ 
HM.-'Of anient of one or two vilhiges was cither reduced or very little 
raised, though the asMMment on some holdings was greatly 
enhanced. In many villages where the whole assessment WM 
increased the rates of individual holdings were reduced. Many 
village hcndmen and accountants and tht-ir relations had to pay 
ninob more than before, ns the survey showed that tliey had taken 
advantage of their position to lower the rates on their holdings 
secretly to add to their area.' 

< Siirr«]r RopoTta. 443 u( Slit Dcc«inl«r 18M, tU o( Ifitb M*y 1^^- "nd 8U 
Utii Novcmhcr 1957. 
' A» AH cxaapla, la oiu! vill«g« »( thi* Uwik, ihirty-«OTCB urn* •••^'^ m B«. ■ 




Tbo Bfcond block of sixty-two vjlln^s, willian nrea of 149,960Rcm9 
and II pitpulwtioii of 491C, wns sottlou in 1S72-73.' Kxwpl oiglil in 
th» isisl lUa Tillngea of tliia block atretck in a long strip from near 
Ualiy&I by ilio south of Bidi in Iklgantn vroat to the Sahyidris and 
tbo I'ortiigiiese frontior. I'bis tract of country covurs an area oE 
1 49,060 (icr«s oiguat to 234 i<;qiiitre mile*, but tho cuUivatod and 
Arabic arM tonus but a fraction of Uie whole, amounting to only 
7601 acres or .V07 per iwnt. Tho rest is forest, most of it of very 
(rood quality. The population amounted to 4916 or twenty-one bo 
the sqitaro mile. I'hc climate is wot, tbu fall of rain increoaing 
toirar^s the west. Kice is tho chief crop and rdiji in tho only dry 
grain which thriven. Id the west near the Saby^ris much hot- 
weather or vaingan rice is grown in lands watered from unfailing 
streams of which thcru are many. A «mnll quaulity of sugarcane 
'was grown, bat in Hpit« of tho good wnter-aupply there were no 
morv than fourteen ucrea of garden land. At lliti limo of the 
eurvfv the people were auHering sererely from fever. ITie rillag«3 
of thiH block are well provided with rosds. Tho made rCHid 
from Dhnrwiir to Goa by the TinAJ Pww skirts and crosses tho 
nortJiem boundary. I'his road is joined by another roiul from 
Dhilrw^ which crosaos this tract, ruaoing east and west by Ualiyal. 
The villages of this block aro also croMJ»i.-d from north to south by 
tbe romd from Bulgaiim to Ka<lra on the Kuliiiudi by Supa aud 
Che Anithi \K\i^. Other roads lead through Khdndpur to Belgiutm 
flttd to >i'andighad, a large market in Bidi in Belganm. There are 
also sereral small local mackets with n demand lor produce. The 
people are ignorant and greatly nndcr tho pow«r of tho village 
nocountants or ^idnltf<og». At the beginning of British rnlo Supa 
WA8 one of the most deserted parts of North Kibiara. Though most 
of it has since remained forest it has been well opened by road& 
The rcBclt of iho survey was to raiso tho a)^s4!ssniont from £577 to 
£9l>.5 or an increase of G7'24 per cent. The higheel acre rates are, 
1G». for garden land, St. 98. aud Il«. for rice laud, and !». I]«. 
li«. and li». for diy-crop. 

In I879-&0 the sorvoy was introduced into a thin] block of 
twenty three villages which am mixed with the sixty-twovillugos 
settled in 1872-7^.' The rates arc the same as those fixed for tho 
Bixty-two vilhiges. Of the total area of 30,690 acres only 2304 
acr(^ or 7'oO piT cent are arable laud ; tho n>st is nnder forest . la 
1880-61 thv survey wa« introduced into a fourth block of t])irty-two 
villages mixed with and close to the sixty-two villages of the first 
and the seventeen villages of the second block.* The rates aro the 
anmu as those fixed for (he sixty-two village*. 

The 1831 population returns show of 61,IR4 people, 54,5&3 or 
89*20 per cent Hindus ; 38&i or 6'31 per cent Unsaimilna ; 2734 or 

Chapter XII 




(TDtv cnt«c«d in the MCMutttM Ifctbalitiiigortarif Of amltivktor. AtUieEiiMol tb« 
■uiv*)' tko noaniad bolder WM futuid ia p«mmbi«4i of onljr 21i tfxtm for wbkh h« 
Mid th* jtitU VL* 4. The wbote of tbo rom&iniag 31{| aetta v-vr« bddbf tfae jtUU 
frMofr«cit luul witbont any entry In ttio»oci)ant& Colocel Andtnoo, 443, 31rt 
DmoibUt IWM. 'SorrnlUpan. liM niSM FobnuTT l^n. 

> Snrvgy B*p«ft, Ul <A Stk JI»y \m. 'Survoy Bciiort, 401 nt 3M Haj- I6S1. 



4-47 per cent Cbriiitiaiis; nnd 3 Jews. The tletAils of the Ilia 
castes are, lgtl7 Jjr^maaa ; 7452 Vduis, frt7 UnpttvalB, i? 
Nirvekar \bm, 1^2 komtigs, 112 L»d VioU, -12 T.-lu^ni Vii 
and 3^ VaUhya V^Js, traders and mercluuite; 2i,llJ2 Alnratlitt* 
ood 119 Uujputo, wnrliku ciasitn; 80I»8 Ktmbw. IS40 llairnkki 
Vftkknla, 751 Jaitu, 506 Surlim, 1J86 Pare VakP 
I'aDchams^is, and 126 Clu^trLt, husbandmen; 7tjC SoiUUrs, 
silver smiths ; 3-13 Kurabdrs, potters ; 31o Loliars, blackiut 
Jinttors, eaddle-makcn ; 191 Shimpifl,tailors-, 10lSatdrs,cu:j-^^.,, 
S3 Oiuindis, masous; 96 ' Tolis, oUroou ; 812 BhandfLrie, 
tappers; 508 DimtiKar*, shepherds;, 381 tiaalis, cowherds;' _ 
Kabhers,?] Khirris, $3 BhciH. and 8 Ambtgs, fiitlicrmttn ; 3o2Mui|! 
£90 Koravs, and 14 UAUer V&jantria, muBiciaaa ; 1<'1()1 IVtIu 
templv nttondantJt ; GGB D&ndis, HorTante ; 422 Parits, wa^bi'rmc 
171 Uajtos, bHrhem ; 122 Lambaoia, carrirnt; SCO VadJu 
earth-workers ; Oti Burada, iiiisket- wearers; I -tS Jo^iii,51 Goaav 
and 24 Groodhalis, beggars ; 287 Chamfplrs, shoemakers ; 27 
tanners ) 1G38 Mbira, 417 Haslsre, and 325 CbchalnLdta, dej 

Tella'pUT is bounded on the north by Supa and Kal^^batgi 
DliArwAr; on the eaj^l by Kalghatg^i, Uaiikiipur, and Hingal 
Dhftrwir; on the south by Sirsi; and on the west by KArwar. 
containH l74Tillagefl with an ares of about 589 sqnaro mllua.. 
popuhitron of 30,314 or 81'65 to the tMjuaro mile, and a yearly I 
rcvonno of £9559 (R*. 95,590). 

The east and the Mundgod petty division in the north-cast 
borderfri n^ plain co nntry. Bat except a few detached fields 

j^rdeufl the greafairpyt of the nijlmlatdiir's cbarxe is foiygt. 

west is full 01 foreai^olail hills, occasionally oroMOd by EtTvams and 
watercoorses. In the valleys and along the sides of tho wnK-rcuu 
are rice and sagarcane fi^da as well as betel tuid cvckm pal 
gardens. The sonth, which is also billy, is rich, and where watvr i 
availablp, contains osccllont betel and oocou palm gaideas. 

The climate is bad. In the hot months the heat U nioderato, 
dnring iho rainy months in spitv of severe cold and damp tho air » 
litirly healthy. But iu cold mouths fever is general and futal. At 
YelMpur, in tho centre of the sab-diviEion, for the ten years ending 
1879 lain rctans show a fall varying from C7'o3 inchcii in l'S~7 10 
139 inches in 1873, and averaging IW'57 inches. 

The chief rivers are the Bedtt and KAlJnadi, which are joined b; 
many small Ktreams. Some of tlioso streams Sow throughout tha 
year, but dnring llie hot weather the water of most of them beoo: 

In tho cnat and in the petty divisiou of Mnndgod tho soil 
blackisli and black, chiefly growing rico and sugarcane. In tW 
oentro of the sub-division, which is under the mrtmlatdiir'B chargo 
ore betel aod ooooa palm gardens. The soil in tho west is red an' 
tho western valleys have many fine gardens. The staple prwdaci 
are rice, betolnnts, oocoanuie, and sugarcane. Small qnantities 
popper, cordanWDis, and plaiitaiiui are also grown. 




Atx^ording to tlie 1881>82 retm-na the &rm stock indaded 4085 
plonghs, 101 8 carts, 15,87^ bullocks, 17,272 cows, 4&3S she-bnfFalovs, 
&0 14 ht'-buffiklomi, 125 horeus, aiid 9b7 sb<x!p nod goats. 

Tlic sottlMTiont of 173 villages of YelWpur with an ftrea of 569 
sqnnre inilee lasted from I8C6 tii 1881. TberesuH of tlte surrev waa 
to show that ■1+^62 ncres instead of 32,079 aciw were under tillage, 
and to raiso the ct^sesament Eroni £o703 to £92!i8, that is no incrcaso 
of X3595 or 63'03 per w-nt. The highest «un-oy iicre giirdeii nit«« 
T»ry fniHi £1 to £1 8.*., rice rate* from 7^. to 10*., and dry-crop 
rat«a from I«. to 2g. The details are : 





tutnT, [ 



AnUt WiB«a. 











» ... 


10 , 







Totol .. 
































Of tho six survoy blocks into which the 173 Tillageii of YelUpor 
aro divided, neveDty-tbroe villi^ea with an area about 11)0 sqtmr« 
mileii and a popolation of lliKtO or Eeventy-two to the squnre inilo 
were settlea in IS66-67.' The villages of this block follow the 
Dhiirwlir frontier in a strip six to eight miles wido and abont 
twenty-two milos from north to south. The people woro almost all 
huslMtndmen, and about two-thirds of the area was fnrcst. Tho 
oountrv is generally a mixture of forest and open patches of tillage 
fifty to three hundred acres in si^e, tho lowland:^ beinR tiniinarily 
nnder tillngo and the nplands covered with foreat. 1 he main road 
from Hubli to Kuint« passes through the town of Uandgod and 
thenco south through thu Muiidgod petty division. This road ia at 
present the main line of cotton trafBc, si^veral hundred cArts passing 
daily in tho exporting season. Thia traliic creates a great (lomand 
for all kinds 6i fodder. Thoagh there ia no important trade centre in 
Mundgo<l, there are several local markets. The large country towns 
of Udogal and Bankipur in Dhirwiir are only a few miles over the 
border. The Knmta and Hubli nmd with it» thousands of return 
carta, either empty or half-tadon, offers excellent opjxtrtuuities for 
the disposal of produce. Of all of these villages rice is the staple 
produce. The dry-crop tillage is poor, n« tlio nin&ll is too heavy 
to suit any dry -grain but rdui. Sngarcnne to some extent is grown 
in all vitlagca, and a fen Tillages have a small area, only thirty-four 
aeres in all, of betel and cocoa patm garden wntered from ponds- Tho 
people were generally well-to-do. For some years before the survey, 

Chapter XI] 



'S«n«y lUpoTta, 29G ol 23t<I .April ISOT, and 814 of 14lh Noicmbo' ia<>7. 

(Bombay < 








especially it stid near Muodgod, tlie; bad fmET'TOil sorely 1 
whicli before 184>^ hiul beeu noroparatirciy litUu kuowa.^ 
px|)«rieuce of Ibe five yeare before ttio anrvey seemeJ lu shnw 
tbe fever vas most dendly in plnccs snch Rs Mund^d wbi^e 
was a mixlMn] «f tillage itnd of (otcmI. Tbo earvoy meA£nrL-&io 
itbow lluit the nre» uodtir tillage was 2t>,32& acih'k, not I b 
B8 before relumed; ihe settloment misod tbe iuikosk: 
£2S81 to £3846 (Rs. 22,810-B8. S8,4d0>, no iacreaae uf l.l»ti.M 
68-61 per cent. Tbo highest Mrrey acre mtca arc. £1 for «ap 
land. &f. (>». and ]0«. fur ric« laud, and 1 ]«. for dry<crop UccL la 
twrnty-tbrvo of tbe seTeoly-tbree villogCB of tbitt block, in wb-'ii 
mU« introdnciMl between 1820 and 1825 were in forcr, (U 
aesessmenC naa n-dncotl by about (bn^cpercoutnad in the remauuog 
TillagM it wa» nu!«!d by 101 per cvnt. 'ITie old rctarns showed Ij 
acres of grant or iridm land, wbicb gradual enrnmchmcnt bad 
iacreased to nine acres. Tbe 4J acres of oncmaciioiont wen 
recorded as Govornmont land and bronght usdcr assessment. 

Most of tbe second block <]f titcnty village^ wbicii -wert settled 
in 1809-70 lie to tbe soutb of tbe Mundgod petty dtvi«ioD.> Every- 
wbero Ibe rainfall k too ^runt for ^food dry-crop tUIa||o nnd lbs 
tract is oeHontiiilly lice- growing. At a rule titbigo is coulinol t^' 
the neigbboarhood of rillagea, most of tbo area being- cavered 
f6re«t wbicb is generally fairly free from underwood. This, ai 
neigfaboariag part oE Sirei was exceedingly forer-stri<7ki>D A\ 
tbe four or fivu years bvfore 1869-70. Almost all tbe rillagva ut) 
witbin ft mile or two uf tbe bigh-road from Hiibli to Sirai amt 
. Kunila. At tbo time of the settletnont tbe whole of the ocoopisA' 
land wiut iti «!Vuiitoc[i of tbo twenty TiltagesL The remaining torM 
villages, in consequence of the fcrnr which first broke out in \SGD, 
were deserted and waste. Tbo arva of tbo twenty iobabited villngea 
was 1U,421 acres of which d4m acres were oocupivd, t>7S acret 
were fit for tillage and divided into small surrey numbers und 
Bssossed, and 11,259 ncrcs were unarable, being chitttiy cuvcrad 
with forest. The population was S022 or seTontv^niDe to tbo stjuan 
mile, » fair nvomge considering bow largo a proportion of tbe area 
wiis forent. The survey meaHuremvnts showed that tbe area nnder 
tillage was 3431 acres, not SDKi acres as entered in the old rct<irr.-< 
The new ftuttloincnt raised Iho assessment from S.h'ib to ' 
(Rs. 5260 - Hs. &»80), or an inm>a«' of 1200 per cent Tbe hxv 
survey acre rates are. £1 for garden land, Oo. and 10«. for rice . 
and IJ*. and 2«. for dry-crop land. As seventeen of tlio twot 
villages were surveyed and assessed under tbe Madras Governnw 
in 1822-23, the increase of tbe survey assessment was comparatii 
small in spite of tbo large increase in the occupied area. 

Tbo third block of the twenty-four villages which were settled ' 
1872-73 have on area of 146 square miles and a papulation 
4357 or thirtv to the square mile.* Tho Tillages are small 
are separatea by large stretobes of forest. They lie west o£ l 

m m: 



Mondifod petty (Jimionnnd to the south of the HiiUjlil niiimlAtiUr's 
cliurf^!, nnd (in tho ii'irtli-west »re bounded by Kalgliutgi io 
Dhilnivdr. The block iucludes two gronps of vJUages separated by 
four or five milea. The Brat or larger gronp strotcliCB from tlie 
Dhdrwdr Crontier to the toivn of YullApari on each oidc of the main 
road from Uubli to KdrwAr by tlie Arl«iil pass; tho gccond or 
BmnlliT ffToiip lies 80iitb-we»t of Vell^pur on both su]v» of tbo 
Kaiga hill paim. Rice ia the maiii crop, Tho fallof raiii h very 
lieair^ at Yclldpur and liRhtot near tho DhfipwAr frontier, and aeaiu 
heavier to tho Gouth-west nenr the tSahyildrit). Tho dry-crop tillage 
is poor, Cspccinlly ntw the SaliyAdrig. 'I'ho gardoun are Giie, bot^ 
ftDU oocoa )ttlmB growing freely ia the moist bottoms with little or 
no watering. The highest survey acre rates were fixed at £1 ia. for 
garden land, 80. 9«. and 10^. for rico loud, and 1«. 1|«. ]}«. lis. and 
S». for dry-crop land. Tho roHult of the survey measure in on la wm to 
show tluit the area tinder tillage was S&6G acres, not 4094 acres (m 
entered in the formerretuma. And the result of the settlement was 
to raise the asscKsmunt from £751 to £13i!d, an inoniafio of £578 or 
76'96 pur eent. TheHO villages hare SG,i2ti acres of Govomment 
aoarable unaiiseaBed vaatej almost the whole of which was forest 
land of fair quality. . 

The fourth block of sixboon vilUgoa, which wore settled in 1877-78, 
ore mixed with and border on the twonty-fottr Tillages of Yelliipur 
which were aotlled in March IS72.* They are at no great diMtance 
from the town of YelUpur or from the JCumta-IIubli trunlE roud 
from the coaat to Hnbli. The area of the villages of tbia block is 
40,177 acres or Kixty-throe iiqnaru miles, and tho population ia 21&S 
or 34-8 to the square mile. This very low preswire of population 
ifl due to the fact that about i)7,000 acres or al>out ninety per 
cent of the whole are forest land. On the arable area tho 
pressnro of tho popidation is 43S-6 to tho square mile. The 
ttbtindaut rainiall enables all the villages to grow excellent rice, 
Bud, in the Iowit rice lands, sugarcane can be raised in rotation 
with rice every third year. None of thrtse Tillages are distant from 
large murketa or from cou)intinicatioii8. The most out-of-tlio way is 
not more than five milea either from the town of Yellipur or from 
Knmta-Uubli high-road. Most of the 339 acres of garden are very 
superior. Many oooon palms and betel plantations hare 800 to lOOO 
trees to tho acre. Popper vines »re commonly tinned up the betel 
stems and in some gardens cardamoms nro grown. The highest 
acre rates were fixed at £1 S.«. for garden laud, 10«. for rioD 
land, and la. 1J». l\t. and Ijs. for dry-crop land. The result of 
tho Murrey measurement was to show 2591 acres nnder tillage, not 
205.'> as entered in the former renirns. Tho result of tlio sottJo- 
ment was to raise the assessment from £648 to £917, that ia an 
increaso of £260 or fortr-ono percent. From the extreme ineouality 
of the old assesament this increase wu very unevenly dieiributed. 
Even in neighbouring villages there was a marked difTerenco. The 
village of Joglepal showed an incrcnBo of 12'6 per cent, ita neighboor 



Bhct ///. 


• SIG— 31 

* Ssrvo; Report, 410 of SOOi A\rtV 1878. 



m, Arobguim ui increase of 232 per cent, Saknaarhalli an h 
125'8 per cent, and Tutg&r o( only 8'3 p«r cent. 

Hio fifth block of stxtimn vinn^cst which wore settled io If 
hu nn Are» of 10,(n3 ucres or sixty-three squikru miles and a ; 
UoD ")f(nily 1288 or iwonty totbe square mile.' Tlu- 
population iBdaetothe fact that^K.hJO acres or nit; 
of the area waa andor foreitl. T' 
waa 321 to tho nqoaro milo. '1 < 

mixed wilh and border on the twenty-four vilJa^-s settled in 
aod the sixteen settled in 1K78. M^^st of the tilla)^ is in^ 
nu^piiltfient Sahy^dri forests. Rioe and (^rden producn artj 
slAple crops, sii^rcnno being grown in a three-year rotoitran ' 
riw in the lowvr liuid^. The gnnlon caltiTatiuii, porticoJariy in 1 
village)) nenr the SnhytldnB, is tipi^ialiy excelleut. 'l^ho /^anlea i 
are betel-palms not nnfretiuently one tUouband fal]-^n>im 
the acre, some ooco«-palms, the block pepper vino which i» cotnc 
tminod ap the l>ot«i stvni4, nnd cardAiuoma and plautaius 
am grown under and between llio mltn!i. Tbeee gMrdons are i 
in deep moiat valleys between bilta covered with evergroea 
Many of them are so moist as to want little wal^ring-; tl 
are watered from streams which ran throughout tho year. Mo 
the gardens aro owned by Huvig Br&hmaus, who brin^ laboor 

111- ci^iist and tifo in thoJr gardenn all the year round, ii*olated, I 
^fteii in inoBi feverish places. The highest Btirx'oy aero rates 
Gxed at £1 S». for garden land, d#. to IOm. for ricu land, and 1j.i 
])s. for dry-orop land. Thu result of the survey measure" 
waste show that 2160scrOH were onder tillage instead of lh< 
which were ont«red in the former records. The now ratoit r;ii-cii 
tlioaHtwwtini-nt from £4H to £884, an tncrcAseof £^170 or M :)-:'> pu 
cent. In addition to the large arr« of cncro*chmi'nt ' 
survey measurements brought Io liRht, the lands of ti 
villages belotigrd to ibe liou&li monastery and had before 
assessed at specially easy ratoH. The survey raisixl the asi^easc 
io tboise villages from £47 to £]76. In tho rcinuining 
rilhigvs tho incraasu tindvr the now assossmcut varied from 

Bven to 277 per ei;nt. One of the most marked cases of inc 
'was the village of Arhail, the aMossment of which was raised 
£^8 to £116. Thn rill^^o of ArbAil is tho great hulting phii 
carta coming from and going to Knintu nnd Klirwir by the An 
pass, ft had eighty-six acres of excellent oocoanut and betol| 
gardens, besides 270 acres of good rice land In mnch of wl 
sngarcane was grown. The old ai<«eesmont barely gave 1«. tho ^ 
all roond on rice land and 8». the acre ou garden [and. 

Tho sixth block of twenty-four villages, with an area of 
fifty-five square miles and a population of 3200 or fifty-eight i 
Bqiiaro mile, were settled m 1880-81.' Most of the villages lio to1 
wust of Yclhipnr on the elopes or at the foot of the Sahy^ris. Ab 
eleven •twelfths of tho area was under forest. Bice waa the St 
gmin aad rdgivaa the only dry-crop^ Thegardons contained I 


■ Surrey Bapcrt. HI of IStli April ISW. ' Sutv*;- Boport, 3tM oC SSnl M»ck IB 




pnlinx, cnnlitmoms, pepper, and cocoannts. The gardens were 
exc(.<«dmgly good, the great obstacle to cnlUvatioD being tho want 
o£ labour. The cHmato is fererish and trying to etraugcrs. The 
highest survey Bcr« rates were fixed *t XI 4*. nnd £1 8*. for 
gwnlcns, 7a. 6». and. 9*. for ric« land, and IJe. for dry-crop land. 
The Nurvoy iHWiimri;uicnt raised the occupied area fi-om ;I2y5 to 6179 
acres, and the settlement raised the assosantout from £108't to 
£\~H, that is an incroaso of £650 or d9'96 per cent. 

Tho 1881 popubtiou returns «how, of 3fi,3I 1 people, Sl.-'i+fl or 
8G'f<G per ccxtt Hindus; 3-H6 or 9-48 per cent MnsalmAiis ; 1:^22 
or a04 per cent ChriBtians j and one Jew, The details of the Uindp 
castes an>, ti22 Bnibm aas ; 463 Y£nis, 287 Lingiiyuto, 237 Nnrvvlc&r 
Vinis, 168 MallaTS, 83 Komlig!*, 75 Tulugu Vdui.-., and iC> IM Vani», 
traders and merchant?; 4831 ManithiU and 85 Itajpuls, warlike 
filaa^a : 2305 Kuubis, 1 238 Kare Vakkals, 1 2^8 Pancbatnsiilis. 635 
If : ' ': " ' kalfi, 477 Sudirs. 223 Glim Vakkak, 168 Jains, 84 
I •ris, SB MAlis, and 43 Ghadis or soiitJisiyors, huKtwtnd- 

raiii ; CKi7 i^on^rii, gold and ftilvorxmilhH ; 23S Loh&rA, blacksmitba ; 
121 SutArs, carpenters; IU3Kumbilri), potters ; 87 Shimpia, tailors; 
66 Jingan, 8adalo-mak«rs; 28 Ganndis, masons; lOI ToWk, nilnicii : 
143 I'auinliK, silk-cord makon* ; 789 Kciru'it-n/iik*, 491 UitlepAiks, ana 
400 Ithandiria, palm-tappers ; 1127 I > . shepherds ; 507 Gaulis, 

cowherds; 114 (loUars, cowkeepei-s ; j.-. kabhera, 34 Kh^rvis, 28 
Bhui^, 20 Amkii^, and 16 UarkanlrAs, fitihenncn ; 476 Suppaligo, 
391 Mtiugs; £o9 Korar«, and 78 HAllvr Vajanlri^, musicians ; 
&21 Biiti<li.-<, itcrrants; 478 Psrits, WH^hi^rmcn ; 302 Deri in, temple 
attendants; Itil llnjdms, barbers; 366 LarabAnii), carriers ; 1504 
Vaddara, earth-workera ; 198 Bnrnds, basket-wearers ; 149 
E&tbkarts, catvchn-mnkurs ; 314 Jogis and 86 Gos^ris, bt-ggnrs; 78 
''.-r-.'ArM, shoemakers; .5 Dhors, tanners j 0O7 B«>dsor'l^lT4«,492 
-., 486 Chchalyddia, andj 10 HaatarSj depreased claaaea. 

S irgi , to tho 8onth-03st of Kilrwiir, is boanded on the nortli by 
Yi'il.ipur, on the east by Sorab in Msisur and Hnngnl in Dbiirwiir, 
on the south by Sor&b and part of Sidditpiir and Kumta, and OD 
tbe west by Ankola and Kumta, It contains 299 viUacea with an 
axv» of about 779 sqitaro miles, apopnlation of 62,400 or SO'IO to tho 
«quiirv mile, and a yearly laud reveniio of £17,176 (R«.l, 71,760). 

Till) east of the »ub-<iivi»ion, though hero and thoro croa»cd by 
low hills, for Kiinara, is ompm rati rely level. Near the centre the 
surface is brokeu by fretmcnt ranges of Lills, which become steeper 
towards tho ^hyAdrifl in the west The neighbourhood of tho 
Bab^fUlrig and [bu country as far east as the middle of tbe sub- 
divuton is covered with trees. Farther cast, except some scattered 
feen pntelios, tbe bocouie.'* gmdually thionor aud tho 
tiioresttinU-iL E^ipecially near tho SahyAdris is » largo area 
of unuiiually rich garden land in deep moist valleys between hills 
covered by evergreen formats. 

During the hot weather and the raios the air is cool, plMHsaot', 
and fniHy healthy, but between October and March it is very 
fOYOrish. Thu rainfall is much heavier iu the west than in tho ea«t. 
At Biia, which 18 abont the centre of tho sub-division, during the t«n 

Chapter Xni 




lBou]»3r QmMkI 



jtu* ottdin^ 187[> tho rsiiifall raried from 64-32 hiohes id V<Sn$\ 
IIU12iuchoa in la74, uid averaged S3-S2 ioclics. 

There ore mtiny tnoDntaia torrenta some of which }n^t} 
Uie year, but, eroep* thfl__Wrd«_whii-}i flows a!- 
border, and tbo Tmin w hicli (ia«i >u mnirct" near > ■ 
men o! any buTT TiTTn^'t-a are well Huppliod with j- 
and acarcitj cither of drinking irator or of water !<.'> i.or 

lo th ^oant^ a t the sab-division tho i^uil i a red an d firr' 
towards toe oast; the ik») in tbu valleTs in a rlr.h bt aP"- 
cTops ore rice, kulti, mua, mgarcaoe, urul. Bonsai i: 
castor-oil a««d. Tka garden products ars btitelnats, ca;. 
cocoaDuta, and black pepper. 

According to the 1881-S2 rci 
6634 ploughfl. 1403 carte, 22.M7 .,_- , 

baffiiloes, :J573 ho-buffuluc«, 77 horaeti, and Itii? sheep and SMl»1 

Of the 295 village of Sirei, 201 were »ettI<K! ]. 
1881, Tho Biinrcy n^tMms sltnw that these villhL 
arable occupi«d and uiiocoupied acrea, asflossed ut i 
itirvoy moRKWrcmonta raised ihc area ondw tillage fi 
44,007 acres j and the seltleiiient ini^rMwed tho awit-NstD^nt 
£7502 to £10,5(17, on incrp«*« of JW066 or 408& per urjil., 
highest Borvoy acre nitiw vary from £1 4«. to £1 S«. iu)' 
laiid, IroiD 8j. lo 10m. in Hoe laodj and from \\8. to 2a. in dr 
land. The detaiU are : 

&M/ Stoinr Dwrdtis. 




Mkvst. , ^ 











A«« ja 

M ... 
» ... 
w .. 
IS ... 
M ... 

m .. 


^x^■a ... _ 

ToUl ,^ 



















i/. The Br«t block of sixtv-fonr villages with an iireti of 22,359 , 

w-as settled in 1869-70.^ Ilio rilltigen of tliis block begin fror 
cxtnt'uio south-east corner of North Kiinara and nm along 
Dliiirvfjir frontier to MaJstir. To the east, the country iafotopn 
tively op«:-ii utiil well peopled and sercral fair markt't towui^ wn\ 
within easy reach. The higfa-ruad from Ilobli to Sirsi ar'" 
Kumta pas.<tcti two to throe miles north>ea«t of somu of the 
TJltagea. In tho south they are crossed by tho made-road from tb 
market town of RnnaviiAi to Sir»i, and tho woatorn rillages are withf 
two to foor miles of the town of Sirsi. The rico lands for tbo mc 

'Snrvaj! n«I>or1, ISSSolGUi Dcccaibetl97l> 


part depend OQ tho rainfall whidi either £slls direct on tlie land or 
more often is led by aoiaU watercoarses from higher ground. Is 
tht-iie rillagea are the lH?iolnnt anil epice f^ardcDS, tli« niosl valuable 
bntuch of cultivation lu Wo-st Sir»i, llic runult of t!ie HOtllonifiQt 
was to raJM tho nsKi'H^mont frurii £2300 to £3319 or an increase of 
44^0 percent. The highest survey acre rates are, £1 is. for garden 
lands, Off. and 10^. for rice land, and 1 1». and 28. for dry-crop land. 
Fift<.-^'n of the villa^s Imvo kdns or grorcH gvnornlly clo«ti to the 
Tilbigvs with wild palm trees vrhoso juice is tappea, a little wild 
pepper, coffee, and other minor forest products. Some of these 
jfTovos were regularly oocupied and entered as part of an estate, 
\varg or khal/t, at a fixed aeseessmomt ; others were nno(%upi<»). Tlie 
''Maessmvnt of nil these groves wiw n:vi.-«ed according to llioirwrea 
and tiie nauilior of produoe-givitig trees they containad. IHiO 
area of the occupied groves was 2^14 acres and tho assessment 
was raided from £^1 to £56 (Its. 310-R«. 560), and tho area of tho 
unoocHpied groves wiw 013 acrcn. Theute, which were furmorly 
nnaasen.'^.'d, now bc«r an asRessment of £24 (Rs.2'10). 

The second hlookof (hirty-nino villngcB, with an anMi of 31,4£3 
and a population of 4307. wero brought undor Mir%'«y MCttlemcut in 
I872.7S.' ITiCM! rilliiges lie close to t3ie weat of the wxty-four 
villages settled in 18t!9-70. The high-road from Hubli to Sirsi and 
Eumta crosses most of the villages and in Sirsi and Banuviisi they 
hnvo two convenient markets. This tract is e^senttiiUy » rict- and 
ganlun country, hotel and cocoa palms and black pi'pper all growing 
to perfection. 8omo of the gardens are watered from ponds ; in 
otfaetH of the best and lowest placed, the natural moisture is enough 
without any watering. The only dry-crop grain which is much grown 
is rii^i, and htUi, lit, tetamam, and castor-oil «eed are grown in 
small qunntilieit. The rainfall is abundant, the direct supply in 
Bome cases being sufficient for the growth of rice. In low moist 

;lAce!t and under ponds sugtircane is luiAMid in rotation witli rice. 
'hc! result of t}ie »i>tllcniciit vriv* to rai>>e the asacsament from £7-^^ 
to £1547 or an increase of I05"7I per ceuti Tbo highest acre rates 
are, £1 Si. for garden land, Os. and 10a. for nee laud, and 1 j«. for 
dry-crop land 

The third block of twenty-nine villa^, with an ar««of 41,90o 
acres or sixty-Rvo square mile.i, of which only 225f> acres or 35 
square miles were cultivated, and a population of IDIS or twenty to 
the Bqaare mite, was settled in 1^(7-78^ Tho villitgi<8 lie to the 
north of tho second block and are within Uic liniitn of the forest. 
The people are few, tho fort-st area is large, the climate is unh^^ltby, 
and tho outlet for produce ia fair. Excellent crops are raised 
chirfly by Harig Br&hmans. The garden lauds are of a very high 
quality, as garden cultivation improves towards the foi-est and 
tow&rds the moist west. The result of the setttemeut was to raise 
Uio assessment from £226 to £493, an increase of 118-14 pur cent. 
Tho highc«t sarvey acre rates are, £1 Sa. for garden kud, St. fur rice 
land, and 1 is. for dr>--crDp laud. 







rBombar Ouetticr, ' 




The fonrtl) Muck of Uiirteen villages, radadmf; tbo tows ot 8c 
with ftu tirca n{ 12,763 acran, and a population of 5925, was *< 
in l>7'.'-ri(l.' Rice is tlw ntaplv mp ; Mi^rcanc is frvqo 
grown in rice laiiil^, and tli<- i^ardciut pHrticularly tti the 
annsaallf rich. 'I'hu renviU of ttie scitlemeut waa to raise' 
■sM«»in«ttt from £>'>48 to £818, an iDorvase of dOtU per cent, 
highest Bunrey afire rates are, 11 Sa. for gardun laud, tit. Sjt.aod 
for rice land, and 1 {<■ 1 }». and 2a. fur dr^-crop land. 

The fifth hlock of fifty-six rilk^s, wiiti an area i>f 7' - 
waasettle^l in 1S60-81.* The villages are mixed with •■- 
Mttlud in formvr ycara. Rioe ia the chief gtain prodnce, and sognrf 
cane is to some extent raified in the lower rice lands in occasi 
rotaHon with rice; the only important dry-erop ardgi. In ths' 
gortlons the hctol palm is rvarnid lo gn.>>at perfection, as innny aa a 
thouwuid tree!) )>eing oflun found in a sin^^Ie acre. The hiffh-niad 
leading &oni Hubli by Sirsi and the Dorimani pa^s to Knuita, 
crosses the sonthem riilagiii, and the htgh-roixi fmm Sir?! w 
Yelblpur passes throngh tlw nurthem villageta. Hioeand b- : 
the chief exporlablo produce, are, as a rule, fetched from ihu \ ....^ — 
hy travelling dmlera who often work in connection with & ttiwn 
tnotteyleuder. The resnlt of tho survey sottloment was to raise the 
ssseaBttieut from £:]<j8<> to £^% or nn i»cro««c of 19'2d per cent. 
The highest survey Bcro n>t<>s arc £1 8*. for garden land, 8«. and £M. 
for rice land, and l\t. and I|«. for dry-crop land. 

The I8S1 population returns show, of 62,400 people. 58,9A2 . 
9449 per cunt llindue; 2681 or i'W per cent Masalmana ; and 
757 or 1-21 per cent cimtian*. The dotails of Uic Hindu castas 
are, 15.109 jrAhma ns : 1203 Mallavs, lO&S, LingAyata, lO.'.O Viniii> 
Ml ToIugaVinia, 163 Komtiga, 2» Gnjarit Vdnis, and i!) Ud 
V&ni», traders and mcrcluinta ; 3413 MaHith^s and 56 Rajpuis, 
irarlike clasMOti ; 3812 .Kiuv Vakkals, 1517 Knn bis. 951 Uaa 
V»kkilfc 799 N:ldons. "&69" JCrc'rs. 627 Kot Vakkala, 
Panchamsilis, S42 Hanhar?, 273 M&Hb, 251 Jaim*, 20G S&iiatt, 
156 Sudirs, OONonbora, 89 Padtis. 79 Chetris. and 'J Gh&dis, hosbaud- 
n»n ; 1222 Sonars, gold and silver tumiths ; 607 SoUrs, carpont*;rs ; 
824 Kumbdra, potters ; 210 Shimpis, luilurs; 102 Luh^rit, black- 
BUtithx ; S4 Kii.Hi(r.-«, roppGrsmith.i ; 32 Jiiifjiir<, itaddlc-utakerH j 2? 
Gaundix, masons ; 147 lelis, oilmen; 35 PucimaAiillii, shopkeepers; 
884£ Halep^ks, 3H ItltiintUriK, and llSKouuiriHliks, palm-tappers ; 
439 Uhangars, sheplicnlii; 104 Uollars, cowkefpers; 70 Uaulis, 
cowherds; S53 Kabhers, 323 Bhois, 179 Mogi^rn, 117 KIiirriM, 55 
Auibigs, and '1^ niirkantra*, fitdtormen ; 657 Devdigs, 316 HAlIer 
VfLjantris, and 81 Komva, inuKicians; 1697 Parits, washermen j 
886 Bi'indiB, oervanls; 129 llnjiSms, Imrbcrs; 86 Dovlis, temple 
attendanta ; 323 Lanibtinis, carriem ; 70 Korcharus, catl1u-brec<lcn; 
688 Yadd&rR, earlli-workers ; l.'i2 Bunids,bA8kot-weavers;3(;i JogM 
and 144 D&sas, beggars ; 661 Chamg&ra, shoomakers |357S Mh^s, 
1078ChclialvtMlis, 641 Mokris, 505 Uaslars,and307BeTsorTaIvtaij 
doproBsed clasw. - 

' enrvey Bcport, Ml of 13th Aiwil 196^ ' Svmy Report. MS ot »l«Hl*y »88l. 

Sid dapu r, in the soath>cast ot Lite Jiittriot, is bounded on tlio 
nortli by Hirlii, on ihc «wt by Ei^r&b iii Maisur, on the south by 
H^ffxr in ^tatilllr, and on t)ie west by Ilaatfrar and Kamto. It 
f' iit'iins Diiiety-Gve ril lathes with an area of 239 aqnare miles, a popa- 
li.::nii uf 3-J,65S or 14d'ld to thu squoro uiilv, and a yuarly land 
rcrenDo o( 10054 {Rs. 90.540). 

Siddiipnr in colored with hills in the wes t, which in iho south- 
wftit aro UiJcklj*_wooded and "in the north- w eat are_bare7 The 
valleys ani:>ng the western hills are generally ftill of gardcuH. The 
centre of tho nub-divi^ion ia a scries of low hills crogaod by rich 
valleys and many unfailmi^ streama. To tiie eaat the hilb are f ew 
iLud the conotry stretclieH in wide plains w hich ueQirty wooded and 
in p»rt8 dotted with sugarcane and nce-fields ; t]>e ext reme aou th- 
pa^i is hilly and thickly wooded, mostly with crcrgrcon forests. 

Ivvcopt. in tho west, where fever prevails during the l*t«r rainii 
and the cold weather, tJie sub-division is fairly healthy and during 
tho hot montha the climate is agrocablo. At the station of Siddtipnr 
iu tho controof the sub-division, during the ten yivirs ending; IS7d, 
the rain rrhims shtiw a fall varying from 73'7(> iu 1676 to 1 16'60 in 
Iti/^, and averaging <J'V62 incJiee. 

The Baharangi or ShJrtJva ti, which flows along tho southera 
boundnry, is joined by (our or five streams before at Kodkani it 
Icnptt ovor a cii0 estimated to be tlOO feet high. After leaving 
Kodkaui it flows west by Gorsappa till it falls into the sea near 
Uon&var. The river Qemagani in Ihcwcst, which belowtheSahy&dria 
is known as Tadri , flows through the village* of Mutali, Hnbir, and 
Unchali. On its way thrtjugh the old Bilgi sub-division it i» Juined 
by serenil wtra»m« and falls into the sea near Gokarn. Tlie Vjirda, 
coming from Maisur, rnns through tho villugo of Balehop towaras 
ItanaT^ iu Sirsi. These rivers are little uned for irrignben. But 
many of tho smaller streams are of great value iu watering garden 

In the west villiigoe the soil in tho uplands is red and in the valleys 
isa rich alhiviid monld. Iu the east the soil i.^ red in places, but is 
sot very rich. The chief products are in the rice lands, rice, sugar- 
cano, Bengal gram, and huUii audio the gardens, betelnuts, pepper, 
cardamoms, betel leaves, lemons, and ornngoa. 

According to the 1881-82 retunis the agricnltural stock included 
34S-i ploughs, 412 carte, 10,S97 bullocks, 9931 cows, 402d she- 
buffaloes, e64 he-bufTaloos, 24 horses, and 1033 ahcep and goats. 

Up to the 3Ut of December tSB2 none of the Siddapur Tillagos 
had been brought under the Bar\-oy settlement. 

Tho 18S1 population returns show, o£ 35.658 people, 34,709 or 
97-33 per Dent llindns; 1327 or 2-32 percent MuNnlmlins; and 132 
or O-'il per cent Christians. The details of the Hindu castes an^ 
9260Br:ihtii»ns; ■'iU Mallavs, 1S2 Ling&y«t«, 78 Telngn and 4 
Vaishya Vnni.i, traders and merchants; 4-H Uaiflthfte, warlike 
cl8s«rs 1 27iir> Kare Vakkals, 1380 Kot Vakkals, 286 Gilm Vakkals, 
170KtUlora, 154 KSniCis, 103 Jains, 71 Eunbis, S5 Pauchanu&lU, 
and 32 Chetris, bnsbaDdiDeo ; 772 SoiUlrs, gold and silver smicbs; 

Chapter ZI 





[BoBlMir QaHttt 

OuyUr Xm. 436 Eambtirs, potters ; 411 SatfLrs, carpenters ; 157 "K&sii 
B&b-KfinttaB. <»ppersmith3 ; 87 Shuopis, tailors ; 32 Gaondis, masons ; 693 Tel 
oilmen ; 29 Patsalis, silk-cord makers ; 7233 HalepAilcfl and 
^^*' Bhanddris, palm-tappers ; 283 Ganlia, cowherds; SS' Dhangai 

sliepherds ; 25 Gollare, cosrkeepers ; 367 Bhois, 195 Mogere, 
EMiris, and 8 Xmbigs, fishermen; 363 Sappaligs, musicians ; 18 
Parita, washermen; 245 Bandis, servants; 119 Haj&ms, barbei 
14 Derlia, temple attendants ; 12G LambAniw, carriers ;21 Korchar 
cattle-breeders ; 70 Vaddars, earth-workers ; 63 Bnrada, bask 
wearers; 171 Jogis and 30 D&sas, beg^iB ; 183 Chamg&rs, Bh< 
makers; 2879 Mhars, 1393 Haslars, 467 Mnkris, and 197 Chch 
vddia, depressed classes. 






Aghna'shi, or the Sm-Jestroyer, at the mouth of the Tadri CluptCT^Xr 
river, abdut three miles south-east of Gokam, is said to be one of PUoeBOfIiit«n 
the oldest Uavig sebtlomenl^ in North KAn&rft. It haii t«mplea o( 
Kimeahvar ItlahAdOT and of Oanpati.' The rircr nt AghniLsbi is 
ooasiduroil au holjr aa to cIcuuho Erom the dendlieat sins. 

AUgaddo, a amall Tillage on th« loft mouth of tliu KAlinadi, 
which, wiih th6v!I1ag« lands of RAd, Beitkal, K&jub&g, Kndibig.Bnd 
Konai form the modem town of li&rwftr, is of interest as it seems to 
be the origin of Aliga^ one of the Portpguoeo names for tho K&Hnadl 
In [514 tho Portuguese fcraTollcr Darbwta mentions the Ali^ an the 
river which separatoit iho kingtlom of Deccaui tJiat ix BiJMpur from 
the kingdom of Narsiuga that is Vijajanagar. At its month waa 
tlie fort of Cintooola tJiat is Chitakol or SadiUhivga*,!.^ In ]&80 De 
Barros describes EiLnara as beji^nniug at a river called the Aligm 
vrbich runs west from tho Suhyiidris, where was « fortress calwd 
SiDta4:Dra which jutted out opposite the island of Anjidiv.' The 
latest known appearance of tlie name Aliga is in a German AtUta 
dated 1753.' In other Portngueee works of tho sixleonth century 
tho KlUinadi is a]»o called tho mer of Chitikul* iinil tho river 
named Cintacora.' On the coast of Western India it was uriuiI then 
as it still is (o call tidal hrers by tlie name of tho chief place of trade 
OS their banks.* 

An jidJT Iitla nd/ in norili Intitude H° i'V and east loagitudo 
74° lu, with in" 1872 a popuhitiou of 327 Portoguase ChriatiaaB, 

tTbLi chanter owm waitA to wldittOM nvla bv Mr. R. B. C^dy, O.8., Kud 
Ut. V. r. Ds SoBM, AMitUDt UMt«v Eirvit ScbooL 

*7!ha Utmi'l u thxt Kim, tha IndiiQ Cadil, wbom Sblv liatt burnt foTMccitiu 
hat. ooald not enter Gotuni U hii tkoounod atate. Uo tbtvafore act op a Img at 
AiElmJuhi, and Shiv b«tiu; pIcAMd, bt«nght down tho Oaagoa, tbemodan Aghnfahiaj 
or Tmlri, in wbicb OnpurMtbed, pBtiltod biniMlf, and «iitar«d Gokan. 

>8UuleT'sIfauboM. ra. • Decadaa. 1-2, 1S& *Stanky^ BarboM.TSnotol. 

• 8ul»(|jaa. II. iH6-94S. ' Tbraa Voya«na of Taaeo da Gum. MS. 

* CoBiwQ [a Um «xt«cath QaiOuTj tha rivor el Chiliknl, the river of AnkoU, tba 
n-nr ofitini, aad the rirorol KonbaUon or Knaata (Sabaidioa. 11. 346-948); and 
at proaaat tfaa UrwAr river, th« Aabote rivor, lh« Hontvar rira. aad tho Gcnappa 

' Uu«li of ihU aomuit is tak«D rroan aa srticla by Dr. Oarson da Conbn ia Uw 
Jcium*latth«BouUy Branohof th«B«7al Aaiatk Socwtr, XI. 2M-3ia Thotuma 
Aajidiv i* of doubtful ori^n. Acoordiog to ana aaoonitt It u AdyaJ^ta or the Early 
Uand : arcordiBg to a aecond it ia Aiviulfipa or tha Uaud of Cladfladbutur ; 
aenmliog to a tliinl, Airitdripti or the Vim lalaadi i aad according le a fcvrth it ta 
/()<><'>'>/» or tho laland of the goddcm Au. Itisaaid tohavobew eftIM Uie oh ly 
idaad beeasao it wu in «iistaucQ bolen Panuhontn ncUmed tlie Eookan trom Um 







XIT. LtM 6r6 miles aov 

ot KAr- 


•\ two mites 







nuunbmd mlniMt ii< y oppc villa^ 

Bin^hi. Thu Ulnnd belong tu tbn i >wf.e. 1 

ehspe, nboat n milti fmiu iionli to = _.-. .lud onc-^. 
tnim eiMl. i« KL'sl. 'ITio south-wost and irest of the isL 
ku«P nnti ragged *d(1 tbo apprunch is so rocky ok tn b« ilan 
to all ki»dd of reMoU. A small i»vts in the middle of 
or luodnitrd fiicir, in alMut twentj fuet of water, give^ 
to vcsH'U of UH luurh as l(>00 toDs bardon. It alf" 
khelti-r lor nJitiv« crah durini? liL-srr nonhorly or r| 

The strait or cIjuidkI bclwwn Anjidiv oud ilio u:; 
for lihips, beiog six to «ero» (utliuun det;|i, witboat RhunU or i 
CloM to lliP DulKido of Xhf iitlaud thti depth uf wnt^r i.4 tcu to i 
blboina. To tlte eaHt of Attjidiv, near the K&rw&r coast. . 
rooky isleta which, with miother about four miles to -' li. 

DBtlcB ft fairly ^ood roadbt'-iid whcro if l)t'(N'«sary a 
shelter during thu ¥'jnth-wi;«l mou.HOOiL' The rocks of tin- 
M* g n init ti j tpd JBtftity mixed with fine red earth. Its westcnt( 
sea tiido is b«rr«u and rocky, but tho cast or Umdward 
enriched with coeoa-palm groves and groups of man^i, pick, cai 
apple, oran^, and luinon trees. From the Kilrtvrir coaat the n 
of mmparts, a tvw wh)t<i houMS, and two cknr<:lii-i( ^showin^ : 
the lofty pulms, inuko the view of the island pirturesqae 
interesting. Tho air is sickly and the pix^lo suffer from to» 
The island was fortified by the Purl^ij^uosc in 15<.'5 ^ and auai 
1683,* Tho present fort, which wns hnilt in I6S2 and, on tho whoJ 
in ^r repair, in a largo foui'-sided hnilding with five bnrttions. 
wall is of atone and mortar and is pi-OTidod with battlemonU i 
embrasures or ^n-oponingB. Theroare casemates under t bo ramf 
and some of thu i-ai>tvra and southern bnsliona an- furnished 
orillona or projeotiiig towers. Tlitiro in a balcony foi- thtt _ 
large powder- roi^ni, a uagaKine for auiranuilicin and pro> 
a mansion for the govprnor. a house for the giit«-keupar, a i 
bouse, two redonbts, live Ijnutions named FmnciKCu, 
Conceicao, Dianiauto, and Lunihreirn, three battoriea named 
do Dentro, Poca, and Fontaiuha.i, and aereral sinnll buildings, 
enlranco gate lomls to a courtyard, and within the fort is a i>ond i 
spring water. 

In 1872 within the fortrc^ thero were 527 people and 147 
All are Itoiuao Cathulid Ohrtsliiviut. Tho parish ehnrcfa, which isi 
fair repair, is dedicated to >Ioesa Setihora das Brotas. Mosl of 

■M ; knd it 11 niil to bsva hc«ii tallod tht eUrUlfil-buttar iUuiil Iimabm it m 
Patutiurlin wiib cUritled batter for a ho«M.«wirificti The livo UlU'l 
uupuldrilivi'Alioo wni*|; Uia orty l'ott>sgn<Me(CMtaitli«4a [l^t^l ■" 

ILK7; Il«rwB[I6;0]iBV»aood«<;«ini'i«Tbrw.VoyiiK««.2Mj»i.Jl\.... .ij, 

VUggii, 11. ISD>, ia f ram anfr the TuUv tor fiv<t, tlic llvo MUnda U-inic 
Devgad or Ojitar lta«k«, Kunnag*'!, DukTii\ mm) CbijiiKAd or SJblr, th« ImII 

rock t« tlic Kiath of DoTpiiJ. Tli«i i^Hldcia Aia> nhu according to the f«n 
■ccoiuit RUTe hvt luiiw to the ikIiuiiI, b Mud to hare ll>fd frcni it to Aiikula tvLua. 
the Aral* destroj'ail hut l^cnplc 

' Jour, B. H. R. A. ik* XI. 288 ; Taylor'! Suling DircoWT. L WT. 

*»««b«l«w(a««29«. ' ^ 




' ptoploaro deacendetl from the PortuKuesegarriganandtLo Portuj^icso 
OonvicU from Goa, Daiunu, and Uiu, who, dnrmg Ihu ci^htiwnth 
centary wore coiifinod in the islntiiJ. Ahnunl the whole populatiou U 
aeUltxl on tlm i- n.-<l<Tn ^ln.'rc'. Thity make tiieir liviug by growing 
Oocoa-jwlm^ aiidliy fisliiii)^, large nnmbers of fish bcini? caught, driija, 
iukI tteiit for salo to tho maiidand- The women spin ijotton thread 
and yarn, aod knit cotton socks which urc miicii ritlued nnd futob 8#. 
to 11*. (Ks. i-B». Sj) * doxon, which roughly repi-eseiits alwatoDO 
month's knilttng. Tho JMiimil has no ricedaud, loo tittle rice that is 
nwded for local nse beiug brought from the inaiuland. Abotit twenty 
yoar:t ago a small crop of ra^i asod to ho rni»G4), bat it has been 
diacontinued from want of lubonr. A contraband trodo in cheap 
European wiri«s and spirits und iu Qoa salt used to be carri«d on 
betwcuD Atijidiv nod Uinghi on the majnland, but within the post 
fow years thia smuggling has been pot down. 

During tho first years after tho arrival oF th« Portngiieso in India 
(l&0O-1510),lM.'ri>r(! they tr""*^^G"<S they set groat store on Alijidiv 
■a a station for ropairiug and watering their ships.' After tho 
capture of Goa in 1510 Anjidiv ceased to have any importance to 
the Portngaese. It remained almost dtisvrted till in 1C83 a fort 
was hailt, and tho inland made one of tlie plca.sante!it PorlugHose 
forlificationa in India. Apparently about this time it had a 
population ot over 6U0 of whom about 200 worn the garrison, with a 
commandant, a qiiartvrmastor, an adjutant, imil u surgeon. There 
was A Ji'-Kuit NixniTuiry and college and a Fortugiit;se wchool. The 
churcli of St. llrotas bad three resident priests and the ohurch of 
Our liady of Dolor had one. A mahinons fever broke out some 
time in the aorenteentfa century and greatly thinned the population, 
some of whom songht refuge in PAnjini iii Goa, where there is a 
aettlement still known as Aiijidiv. In the eighteenth oentury the 
ieUnd ia chietly noticed aa a convict station.* The present stnrtngth of 
tho gftirisoo is six sepoys under » uatirv subnltern from Goa on £3 
(H-s. 30] a month, liie two churches are still in ftur repair though 
iDQcb neglected. 

The island is supplied with water from two ponds. One near the 
tniddlo of the island is about thirty feet square, but its water b 
nnwholesomo and is not used for drinking. On a slope about 200 
yards lo the we«t of this pond a natural spring Sows thronghoat the 
year into a granite cistern about three feet iu uiametor. Ik-^dcs the 
cistern, churches, and fort, the only objects of interest are two old 
oud ruined enclosures, one at the north and tbe other at the south 
end of the island. Aceording to the local story these enclottures 
contain the graves of the 381 Hugl 'Ubmen ot Uio tint Jtombay 
Army who died on tho island in li }6'3 and ICM. In one of th* 
ouelosure.i a broken pilUr perhaps niarka the grave of the general. 
Sir Abraham Shipman,' who died on tho oth of April 1664. 

Anjidiv seems to be the island of the Aigidioi, mentioned by the 
Egyptiao geographer Ptolemy (a.d, IM>) and by the Greek author 

Chapter Xl^ 
Places of int«ii 




■SMbeloviaeaasa. •SMbtlowpagaaS?. ■8Mb«low p^3ML 




fnV. of the Periplus (i.t>. 347).' As in later times, Anji<liv wa* pr 
important Lo tha Qrook tnden bocvwo of it« nnfailing upr 
good water wid iUi snitelilGneM m n plaoe of mil for vesaele tr 
between the Ked Sea and tbo MalAb&rCoaat. No othttr mfc 
Aojidiv Iina been traced till, m im2, the Afrifiui traveller Ibn . 
passed fn>iii Sindiibnr, appnrcnilr ChitJikul nou* SMlAsliiT^. 
iroalliT island near tbu inftinlitna, in which wu ■ tomple, a 
sad k pond of water. Iba Batuta landed nn tbo iNland and n<r^ 
J(^ narked with the eigna of religiooa warfare, leaning* aginiut (in 
■wul of a temple Iwtween two idols. Ibn Batuta apobe to bim, bn 
be gare oo answer. Ho lookod about to »eo what tbo Jo^i lived onl 
Ibe Jogi BhoDl«d aod a cocoanat fell on him. Ibn Batuta aff« 
bim money ; tli« Jogi refnsed it and in retom threw biro ton 
or dinars. Iba Batata asked bim what be worshipped. Hu look 
to tlio sk; and tbon towards tb« west, apparently meaning that I 
worohipiwd thu sun and the m«. Bat llni Batnta, like a 
MuMlm&n, claimed biuiaa a brother believer, exulaining that the Ju 
looked to heaven to show that he worahippea Allab ntid that 
looked to the west to show that be worshipped tbe temple of Mk 
and believod in Mnhammad the Prophet of Ood.* Daring 
fifteenth ccntury.intbodevelopmcntof tbe Arab and Bgyptian 
between tbo Red Sea and tbe Malabflr Coaat, Anjidiv l>ecainv a 
of call for tbe Red Sea traders, who stopped lo take wood _. 
water,* and, at a later date (I&&4), Sidi Ali Kapodhiu) says Ui&t is 
the Arab viiyagca tbo first land sighted from Aden to Malab&r 
Ajtadiv.* Before the close of the fifteenth oenlury tbe Arabs 
rained tbo Hindu temple and built a magnificent stene c< i ' 
lead Ibe water from tbe stono dstero in the upper purt. of l)i < 
mentioned by Ibn Batata, to the shoro for iin'. c»nv „ 

According to Castanheda the Moors of Moc<?a had t j 
of Anjidiv, who woro idobitors belonging to the km-. 
Vijayanagar or Narsingn, so badly that tjioy abandoned tht. ... 
Cant-naheda says tbe Moors destroyed scvoral fine lemples and i 
bnildiogs; tboy probably osed the stones in making Uie noli 
aqueduct which supplied tbe shipping with water.* 

On the 2+th of Septombor 1 4S>8, Vasco da Gama, the AdrairaJ of flal 
first Portupnosc (loct.atii^horcd at Anjidiv on bis way from Kalikat 
to Europw, b«cau!M' lie was told tbe island bad good water.' Ha 
isbind is described as thickly wooded with two tree stone cistentfi 

• MoCriaAlel Porinlna, 130i B«rUni' Ptoleiny, 313. Ilia t«Kt of Ptolanjr hhuim I 
laikk* tho (tUnd or tliu Aigidioi mm ul Uie MAblivs. Bat it «•■ lurdlr be liitb 
Iran tbe ^4ea of Ui* wue nvna ineatiooed in tlie Pcripis* m od the coMt 
K«MU* «r HonlTBT. 6m sbovB n. 46 note 8. 

*!««'• ItiDBataU. IM-lGSj Vale'a C&thay, 11. 4111 -418. Ibu B^om'ii Hmi 
may poaribly 1m SiddUpur sn old oitjr cioM to tb* Dieto modom K»iivi>i 
balbw fiiildluUiiir. 

' Cabral in 0» Cunhk'* AnMim : Jemr. Bon. Br. BoT- A*. Soc. XI. 296 

• Journal At^tio .'indoty. Bongal, V-S, 4.1S. 
*CMtM«iW'l l>*llMTO«in DaCunha'* Anjedira, JOKT. B. B. Roy. Aa. Soc XL ! 

Oaatcni calla tlia aqoedaot an ancMtit nad njptvb work, and ttoBairoi wggnts tlutif 
WM nmU br (ODO jKiwarial priuce. tht natniw of tha wtalt and tha abaaa«« o( any 
retcrcnoe to it in Ibia Batata anjMMt that it woa vaita by the UMira cl M ooea la i ' 
tattaf part nf Ibe (onrtMntb or dnrioi tna Gfteeatli etavay. 

• Ca*t40h«la in Kwr-a V«ue*, IT 386 ■ 3«7. 
' CMUnK*d« tn R«tT, U. »f: MkUt'a VuitA, I. s«Tlt. 



one of them aix feet deep fed with excellent spring water. 
Except on ^eat days, when Hindus came to worship three black 
stones, there wore no people on the tslitnd ; oiilj' n bej^gar, a Jo^, 
wbo IivihI in a stone grotto nnd ate food and rice given him by 
maaing nhip!'. In a receHs in the chancel of a beautiful stone-biiilt 
Dttt rained temple, which was thatcbed with etnw and palm leavea, 
were three blade stones in charge of the Jogi. Vaaoo da Gama 
spent Iwelvu dajK at Anjidir cleaning and repairing the bottoou 
of hift sbipfl, taking water and fuel, and laying in stores of fig«, 
cocoanai«, and fovHs which he was able to hay at the rate of three 
for a penny (six for a n'n/em).' While at Anjidiv Yikco da Gama 
received an vmbacsj of twelve wcll-dri'»»ed men who cam* in two 
boat« from the mainland and said they bad been sent by their chief 
with a supply of sugarcanea. One day a swift boat passed the fleet 
and an ola man m tbe boat hailed the Portuguese in the Castilian 
tongue. The etnuger was asked to come on board the admiral's 
fillip, ami Da Gamu, who suspected treachery, put him to Uie torture, 
and found that he bad come with some vessels-of-war from the 
Bij&par ii^vemor of Goa in the hope of snrpri^ing and securing the 
PortugucHo llo-t. Thin nian, though the accounts vnry, apparently 
mw a Jew. Ue waa taken to Kurope by the Portuguese, bocamo a 
Christian under the name of Gasper da Gama, ana was afterwards 
of maeh service to the Portugni.*sc.' The Portnguese were delighted 
with Anjidiv. Dtmug Uioir early voyages, before thoy were estab- 
lished at Uoa, both on coming out ana on their return from tbo 
UnhiMr ports, their sbips stopped at Anjidiv to repair and lay in a 
snpply of drinking water.* Tho fondness of the early Portuguoas 
for the island, and perhaps the fame of ihu neighbouring dancing- 
sirls of Goa and Kitnarn, make it probable that Anjidiv is Camoens' 
(1317-1579) Floating Island which Venus prepared a* a rc«ting-place 
for her beloved Portagueso.* On the 7th of Aagost 1500, Cabrat, the 

CbapUr XT 
Places of la\9i 

< CMtAsluiU in Kerr't Vi>j«m^ II. 38i> : OMnMir Cottm'* TlirM VojugM of Vmoo 
dk Gaina, 338 ; umI »<• Btrnw, I, Vt ii. 2K, b Da CubIu>^ AuiMliia, 3<mt. Botn. Br. 
fUy. A*. Soo. XI. 296. 

* DcMib vrt fvnn in the Untflry Choptar. Compare Da Onalu's AajtiUva 1« Jour. 
& B.R. A. Soc. XLS9e-W7;KerT'«r<9ag««.lI.3S6.aM:ThmVova««« or Vmw 
da OMiia. 244-2ft2. ■ Ketr'* Voyiuw. IL 386. «». ttB. Ufi. 

• Lumwl, Cuit« IX. That Anjidiv wu Cunoei I^ of Lore luw bean •uum(«4 
by OB«l«n (I7SS), wbo thce^t Um fkncv of maldag it ■ FlMtiag taUad lukd ita 
«rigiB ui TtinBU]r«'*d«TJocMapiiTOacUiuUwPortiwiuaeb)?«OTtrtniikl« T«aaaia«ritit 
te«gteaa<IJeava*(a*eal>OT#p. 101). Mickl'(l..awjiiC H- 3ffl.3A£-3(il)>««iuBtodpuU 
whctlKT tbo Uand cJ Vaaua hwl any uritiiiia] amnno tha ialaad* of tbeIadUnS<a. 
It may i>«Il b« Uiat ClHtata a Dx}>laualiua ol tb* Pl-ntlnj laUad is (anaifaL Bat tb« 
can vitli wlucli Camoeua giir«B Ui« XMinty of Da Oana'a daagan ami eacnpc from 
KoIiluM^ nail Uwd dnnribca, nxactlj* an it hjiiiptnod. b«w joyFul ia tiwir cacapa Itoa 
IraaaharoM Kalikat tba kadora o( the Hcct, witb eanxat ajraa aoo^t eana or kay, 
iorkoa waarvt tbair watery way, aougbt oap« or ialr from vli«noe udr boat* 
mi^t bring tbf haal thiol iHHinty □( the nratal apriiyf. Ttuyaaw tfaodoatiDn retduta 
of the laic □( Ijovv, aad Mraothiy led oWnnvtnd tide, riidrt to the tilo M Joy llM 
vaambgnide. ewteriiy thchay, a taterettvat.whcre notaUaalnitf-ht shako itadiiltar- 
iagpiaioaa o'er tfaoailnat lake iMk'ktcBLiuiad, II. 325.33S>. Omaidcniig bow cJoaaly 
laaaa lEnca of CwnoeDi' keep to the facta of Da Uama^ ^oya^n thare aeeaia bo raaaoa 
to 4<KiU that It wathethankfalaeaaofDaO— la'aflaetiaeaeha «d.MiDt iaiaad aa 
AnjiiliT. iriih Ita paaeafiil harbovr. kindly pemla, pUai grovaa, and boaotitul wator 
aod perhap* lb* T«T«b of tbo tnoreMcimnailanaffntanvoyifta, thataug^miad to 
Camoaaa (« Mm Aa)hllv lalo aa lalaad «f Lova. Tbongk Anjtdiv nay ba the Ua- 

[Bombay ' 



.T U- 

Kyter XVf. comnmuder of the secood Porto^ueae fleet, landed fU. Anjidir, 
tCM (rflnterMl °^ ^^ 20ih of Aagast the whole of his crew confeaaed and moui 

Uie iKci&itMait* In November loOl Anjidir vnu risitad by Jolii 
Axin'iv. ^^ Nui'vi» who cotiimnndcd lh« third I'ltrUigMt'SO voyaged In 

UMvnt. Aufftist l.>02 Ua tJiituu's Hocood Beet, which wns ftcittccn-d in n «1r->rn! 

offUAbhul in Itatnii^iri, came together atAnjidiv. NVhil<- 
tSk the island two f^roat borffvs, or, according to Fariaj ei-i. 
boats litiku<l together and oovuTtNl with btHij^hs «u i%» to look 
flcMUing inland, <;»ino near the PortuKueae sliifM h<iping lo s(ir|ri.i^ 
tliem. ITie I'ortugoeao were waruoa by the Jew Gas[K>r «nd drova 
off their assailants with heary tosa. These craft !>■ ' 
Hindu corsair Titiima or I'iminaya of HouiiTar who aft< i 
so uKvful au ally to lh« Portagoese.^ In \W\, nfu^r inucfa ;. 
and dangnr, streaa of wpather forced two Portugneito sqiiudi' 
epcnd the aouth-wetit mousoon (June-Noromber) at Aujidtr, 
they suffered severely from scarcity of pro^■i8ioDS.* Abom •!..• 
time tiiD Ittilian traveller Vnrthomn (1&03-1508) cnine from Blmika) 
to what fas calls the island of Ansediva and d«8cribi;s as inhabited 
by Moors and pagans. It was half a mile from the niainlnnd, and 
twenty miles round ; the iiir was not good, neither waa tho 
fertile. There wiia an oxcoIIkuI twrt iKttwuen tho inlaad aiv: 
mainland, nnd it was well supplied with water." In VjU't, 
Francisco d' Almeida, the first Porto gnose viceroy, was ori - 
the king of Portugal to fortify Anjidiv, because of ita i 
situation about the middle of the coast, which, beaides .smTuuig 
prot(s;tioQ to trade, wotdd aecure a supply of wat«r for tbi* 
shipping. On the 13th of September of the samw year i ' 
Alinftdn laid thu foundation stono of the fortroea. Thew:< 
lime and cement on the island mado it impossible to build a 
factory fort ; all that coold b« done was to llirow up walls ot ...., 
and stone According to Portaguese writers, while digging tb» 
foundation or qnnrr^-iug the stones, a nnmber of croH-tea of bine and 
red wood were found.* One Manuel I^canha was appointed oaptaia 
witli n garrison of eighty men and one giilKty and two brigau' 
A factory was establiahca on the island undfir Dimrlv Pureira a:- 
or provost with three clerks and other subordiuiitfi ofiicers. V 
Almeida was at Anjidiv amlMissadors came from Ilonilvar briu^..^ 
presents and a friendly message from their chief. Several inor- 
chants also waited on Almeida and Moors brongfab presents from 
Cbitaknl or i^dishivgad, where th« Bijitpar king had lately built a 
fort and garrisoned it witli ^0 men. About six months afl'- 
Anjidiv fort was finished, Sabayo, that is Vutiuf Adil Shdh |,t 

toiiM] anpa of the bknil ol Lore CunMna' wcnderful picture of its bMntici Ku f»v 
points wlilph CM) hare liom Xakva from th« >otu&l Aujidiv. Burtcn (TIm Luiia : 
Ml,6{>l,6GS) la prolMtbly correct in holding tlut th« rjcbnonofi^ |iictnrc onf . 
toOmoeiui' knowladiia «f ZdBiibiU uid BruiL The itiUDU on Um iiUnd havu Uwn 
wdl Ki>acrcd by MickU iLnalad, U. 3M-Zi\) and bj Ihtrtgii flSSD), He Uiiadi, 
IL 344.358. -— -. 

» Km?t Vojans, U. 405. ' Korr'. Voy«BM. IL i29L 

*Dot«il« areravci) in ttis UUtorj Clupt*)', 102- 103. MlckU (Lwud.I. zeUL) j 
the iadilont Is I)a Guna'i lint vajra^o. 

• Kc[T'( Voyagu. 11. 45S, 457. * Bftdgtr'a VartlMOia, lax 

* Ukkl«'a Liuiad, U. 327 t Jonr. BO«n. Bi. Boya) Aaiatia Sodotr, XL Xi-VO. 




I&IO) oE Qij^ur or hia local rotoitiop, jealoiu of tlio Portagueee 
alliance with Hou&var, soot a body of MiiBnlntdns and Hindus with 
R floct of liixly galloys to ntt^uk the fori luid ciipturv Ibo gamsoo. 
Till) OuA fvrve vriiH CO mi mill (led by a Portugneae ChriRtian Quit«d 
Antonio Fernande:* ivbo bad embraced Ial£m and taken tbs name of 
AbduUa. Fernandea sacceedod in landint; bis troops at night and 
to the absence of Almoida nnd his son. Tnougb taken by surpriM, 
IWunha, tlif PprUigiivMc ciiptiiin, knon-iiig tliat he could not trust 
to tlio mild wwlU of the fort, e&llied out and attacked his assailanta 
ao fiercely that they were forced to retire. Still they succeeded ia 
taking a position on a hillock which commanded the fort und their 
artillery cituscd tbo PorttiguoM grtiat aiinoyanco. lu Mpit9 of much 
lottB and suffering the Portugiiixse kept up 8o deadly a bra that the 
enemy dared not attack the fort, and after a blockade of foar daya 
the as^ilants withdrew honrin^; that Almeida was at hand with 
Tuinforcemont«. In May l&llt!, a. council niw held at Anjidiv when it 
wiM resolwd that as the rainy s«ason was drawing near and Kochin^ 
the beAd-c|aarterH of the troopa, waa too distant to aSord help, 
Anjidir woidd bo constantly open to attack. As enough men to 
form a sufficiently Mtrong garrison wore not nrailablo the forti- 
fications were razed and the island waa abandoned.' In HMQ 
there ia a reference to the delightful island of Anjidiv,' and ia 
1510 the fioet of thv great Portii^v^se gonornl and statesmaa 
Dafboquorque nnchoreil at Anjidiv.* Aft«r I51l>, when Pfirtnguese 
power was o&tabliiilied in (ioa, Anjidiv ceased to be of any importance, 
and the island waa allowed to remain waste. No furtiier nuropean 
reference to it has bcun traced till, in 1623, the Italian tiaveller 
DiiUu Vnllo noticvtl that Anjidiv or tho fivo isUnds was desohito.* 
About IQoS, the Dutch writi^r SchultKeu doaoribe«( the island aa 
throughout planted with cocoa-palms and celebrated for numerous 
fights botneijn tho Portnguese and tho Moors." In 1600, Bald^us 
desuribf.t il ad full of wootis and bush and cxtmnrdiimrily rich in 
Sah.^ Under a marriage contiiict dated tho 2'-ird of July 1G61, 
as part of the dowry of his sister Katharine, John IV. Icing of 
Portugal, cc<Iod to tho English king CiwHes II. {IfiOO- 1685) tho 
island and harbour of Dombay, which the Knglish understood to 
include Siiiselte and the other islands of the Bombay harbour.' A 




'Jaiir.ILRJLA.3^SI. 306; Kerr'* Voj«m VI. 01 iBaUwDii in Cliunihiir* Voyage 
ID. 087 1 VucodnGuai'i Three Vo}->(;m, 331, wiwn u uyin^ ofAImeUlu'i ia quoted, 
'I built tbn cMtIc of KAnuiur uul ilinnailllvd Anjkliv.' 'Kvrr'a VuvIl(;l:t,^1.114. 

•CoianuBUnn of Uolboqaeniue, U. 190-200^ * Voggii, n. IW, 

>Travob <AinM«nlun, ItnG). IW, IRl. <ChtireliiIl'i ^^«^ca, til. R.',7. 

' Rmoc (Aniul« of tho But Ibillk Gomjany, IL l3S-13it| stv« ■ (nnminry of a 
. i.J Knt by Miig Cb*rki to tho Portut^cM C<nirt wmiilunlnif of tliulr r.uliini to 
.< : ItumlMjr and iu d*paiiIiCAcic«, Tlic (oUniriuseKtincI fniic the Mi-rnrFrial 
liuk i-'titi kiiMy exUM.'ttiihyMr. J<unciD>iUi;LwfriilntlMifnslarical '< ' ' ■ty 

to u'liii'li Hnioe rcf en u uiic of hU antburitkn. TIm> eilnet prort^ : nt 

SaIm'IIv uruciHtcd ta'the Eii^litk w It wok liifiludcJ In kinap a( tl»: u'TiUini-. to ]j« 
banttpj tyrer. hi the McmMnnl of liifiS faU Mai«rt« rwj ounotly liuiiilxl Ikit nul 
Dtdy juatM* *)>oiilil be dono ob the Vlcc-KluK IQ tho Indiw wlio liad *« (iUwl^ ajid 
BtMuthontatirdy tuiloil {n tho varrcndcr of tiio pronuKJ land, but tli>t TOfnrstuni lie 
Mudo forthetiatof £IOO,i)Unc*u«3<l liy tlie cipv<[itio<i. uidmomcfEtcta^urduniuBiMd 
tor the luinndM of tliu miil Ul.iii,l tu Utn foil cxtrat f<>nn«rl>- khowa to lib Majesty in 
tlic map coatainiiigaat uiil)' It'oiilxty but Slk«tt«Aii'I Tlilna and m priMnUbi to htt 
UkJcMty fuf the poMauou uf nU'ih tht troajM utn jvt dctiiuod Mivn, Mtffntng mucJi 

iRpUr ZIT. 
BMof Int«mt 

letter was recotred from the Portufcvem king, doted the 9t)i of April 
1(162, orduriiie his representatiTo in India tu deliver B'jtiibay lotb« 
Englisb. In MiMKjh tlj63. n, floct of tivo men-of-war, under ■.r^mn'il 
of the Earl of Marlhoroagb, with SirAbrat 't|i|fibipmiiin *'■ 
Accompanied hy a new PoHuguese viceroy, left fiiigland for u;)-.iii/jv 
Part of the floet readied Bombay in September ifJ62 and the rest 
in October 166:2. Tho goryg y of Baweio rofpsc d to carry oat tiit 
tornu of the t^jreomentT Ho oontenttod that tbo iiilnnd of Bomb*/ 
Iiad nione been ceded, and, on tho groand of some alleged im^nlnrity 
in the form of the letters'patent, he refused to gire ap even Bumb&y. 
Tho Portagaese rtceroy dedioed to iotemro. Sir Abr&ham 
Shtpman proooedcd ^Snr&liat the mouth of tho Tipti, bat, aa hi« 
prosonco caused uneasmoss m Siimt, he wm forced to tUtiw to 
Anjidiv which w w then desolate. Here the filnglish troops rem 
EorDearlytwoyearSfdnrin^ which time wantof anppliraandofe! 
tho nnhuiilthinrtM of tho climato, and. according to Fryer, ! 
tutemperance.cauBodthedoathof thcg«ncral, 8ir Abmhnm .: 
and 881 of th e 500 men. ' In November 16M, Sir Abmi 
sacoessor tfr. Humphrey Cooke, to proserre the remnant i,i m, 
troope, agrcttd to accept Bombay without its dupondenciaa In 
Fobroary I&I35, when tlie DCgotiation* for handing it orur 
conipl«t«d, only 1(9 Englishmen landed in Bombay.* In . 
Fryer notices Anjidiv aa famed for the burial of soma houiirinl 
Englishmen.^ In H>83. during tho government of the Portugneeft 
Tioeroy, Condo d'AJvor, a new fortrosa was bailt on tho idand. and it 
wait made one of the pleasanteiit l^ortuguese fortifications in In-'--'.' 
In the same year. S ^pbh Aji. who had quarrelled with the Portn^' 
determined to tako too island, but, in Jalyi before the stormy season 
«M over, the Qoa Government «ont a body of troops to dvfondit, aod 
the Mardthis were forced to givo up the attempt.* In Sftptvmbor, 
by way of rotaliation, the Portuguese sent a fleet of timall veAsatfl 
from Anjidiv to haimBW t ho trade of Kirwdr," In 1720 Hamilton 
Doticca Anjidiv as an island of tho Portngacse abont two miles 
from Batcoal (Beitknl) which they had fortifivd in case tho Maskak 
Araba or the SbinijtB that is the Alarilthte should seize it.^ In 
1758 the French echolar Anquetil du PerTx>n described Anjidiv aa 
beloofi^ng to tho Portngneso, fairly ferOBod, and producing tb'- ' 
cotton slockingft on the ooaAt.* In 1775 the English tn< 
Paraons notices that, except the iahuid of India I>»vc that is An 
which belonged to tho Porttg^ese, the whole of the Kinara i ^^. 
was iu Uaidar AU's (17C3-1782) hands. On the landward side of 

lacMir«aIaiw« la Ika •EpecbtUm of it. Tie miim hirtonr ^wotca firom k letter d Um 
PTMiiknt ■ndCounoil <it BomWjr, datad 3nl Fcbnuu^ 1ST3, which (Uto* that eiiwns 
WM lix pr w ly danribod in Uw «bart dalirerMl to king ChvlM >■ fut of wbat ww to 
b« MrraiilMwl to bin. 

> Fryer^ But Indi* and Pmria, 63. 

■Tli« det&ik WON, tb« Oovaraor, om laulg^ tour wriaMiti, aU oorponl- 
dnunoMn, oiw turgiioa, mm MirgMn'a m>M, two naMn, oiMginuiar^niu: 
nnamlUi, mti BliielT.Mv«n pri<rk£a. Vnioi'* A&nab, IL 197 i aanram) (itatit Du^i 
HMilU*, 2W ; Buml). OaaattMr. XUI. 473 - 473 : FttW'b But IwUt and Pcni&. 631 

■ rrjHr'a RMt (ivlto ud P*nis 57, 58. * Joar. B. & ft. A. Soo. XL 3M. 

*OniM'sIIlitaHc«IFT«gR)aata, 11,1, 132. * Oraaa'a Bictorioal n^emcntB, 123. 

' Eu( India u»d Pvnn, L S77. * Zand At-MU, DiMonn FRUniiuire, cciii. 




AnjidiT TTOPO tho town unti enstio mixed with verdnro, limes, pUntaias, 
nml ooooft trees, aoil n few giinlvna. The islinid wiw cliiefly used as 
a wnal sottlement for Goa and Diu. The convicts wero langht to 
spin ihrt>a4] and yam and to weave stoddntfs, which were the bettt in 
ladinnnd very oil cup.' Acoordiii^to Fr» I'nrdiiio, who was in India 
ahoiit tUo liame time a^t I'ni-snns, the Anjedib inltimlN m^r GfM wore 
a great centre of piracy.' In 1801 IJys^BOsn notices the iitlnnd of 
AnjeidiTa as buloni^ng' to and inltabitcd by Vortngneso." 

APhQla. tlic lica«1-qiiartent of llio Ankoliiouli-diviition, within 1681 
n population of 24<J7, lies about fifteen niiloa south. east of K&rwAr and 
lias post, sea-customs, and chi<>f coustnblo's of&ci^s, an Anglo-rema- 
cniiir school, f» travellers' bungalow, »nd amiiK-^l fort. This entrance 
to Ute Anicola creek iadry at low wnter; the town ia nearly two miles 
inland. I'he chief inhnbitanta are Shenria, S^sashtkitrs or Konkanis; 
Vaishya Vdnis, Nitdor8, lUI and Karo Vakkals, Kuliivnnts, Aigals^ 
Adlwdkix, Plindtiit, A[hKr», Bnkuts, Chimbhar.-i, KoukaiiiM or Koakaa 
MitnithB.^. Gui]((^, Bhoia, Ambirs. Balegirs and Harkantin*, 
Oiriittians, and Musalmdns. Their t-bicf oocnpntions sro agrioalture. 
trade, and hibour Many of the people, opecially of tbe ^ftlMdtnJin8 
who do not bold land, tind it dimcult to earn a livelihood. Ankola 
has a small market with aboat sixty shops whvre rice, cocosnuta, 
bet«luutH, tolMcco, spiccn, vcgotableii, and cloth, and sundry other 
articles of Indian manuEactnre brouvbt from Hnbli and l^ubay are 
Hold. Tito soa trade returue for tno eight years ending 18S1-S2 
show aremge yenrlv exports worth £J>31+ (Rit.r>3,M0) and average 
iniporta worth Ifi-iflG (K.h. tM.flCO). Kxports varied fmm £<t2 US in 
18(o-7tJ to £7;JW in 1870-77 and imports from £4385 in 1875-70 to 
JEl 1.814 in 1877-78. 

Ankola fort stands on nnng gronnd about 400 yards oast of the 
town. It isronad.aboutCOOyardninrircomforeiico, audwilli mined 
flst-topp<-d walls about Sfteon feet high built of largo blocks ot 
granite and blerito. Tho fijrt is surrounded by a moat about twelve 
Sect broad and twelve feet deep, though now much filled. Panthers 
HO mutinies take shelter in two hollows close to tbo moat. The fort 
liad one arched gateway which hiw fallen. There appear to have 
been battleraeuta on the top and there are acven openiuira for largo 
guiiB, but no trace of the guns remains. The fort is thickly covered 
with gtiavu.-*, mangoes, kaju Anacardium occident«le, birand 
Garcinta purjturea, and jack trecji. ^^o produce of the tre<-!4, which 
is farntea from year to year, realized Eo (Ks. 50) in 18S1. Tlioro 
are no honsea within the fort. The only building is an old stone 
temple (20' x SC) of Rudreshvar, also c»lle<l KoUrsIn-.-ir, which irnjoys 
a yearly Government allowance of £1 17*. (Its. ISJ}-' A Usvig 
prieitt lives in the temple during the fair season. Close to the temple 
w a step-well, alxmt thirty foot across at the top, with a flight 
of steps leading to the water's edge, lliere are no inscriptions on 

Chapter Xl\ 


> Ptnml' Travel*, 23a ' DaCnnWa Aojcdinin Jonr.B.B.I[.A.Soe.XL3(n. 
'Mj'tor*>i>.IOtun. lU. 178. 

■ BuMfi the cMh gnai %tie ttmoto cniofii the loMmo of tmno rie»-ScMii ta 
S)i«l{«ri Tltl«g«, «lioat tira lailca tMtVii of A»koU. 

(Bombar Oui«wJ 



or timr iho fort ; bot there taalocal trailUion tlmt tlio fort trtu bufltl 
bv u f^>n(lii king for Um rOKideaoe of iw EsLvourite mistrt:^^ a 
01 Aakola. 8«bBi><)n<»iitIy Sberif-nl-Uolk the Biij 
of KAoar^ who^ »baat tlie close of tlio nxU-cntu oratiiTT 
bis tw>d-^mM!^ m,n| , Anicnin jmtl ^rjin, enliuvcd iko for 
fend iiarrouniloa U wilIi » moot. ~ Besides the tort Ankola 
several well bnilt temnlee aod a Roman Catbolio chapel andar tlwj 
Archbiahop of 6oa, armch ia opcasionally risitod by a victu wbosBl 
head-f(uartcr8 are at Binghi near Kirvr&r and whoae cbarj^e extendEl 
bo Yelli&piir. The ooDgregatioii oambers about 200. Tho chapJf 
was built about fifteen veara ago on the nto of an old cathvdnl at] 
St Mary. Whrn naidtCr All took Kiaara io 1 768, Anfcola had 
ChrUtuiD population of 7000 with a rich and handsonio cbarrkl 
dedicated to ot. Mary. TipD plundered and Bet firo to the chiircli.| 
oiurit-cl off the cntiro Christian population to Seringapabim, ubI 
forced niauy of them to turn Miisalmtins.' 

The earliest mention oE Ankola which has been traced ia in 15LI>| 
when a UBurpiujif brother of MnUuUrrto. the Hon iJTnr il 
Ankola to stop iUlhdrrAo, who was Hjtng to the Portngi. .a.*! 

Aboa t IMP, w hen Portugneae power was firmly estabiibhcit, thai 
Ankola rirer is mentioned as paying them a yearly trihnt o of 2Q0l 
bales of rice.* In 1547. in a iJeaty between tlie Portugneao viccnqr] 
DoDi Joao Do Castro and SaJ^tli iv B<ii . long of Vijayanngar, one i " 

in a treaty oesweo 


■ all olqUa formerl] 

taken for sale to 

the atipulations was that i _ 

in Sivantv&di should now go to the Portngnow fuclora 
AnK t a aiirHo nttvar, and that the Vijayanogar government shoo 
telllie^people to go to thi»o porta and exdiaoge their ware* 
roppiT, mercury, coral, vermillion, Cbiiia and Ormus silk, and ot 
Portugneae goods.* In July loC7 Ankola was viidted by tha 
Venetian merchant Ctaaar Frederic k. He deecribes ic as on tlie . 
i n tbo territory of tto qae en^ ue rsappa. Frederick and a friend 
•tnyod at Ankola wficro tTi'ey^ere jolnea by another horse merchant] 
two Pnrtugncw! &oldicr« from Coylon, and two ChriHtian letter 
carrierB.' In Febntary 1C76, Fryer describes it as haU-fl' H 

by ShjyAii . and almost down or deserted. Halt the mar: 
burnt nnu the remsiniDg Bhops were t-mpty. It had a weli-^ 
and strong rastio whitrh '^ f illflH|illli)Td_ til^1r ^"'K^T?^' river and 
armed by fifty brass guns wnlcn tho Hoora of Sij&pur hud cot ou| 
of a Portnguecu wreck.' In 1720 Hamilton notices Ankola as 
harbour in tljaS^gf^^ggmiry.* In the aame year Ankola nppc 

as Ankola in ^^^'^''^'°'"g°J^th^|[lttj|igMfl^f^^ ' 

I Ankoli 

In n 

Wfurtii w hich wen; irrauH J 

In 1730 Iho Kouksu territorr from BSlarin fiatn&giri to At 
oomprehvudod in tbo sorcroignty of Kolh^pur.' In I 75f 
is mentioned by name 'bythorrencH scholar Du Perron.'* 

• Now Accnunt, L 278. 
*Onal Diir* MuMbi*. SS4. 

^ 1891 
• Eaat IikUh uid fonria, IA8. 

>°Zaw1 AvoWa, uW PmUi. owix 




Baibat Janff. a jfenerai ot Haidar'e, redaced Ankota fort' In 1783 
Bn Englisb detach iiiwit was sent t« occupy the forfcs of Anktila 
and SiidiUtiivgad.* la 1799 Anlcola was garrisoned hy Tipa's 
tpoopa.* In 1800 Mnnro describes it aa onco floiiriidiinjf. now with 
only n low b^pariy inhabitants.* In 1801 Biiobauan notioM it as a 
niuod fort wilb a sqihU market oft*n burned by robbeni. It waa 
recovering and had forty shop«. There waa a poor manufacture of 
cat«cha.* In 1872 Ankola had a popuUtion of 2S35, Hindus 260-1 
SInsiJrailns 201 and thirty Christian!*. In 1S73 Ankola bid an 
estitnnti^^d populntiun of 2000, ohiefly Hniliniaus and Musalni&DS. 
There was a small trade in jpieoe-gooda helped by tho iinvii^le creek 
which runs to witlua a mile oE the town," 

Ail8lu_Oha't or the An«hi Pawi h in the SaJiyAdri range twenty- 
five miles norHi-ea^t of Kdm'&r and twenty-five miles south-west of 
Supa. The pass, which ia rather steep and about four milea lonff, 
bu« at itn head the village of AobIu from which it takes its namOf 
and at its foot the viUagea »f Kmlr^ jng, fiotP(ptli. A road, forty 
miles lonjf and fit forcaKs, runa through the Anshi pass from Kadra 
on the Ktirwitr-Dh&rw^r road bo^upa. On the way it meets the 
Dokarpa pa§s road at Nggi, the Kiindal naos road at KnmbarvAda, 
and the Diggi pass loadat Oh&poli. The road is chiefly «wd (or 
carrying to tne coast timber, myrobalans, and other foront )>i'odnoe, 
and for o-artyiny inland cdcouoqIa and small quantities of oil. The 
Toad, which till then was nothing more than a foot and bullock track, 
watt bc(^D by the Madras Uoverument in 1860-61 who spent £1S80 
fRa.l5,{iOO)npanit. It was completed in the same yeitr by thelkimbay 
Govammeot at » total oo«t from previncud funds of £6H36 
(Rs. 68,380). 

A'rbail Gh at or the Arbail Pass, one of the two chief Eioura 
pass^. IS 111 the Arlnail range of the Sahyiidris, twelve miles south- 
west ot TelUpur. It is about three miles long and rather steep. 
At its bead is the village of AdKHfiiif &<x miles sooth of YclUpnr. and 
nt ita foot the vilUigo of iuSiM with a trnvclKirs' bungalow, about 
forty niiles east of KirwAr. Over the pass rnns the KirwSr- 
Ph&rwit,r road twenty-foar foet broad. The only way through the 
-pass continued a narrow foot and bullock tn>ok till_l^9, when a 
Tough road fit for (■nrtt> waf made by Colonel WaUcer, of the Madras 
Public Works Deitnrtment. Since the transfer of Kiinara to (he 
Bombay Government, between 1862 and 1874, the road was metalled 
and greatly improved at a cost from proviudnl fnnds of £137,829 
(Rs. 12,78,294) inclnding the cxp«n«cM incurred by the Madras 
Government. The pa.s8 is now opou for traffic at all times of the 
ycBi- an<l is used by wheeled carriages, animals, and foot passeogorB. 
It is kept in exccllont order, being like the Devimane pass one of the 
two main roads which oonnccbs Kihiara with the districta of the 
Bombay Kamdtak. Cotton h-om Uadag and Dhdlrwdr for shipment 
to Bombay and Europe comes to Kilrwar, while salt and rioo from 

Chapter 1T\ 
Plaeei ef Int 


Amiu Paha, 


• VuaU MS. tUuHltis, MS. ■ Arfantluwt-s Munra, 1. 1 

* Uanro's LKWr, Slut May IMW, * Myton tad OuM», lU. 170. 
'Su- R. Tonpb'* T««it ia KiDua, BoibIw; Qu«U« July 1879. 

[Bombftf QUBtUS. 



K&oam, and pioco-goodi 

The Bstniial«d value of Uit- , 

flliuwH ti marked increase to tbe itiroo years ending ltii:>l-H2. 
dfiailii are, 1179.WS6 (lU. l7,(t8,S(i8) in 1S79-SU. £S 
(Kb. 23,ei>,&*5) "1 1880-81, tad £3Ci>.;i>3<U». 3fi.97,932) in 

Arbitombl, Uiroe mit4!a north-west of Ktulra &t ' 
Hptir uf the Sabyddria near the Sonka pass, baa a cnriouB ' 
granite stoaos encluRing an open s[>tico nboot lOUO Icet nMmJ. 

According (o a local tradition thl^ xtronebuld "r:- 1- 'ij 

iibipivn'cki'd crow of Arab sailora who took to 1 

troubled the neigh boa rfaood until ihor vtorv scstten."! u)' ^h'M^ 

K&i, tlie fifth ohit'f of Souda (1674-lt>&7). 

A^rakon, a small port two miles noHli of Gokaru, ayi 
liare bcou a place of some oonsequcnce in the eixteeutb ^^ 
Abuul 1520, whon Purtnsnofu ponvr wui linnlj OHtaMLshed, t 
(i Aurakona, bolwc«]t Cnitakul and Ankula, i< tiientiont-d a^ 
a trtbule of SOO bales of rke.^ About 15^ De Itamia in 
EKorapiaD. apparently a mistake for Ai;Takon, with Aukulu 
Uirjiia, to the south of Chitakul.' Of InUi vt-ars the tiado of A, 
bid Ihhhi nIniuNL entirely coulined to salt.^ 

Averse, about fire miles north of Ankola, has a famnns a!hip> 
shaped lihrine of Enntrtide%'i, th>! family goddess of the Khiirvia 
Ho iiuafra of tito goddoDB ia aaid to have been found in ;' 
Tlio ijoddeHS is worshipped with vreat solemnity duriuja; t)i 
nights or yucanita holidays which prc?codo l/tuara in OciuW. 
Besides by Khlirvi* tlie worship of the goddess \s attended l>y 
many daucing-girls and Konkania. 

Ba'gVati is a hAlting place on tbe Hnliy^l-YelliLpar rond, twcntr 
miles south-west of 8upa. It ia a small bamlel at one end of a lovjl 
plot of gnjuud, in the uiiddle of which is a marsh or ffronp of pools, 
about uaH n mile long. Ilie flat is portly rioo ground {virtly 
grass laud, and is surrounded by thick forefit. The climate ia enekly. 

Bailur, a small villa^ twelve miles south of Eondrar, luul ia 
1S8I a population of IS06, chiefly Konkauis, Shcrogars, Gavdis, 
Uatep&iks, Divars, Mogirs, Snbiilgers, Christinns, and Navaivnts. 
It has a rery old temple of Miirkandeslivur whicli is aaid to baw 
been repaired and endowed with laud by some Navers about 
1434 {t>/\ak 1356). A unall yearly fair which Wt« two days 
ia attended by 600 to 1000 people from the neigh boqrhood. 
Swoetnicnta, fniit> and country toys of the t<tlnl valne of about £20 
(Ks. 200) ai-e sold. The village has another tciuplft of LakahmidcTi 
£nlt waft made at Bailur until the pane were closed under ttiB 
system introduced iu 1H78. 

In 1801 Buchanan notices that Bailor was a<1omed by bcnutifnl 
Alexandrine laorel trees that is tlie uiid* or Calophylltmiinophytlum, 
trite sborD was okirted with coco«-palius and the soil was generally 

>8abu<Uu, n. SM.StS. ^DmocIu. II. St9. 

' AgnkonbtMhoKU mggnlc<l»a Ptoleniy's Arniogan which ia (Bottiitv' R.lit 
3M) ]<la«c<I hy Um on the oiwrt to (he nurtfi of KHm «hk-b ■£[««• in ]io*iii,>„ i 
Hcnirar, AmonpcoUblaidwtilicatioiioIPtolaiiijr'a Anueua JaMarmajjioalul 

Koufcaw j 



Ifood nnil Almost all under rice. The people of Bailgr lived in 
scsttereil Itousvs. They hoJ suffered diucIi from the Marathila. 
Many of the )>iiliiis wore dead itnd to till the grouad properly tirice 
an inuny pooplo were wniitttd. The roads vtvrv gouA but uut iMicntiHe 
labour hiid bixii epent on them ; every now and thea came rivers, hiUs 
and rocka iiii[inBsitbIu for a c&rl, diSiculC even for n bullock.' 

Banavgij or Vanava'ei, th« Fiitt!>i|. Scttlumcnt ortho Fore§t 
Spn'iig,' witJi iu 1881 a [lopulation of about 2I>J0, l i&M on tho cxtroow 
enat fruiitiur of the district about thir^a mileia south-east of Sirsi. 
It ifl a vury ancient town Hitiiatud on tbv loft bank of the Varda 
river and is aurrouuiU-il by a wall. Tho chief inhabiluutH are 
Hi:vii,ie, Gndgirs, Lingdyats, and Are Mardtbiiii, petty dofldent and 
I.Li t.-iuduion. vV weekly market is held on Wednesdays, when grain, 
cloth, and Npiixm nro nold. Tho chief ubjcot of interest at Bauavisi 
is the temple of itndhukeiJiy ar which m 8ai<i to liuvc liovn built by 
the forfy llindu architect J akhanichAryaj the He niiidpttn t of tho 
£inaro»c country. The templo is built in a oouri\-ard or ([oadrangle 
whose enter wall is covered so an to form rooms and shrines 
which ore dedicated to Ganpati, Namnb, and Kadambwhvur. Iu 
one of thtMio shrines is a huge ootof polishod black granite supported 
on four richly carvwl log**. The temple is of conpidcrablo size and 
is richly sculptured. Over the bull or nandi is a cauoiiy resliug on 
four g^tnite pillars. Acn>rdiDg to tho local tradition the temple was 
bnill by Vinhnn in moinory of ihu defeat and slaughter of the two 
demons Madhu and Koiubha. 

Tn and near this touiplo arc twulro inscriptions which vaiy in 
datv from about tho socoud to the sevouCeonth oonlnry a.d. 

The earliest inscription is on the two edges of a largo slate slab in 
a little modern slirine on the eaat side of the court of the temple. On 
the face of the slab is carved a fivo-huadcil cubra and on its two 
Bulwf iu the iinH^ription in thri^ lines ; the firnt line ruuH from top to 
1>wlU>m on tho lift margin of the slab and tho second and tliird luiea 
are on the right margin. II10 iuMcriptiou, which from the form of 
its letters appears bo be lat«r than Y 'ajnaahri Sh^akarui (Aj.8S' fiO)j 
runs : 

' To tfais ParftM. la tbo jttr 18 «r Um eentwr (1>« kins belac HiStttBBt'a 
^lalifcirtf *1m oberUheroT tan Vaahutrrt*qiHwft mlty.omtli«fljrt J»y of Om 
Mt«bUi fovMiskl or (!■« winwr oioDias. Uo'nSiritoriou* xlft of a oobn, « 
otftoni, and a monMtorjr ima mwlo) by Hk'ha'bhoji thie klas** (Uught«r StitVk- 
iili«m i»nny.>.Tt, wlf« of Jivtputn. wtlh ti«r Bon. Tbo oobnt (haa b«an) 
nude hj NkMlu tba duclple of Dftmoiaka and son of tho pr«oaptor JajuU«ks>' 

The remaining eleven inscriptions are all iu the old K&naivso 

character and langn^«. Pourof them are on stonea set~apng&t on 

Plaoei of Int 


iktCtrpttOM ij 

> Styton and Ouura. UI. 130. 

- Tl.: K<n-. Ut. KJuri (KicmriBa** KAmtm* PnNodr, 31 Mtol deriTW Uio uho 
f>.... . ir..if<jfi«t or wood and ftawurbiwiaiDntigcJ water, aiKlaoiudcIara tbatVaaa. 
V.4.. 1' n i^uilrit Conn of the urixiiiul l>rav»di>lt wwib. Mr. Klnet (Klnanae Djnu- 
tiiHi. 7 aoM S] inctiota to Uke V»uitvi« aa the ooriciaal SuisLnl and BanarMi ■■ tha 
mi^vrn con-uptian. Thua \'anavA»i wonld mean Uir dty otllm proi-iuucot Vaiiavlaa 
thv pru'lMiix^ or •ettl«Diimt iu Uio (ormta. Imctiptioaa Bhaw ilut vhflo tho fcmia 
BanavuM anj IbniTiao arc couploil with aomo word nprwestuiK ditttiot or fnnaeo 
BatiAttn U oouplfd with tbo word (ur oily. 

> Sojanlo FaotpfalM, X. of ArahoMlojical Sorivy el We(tani India, pp. IW- 101. 

[Bombay Gi 




iptw^ZTV. tho ground on the right and left, of the tempk portico aod tom\ 
w of Xntimt. t^ Htt)U£s leaniug a^^iusl tho wull of the tomplo cndmiire. 

Inscription 11. is well prown'til. It is partly boned ia the' 
gronnd on the loft tut one {aoee the central shrhie. Abovo jpvtuiil 
nre tbirty-oight lines of aboat thirty.BCTen lottora eacli. 
Except part of the lint/ th« einblcnu st tbu top of thu tublet 
boon DDuoud. Tho inscnptiou bopiiu bv Baying that the _ 
was goTeroed by \dues of the Ch^ukya race, sprang from 
Miaaaabhava. The ChAlnkya king monbioned by Damo is Viblin^ 
VikramadhaTala-l'ormnilidoTa or Vikr amttditya -dera. ' Tho msntij 
tion prococds to give the genealogy of a K idamba cb 
Kirtlidgvu, who was the gu boraiaate <n the CbAlukya tang-* 
firatoTtHe KAdambaH mentjoned U I dng'tjliBtta or"Chattor" 
abw bore tliu iiuino of Katahadagova. Uts jwq was Jaj 
J ayaaimh a had five sons, Mivnli, Tatia or Tail^M, SA 
Jolddeva, and VUcraminlw. Of these the greatest was TWlap a. i 
to him and Ins wife Chavandaladori wait bom king Ktr tti. ' 
iD«cri[>Liou proceeds to record gmnts made while the great ebieft 
king KirttideTa was goveming t ha Baoavfai Twelre-thoi isapd. '' 
portdou ooataining the record of tlte gmnts and tbo data of 
uiacription is below tho ground. 

The stoiio-lablot containing the third inscription ia al^io 
buried. Above gronnd are twenty-aeren liaeaof about twenty-t 
letters each. At the top of the stone are rudely carwd enibleml 
representing tho ting and Bassva, with the sun and moon above 
them, llie inscription is well preserved and records grants made 
ID A.D. 136 8 (S. IS90 the Kiiaka Samvatsara) while the prima 
ininiiit«r' or Mahdpmdlidn IbfAdbavlinka was governing tbo Banav 
Twelve^tlioasand, under king Vira bukkar&y a,* who was raling 

Tlie stono-tablot containing tho fourth inscription stands by 
aide of in3Cri|)tion III. The emblems at tbo top of Iho tAblot 
a lini; in the centre ; on its right a cow and a calf with the nun at 
them, and on its loft a lion with the moon above it. The inscrii 
consists of twonty-nino lines of about twenty-five tvttorB 
an<l records grunts mndo in a. p. 1068-69 {8. 990 the Kit 
Samvattara), while tho amut chieftain K irt tiTarroade to,' 
sopireme lord of Banavj^pnra, bo who had on liia Winer 


>Thu i> Vi]cnuiuLdity<i VI, the too of tho Wcatcni CUIokvft Mm SomMh* 
(A.b.l043.106St. noofa K«ii*nM) DyniLatica. 4A sod nolo (i, S& ani) notaT. 

■This ja KfrtivumA U. (1068-1077), tho Sr>t hiirlonckl kimt «[ tba Bmut 
iUilviibM. PloofB K«iun«* Dj-naaUM, S5. 

>Thu prima mioiatm b th« ca]«bt«t«d HidhAridiiryA-Vidyflmav, tiM) . 
biotli«r of SinoMhirj*, Uie aathor of th« MonButnUkriea on tin Kigv«dA mmI « 
wotfca. MU&kvicUnra btmMir «m ■ scholar and aiiUior Hid vtm ataociaud In i 
of hit Dritinfn with bu brotbtf. lad. Ant. IV. SOS. 

• ttiikkorlya (IS-V). I.TTO), tho jovagar brother of H«ri^ra I. tU aon of 1 
of tb« YidtVB fkniily, kn<l Um (atlMr of Harihan II. nicooaded hia «ld«r fattitbaT 
U* throno of Vijayuia^. CatdwuH'i TitiiVFroll)-. 40. 

■HMtiiutviUinim or tiio Gt^bkot Citj: is porliiiii a Sonakrit (unii ol Alwgai 
Uie Rtephaot Pit, Uw andont Damo of the ait« oo wbioh ViJByatugar vm hSOC^ ^ 
in UtiT luno* tho popnUar namo of Vijayaawar itaolf. 

* Tlu* Kirttivaraudava ia th* aam* u th* Kirtltdan ol laicriptioa I. 



representation of Oarnda the king of birds sad whose crast was a 
li<m, wttagoTeming tho Uaoav^Bi Twelve-thoumiul. Just below th« 
dftto ft Inrge portion of the surface of tho stone huH bcftu chipped off ; 
the reat of the iuscription is in good order. 

The sione-tahlet containiiiff the fifth inscription is on tho ripht 
to one facial^ the oontral shnne. The omblvms ab th» top of tho 
talilvt arc u line/ with tho sun aU^vo lb niid li fig-are of Battftra with 
the moon above it. The inscription consists of thirty-seven lines of 
about twenty-five tetters in each. The letters aro of a largo and 
oomowhnt ino<leni type and arc rather ciifticnlt Co rend. The 
inacription is dated A.D.t.tOd-MOO (.9.1321 the Vikrama Samvat- 
sara), or perhaps a.d. "laStTriSGO (S. 1521 tho Vitambi or VHtdn 
SoMvattara). The tirst syllable only of tho nnmo of the S«mTatMra 
is le^ble. 

The stone containing Inscription VT. stands against the north wall 
of the enclosure of the temple. At the top of tho stono arw very 
ruili'ly curved fignrt-s of a man on horsobaok and of warriors or 
conquered enemim in front of bini. The inscription consists of 
twcnty-fonr lines of about forty-two letters each ; it ia in good order 
but tho Iott«r» arw of a bud and sotnewliat modern typo and am 
diiiicult lo read. Tho inscription is dated Ji.i>. 1552-53 (,S'. 1474 tho 
ParidfMvi Samrntaara), while the victoroos king Ba d^Uhivadevar Aya 
was ruling at his capital of Vidyanagari. This ia tTtii olevODtb of the 
Vijayanagar kings. Ho ruled from 1542 to 157^ and in 1546 made 
an alliance with the Portuguese viceroy Dotn Joao do Castro.' 

The stone-tabk't containing Inscription VH. stands against the 
nmc wall. TKorc are no emblems ut the top of the stooei The 
inscription is in good order, but the letters arc not of a good type. 
It consists of thirty-one linea of about fifty letti^rs each. Kxcopt 
that it b«long3 to tho time of SaditsbivaJevamahArdja (1542-l&7a) 
tho date and contents of this in.'toHpliou cannot bo mndo out. 

llie stone-tablet containin^r Inscriptioti VIII. stands against the 
east wall of tho temple cucliwun'. Ihe emblems at tho top of the 
stone are a titiy with the sun above it and the figiiro of Busava with 
the moon above it. The inscription oonHists of twenty-two tinea of 
about twenty-throe letters oacb. The letters are of a bad type and 
are maoh defaced. 

The stone-tablet containing Inscription IX. 8taiitl:< agninitt tho 
aaat wall of the temple enclosure. The euiblems at the top of the 
Btooe are a ling with tho sun atxrvo it and tbo fignre of Basava with 
the mooti above it. There are traces of about cightvon Hnvs of 
writing, but the letters are too iudistinot to be read. 

Tliv oriwniontnl stone bedstead or litter,' of which mention lioa 
already been made, on which the image of Madhukoshvar is oarried 
about the town, has the following inacription ;* 

Chapter XIV 



lattriptiaa VtA 

Itucnplim VT 

iMtriptiui VI 

latcriptiiin TTi] 

■ Sm aUAo p. tis. 

*Tlicr« bt md to bo kootber Mcr«d litter or bodttOMt, bat iritbout a no! uid 
trttbout uij elabontc carving. laiL Aat. IV. W. 

'IhioiiatMU (ttjturcuulCuiAr*, m. 231, 3:M| ni>ti«M r«iir bueriptitti* ftt 11»ua- 
tM, thT««, spfaraotlr iaaaipcioiu a. Ill, Mil vi, which ut wnmffy nmi, muI oim 


r Interest. 
itripiitn jr. 

' Id tlui resr VIbtiariii. in the dowT MMon, fn Ihe month nt M,i^ in Ifa^ brl. 
rortiilcht, on WoduMdJijr iha day of lb* SM«r4lri, tluii hkn(tiiocn« atooB liliv 
Intsodsd for tbo aprlni reaiirftl, «raa gl*«n to <tb« Kod) aurl -IK *dli iili — h mm 
bjr Uds Ilachu or 8»da^ at ttu pro^Moua 0II7 of JamtUpura, in (be par: 
oMd M ■ h*II of audl*D«a.'i 

In liutionr of thit gdd a car<^i»tivnl is held on Xahiinhimrdlm 
February wlion &000 to C0l)O people atlenii.* The toniiile enjoy* 
yearly tiovcmment grant of £400 {Us. ■k'07-7-r). 

Clu«c to (ho tuniplo uf NrcHlhnku^hvur urc the roinsiiis of a pal 
tt'bcru thv Sonda kings am atdd to tiave iitayod vflit-n thoy 
to pay their rcspocte to the fifod. Itanar&ai haa also a Jiiin liitn, 
a trnvellers' bungaloir, polics and forest gaarda' stations, ani] 
Tornacutar school. 

According to local traditions Banarisi irtu called Knr. 
the Moon-light City in tho first cycle or Kritn ^f'jo ; Jntfn>, 
City of Viotorj-* in tho .tccond cycle or ^ " " v 

the Palmtrco Goddcsa in tho third cycl' 
Vanaviisi or Kanftvasi that is tho Forest StMt i 
crclo or Kali j/uya. 'I'lie ctirltcst historicul n 
about B.O. 2-tO, when, ahortly after the sreat 1 
in the eiifKt&eiilh year (u.c.2+2) of Asbok . a Binum. 
named Ittikthita wiut wet to Wuniwifci to spread the ilmldhi; 
faith.* About B.C. 100, BhntHi nlla, the donor of tho groat K&rle 
in weat Foona, vbicb he catla tho most ezc^Ilf^nt rook niunsii 
Jambudripa, in duscribed as coming from Vejayanti which is 
bably Banai^i ; an<l in in«criptiun -t in Nn.<iik cave XTI., \ 
appears donbtfully to gire its name to an army of kinf^ 
pti tra SJMitakani i (b.c. 6).' Tho local PSli inacripdon _. 
A.D.&O-I0O in the court of Madhukeshrar'B temple shows that ab 

.M 'I'.ii r or 

dated tAT$ b tha rvign of Araappa Nilik, pnibklily nue of ifca ua<lcci{JiM 
iiitcrip4iaciii TDftrTDil ta alxn'o. 

) Mr. J. F. Fleet. C.».. in Ind. Ant. TV. 3a«-!a>7. 

■ Aocqrdiug to a lockl tradltlaa tl>o eai-.(«tlVBl wna intro<lnc*>l ab"ul S.VI yean i 
by k Souda luii;; wiw auciilMiUny dUoovurcd il>u tKinjJr hi<l in tijc (orut, 
aMiniod Uuda fur ita inaJul«aiaDM. Till* atory prolialilj rclur* to thu SihU or " 
kiw B«|^ ot tlM titter. 

*TIm name JajantJ, VaJjayuU, and .UvaBUiiUTa Jom not *Pp<nr >» tw olitcr I 
BaoaviUi. Ikrth oanwa ui|Har in iuMripUaiiH and lomrila. lAio latcat mentioM 
Jarantlpnra (or Baiiarlai » in ISSS. ioA. Anl. IV. 907, 

•Tnmour'a MabAwaaau. >f g IwL Ant. III. 3T3. Of atni-biBtorio or doab 
tvtwactm to Baoavikn tlw earlint ia that thr Karn.^tak waa cMianotwl liy quo of j 
dyiButy of aavecrty-"""" ''>"'?> who rahxl at UaaavAM id tlc. 14^ '"--' 
Malayar or Parttr S- <ik and al) hi* aabjeots to liavary. 

Indin, I. ISI). la t.i ' 'I'lamentioBMliDth* MahD'hAiat (B.' 

namia Vunavlaaka*, S'.uiiit Uihh, ns'l VAiuvuikas (WiUon'i Worki. Vli. lTt)> 1 
toDwaothciDhatiltuitaof Vanavlai. Mi, fleet infliMa to think (KAnnrtaa T 
7 note S] thatthoVanaTi«apnivin>,'oi«tb«|Hir(o( tho cvnutrv in wbioh the .. 
aprnt thr tvctre year* ot thabr haiiiiJiniHnt fnira lnilra|>r,utlU or Delhi (^lalid 
Viinafarva). Tfca ifnmtida of Mr. Fluci'* i>|.inioii arc thit in oa inicriptJOD 1 
gtinvc, QightMn miloa ■nulk.cflat of llanavini, there i> an ioMription wbkli 1 
kitvr tho ce1«bratluii ol tba BftJoaMys tanifiM ' Th« five I'dtKlarM «m« to I 
Mul Mlahliabed tbmo fiT« ^biim>' "wI thnt the towo oif lliingnl. slit«-ii iiiilni 
«Mt of Bannvlai, ia uallwl b inacriptiooi Viritiikot and VirAlaaagnri ' tlw fort a 
ol Vlrita,' Vtrtia bdnf tbn name M tbo king at nboao amrt the Vftadinx* »f 
tkirtcanth ycM of th«ir extlo and wboaa daughter Uttara u-aa nurriadto A., 
•on AUiinuorn. Sir Waltar RIliM lioa ahovn that the tmlitiaa that Hi^Hj 
jilaco nhuro the rrtodavaa Uvad duHng thair exile >■ atiQ current anoui the 1 
(Ind. Ant. V. 170). 

* AnluMlo^oal Survey of Wettera Indis fV. MP I Bombay OM«tlMr, X^l. JIM I 




i\tnt lime Bnnnviisi and iho UariUiTy of wliioli It wiui tlio CApitAl wns 
G;»vi>nto(l hy u king- iiiitii&il Uariliputra f^hatiikiinii of tin; Datu 
rami!)". 'I'hi' inenlion of a moEastery or vihara and the Buddhist 
way of datiDg in one of (he three seasons so comuoo in tho Ndisik 
iDiicriptionsj tfbovr thnt tbo ininiKtor who made tho gift was a 
ni:i1iltii!!t.' Tho next kHown roforonoo to llunavAsi i« by tho 
l-'y\ (>)ian geof^phcr Ptoh>my (a. d. IM) who entera tJin city in hin 
liat of places near LifflT^k^, t&at ^a probably D»miriko or the 
Dnmil or Tamil country, nnder tho forms Bananusi and Baoaaasi.' 
In th« fourth and fifth ei-iiturios Vaijayanti or BitntiviUi nppMra M 
one of the i^apitaLt of a family of nine KadauilM tcingii who were 
Jains in rt'lision and of the sons of Illtriti.* A atone inscriptioD 
dnU'd A.D. ea* record* that tho Chalokya king Pnlikeabi II. (A.D. 
6IO-fi34); — — — 

*IaUI «i»c« to VuuiTa'iif Kin by th« rlvvr ftunuft' iTbi«li diaporbi ilMlf in th« 
t)i«atre wUch is Ihn blsh wavev or lb» VAradii,' sad BUipwiMa (n proapsiity 
Um ctly of tbo sods I <wlill«) tho tortien on dry Und havlac tJio tmta/oo of tita 
•■rth >U roond It. ooT*rod by tbo gruM oooan wlUeh was hlM amy, booamo. u 
l« «r«M, ID tho Tory sisbl of Ummm Uwt looked oo, > (otU«m ia tbo middlo at 


Thongh tho ruler's name is not montiontKl, it is prohnblo that at 
Ibis tiinb Bunuvdoi was tho capital of an oarly branch of_ the later 
K ^dauiba dyn^ ty. Ffotn this timo £fauav£i seema t*; tiavo 
remained aubi ect t o 
' '■ ■ vasi Twelve- tli'ini 

Fla«eB of iaUa 



C)3iiliikya kings. About j,.p,{>'i7-lB the 
^^^_______^___ lliat ia the Banavilsi prorinoo of twelva 

iiid vilinj^cs, W!i8 goveruod by a family of fuudatorioa who 
cat! ihi^uiHulvon ChcUkirt»DB or Chdlpat4k». In 1020 thu Arab 
cengraphor A) "iT^v; montiona ia hift list of places in Western India 
Uauai-iia on t-i f tlie pea.* During moet of the eleventh and 

twoHth centnneii und during the early part of tho thirteenth century, 
thou^'h at times Kubjoiit to the Kalachuris (110S-11S3) und the 
Uoy^ala Bnllals (1017-ISlO),' Ban»v&«i continued to be the ca])ital 
of a ^mity of K^amba kings who call tbeni.-telTCS supreme lords 
uf BauavfUi the best of cities, and whose family god was Vishnu 
under ihii namu of Madhukoahr ar. which, as has alri<ady been 
notinnl, Ls still the name of tho god of the great HanaviiHi tempio 
of Jayantipura or Baiukr^i." After thc^ Kndambos in 1220 
and in I ilH, the Banav^se Twelve-thon^and is recorded aa held 
by two of tho Dav fpri YtJdavB ." In 1261 the Banaraso TwoIto- 
tJioasuud was govorood by M allikAr j upa II.. apparontlyan independ- 
ent nilcT.'" lu tho fourk-cnth ecntiiry, and probably till thoir 
ovorthmw in about l'<>'f*. Mitinviisi was hold by the Vijayaiiagar 
kings, one of whom, S;i ty«, hiui left two inscriptions, one of 

thi'm dalod 1562-53 oi ki-hjilh made to tho temple of Madhnk- 
eahvar.^' Aft«r the Vijayanagar kings Baoav^i scorns to havo 

llunpbtH. X. nt ArehAolMricd 8nmy ttt WMtom Indu, 100-101; 
rticCT. XVI. Mt, MO. 

• (inJirtliWT, 

iLOn-ptofcmy. 2IM. •Flwrt't KinnWioDyiiMtloi. 8-9. 

iiH appcnn t<i bo ttio M mom of a IriiMt^iry kIpiiib ot Mmia ^^ tb»( flows 
V•^daab(lul•<vv<lunll«sntN,v■^Blu»vlti. Iml. Aiil. Till. 3M. 
■ ...uia i* tlir Viinlji wfaicii llowH clwc und<r the u'alU ot mwdcni Bkaai'iaL 
*E1Um>»iI [Xiwaon, I. SB. 'Sto iboTiipi.. 88-»l. 'SMkboTOp. 281. 

*FU«t'( KinarcM DjDMtJet, 73. 74. "FI*ct'a Kiaanae D;nutics,87-S8. 

■iS(«>bov«p. 3S3. 

I Bombay 


CCS of InterMt. 




to ihe Sand* family, tho first aai\ tlie third of whom, Ar 

nS^BTanaTCgEa N'&ik (1C18-163S), Uiive left rewirfai 
I."»(9 mid Iti'iS of gmnl* inatUi by thcJn to the temple of Ut 
Oebvur.' In IWl Bm;hA»au tJesmbed Bannv^i as sitiuit 
Uio wQHt liAuk of the Varda in open country with fj<x>d snil etc 
where laterilo came to theaurfaoe. Duriag tbv Iroublm of the luiar 

Krt of the vighteentL coatur)* tLo namber of honsea h&d E>lt^ 
im AOO to ftbont 250. The wul)» were miooiu nod ii'< 
romuned that jt had cvor been a great citv. It was tho rt - 
A lah»ilildr (H- sub-(iiviaional officer. In liie dry wculhor 
was tmall and maddr with littlo ctirn.<rDt ; i» Uti; niiiiEi it w&a uu^Tti 
fordable and hud to bo croMtfd in kikth(.>r-bvata.' 

Basavara'jdurg. Sw HosivAs. 

Bolikeri, about fonr miles north nf Aukola, wiib in I6v<l 
nopiilntion of 1066, is a small port with a sea custoniB offiL-c. 
tor t}w uij^ht ye«r8 ondin^ 1881-63, nTerapo ywiriy exports 
at lihW (B«. bb8\i) and imporU valiiwl at 4270 (R«. 2700). i : 
Taried £391 in 1880-81 to JElUWin 1877-78, and iropori 
£94 in 1876-77 to £779 in 1882-82. During tho early jtai:, .. 
Brilitth role Uelikeri waa much bai«s8ed by raids of bnnditt.i unlit 
oDi- of tho leading KouidrpiLik oultavs was ehot at Bolikeri in i 

Bolikori is a favourite health rosort'. Closvto thulx'ach. ■^^'■■■ 
a bmutiful groTo of baniamt, is a roomy bungalow iur^bn 
blocks of buildinga with out-houaca and Rtables.* The i-u 
was built by a siib-colleclor when the North K&nara distri' 
under lint Miulras Govyrnmnnt, There is also a re8t-hou!>i; ii- 
rirer-side. The people of tlvlikeri aro chieSy fishers, palm-t-i 
and husbnudmen, 

Bfaatkal or Susagadi, twentT-flve mil«a sonth of Uomivar ' 
in iWrt^Spulatiou of iiOlS, is the sonthmost port in the Bi 
I'rvsidency, and ts a phK-o of historical and archiGological intt^iwb. 
It livH in a valley cnoircled by Iiilli!.' Of 5018, (ho lotail panala- 
tion in 1881, i'M were Biwlus, 3064 Murahminn, and f<> 
Christians. No other town in North Ki&nara has half ao 1. 
Hoaalmdn population aa Bbatkal. Most of them belong to tl 
known oa^iMAis^ff' ^^ New-comers, who are probably cli 
of And) unil IVrsinn sctllers between lh« oifitnth and lli; 
ccDtnriee. They are pt-aceful and well-to-do, generally li 
in «ioth chiefly local and partly foreign, -Many of the Na^, 
are wealthy and for )>urpu«08 of Inido visit Sonth KAnara, Ctxirg, 
Uudras, and Bombay. The town in about three mihw fi-niti 

< Sm sWvi p. set. 

*Uywiro KUd Ciumn, III. 330. Is 1709 a giunl wu ■Uticuneil ftt BMariai^ 
Pomokh tiw IKwaa «f Uuniu' la gtui agk^ui roblwni. In nuta of tim guard, 
in 1800, it vm takoa by the butditii wbo boU it till July of the nme 
Wcllml^*! SoiiplonicntRry DMpaUhak, 1. 307, II. SO. 

■ I VUll* ahuut tliH KvniAi-pftit nu-\ HiilTiuLik robinn an 0vmi fthore, I. 2&t. tS$ j 
II. I4T, 149 • Sir K. Tuiui>(4i's Tour in KAaua, BMnta^ Ouctte July I87tf. 

'CoiniiHrr Bu«4iukui'ii Mfwin wd C'lniin, III. ISA ThI* cbdc o! Iiilli tony 
poiBlMy b« Ui» origt> ot itt oaina wbiob U > i-omipl*! ti/na vf tht MartiDii nUltwl at 
round IDWB. AcoonliBg tu ■o«na soooiuiU tho toim «tu« »1m o*lt«l Uuii|>ur- 

* See alKiv* Put 1. MO- 110. 




month oi the riTer, which at high water ia navigable by boatte of a 
li^ Ui two tons (2-8 kiutndig). No vessels but coasters visit the 
poH.'^ The want of gtwd oomniunicittions with Alaisur nnd the 
uooDtry abijve iho SttiiyAdris lias driven awiij- tmilv. What Utile is 
Btill onrriiii (Hi i» due to the euterpri»o of tite NaviUyatji. Though it 
is nuvf in ft atata of deca;, no towo od the K^nara coast nltowH 
moro signs of former proepwrity, Nonu have such well walled gardens 
and hoiise«, such stnmg and uxtonsivo ombsnkmcnts, and so many 
raiosins of carvod masonry.' At presfint the chief market it a 
brow) aod fairly kept thoroughfare laid out with some regularity. 
The clii«f articles or trade ar«, riw, betel uuta, cocoannts, and cloth. 
The sea trade rutflmM for tliu eight yoan; ending 1881-62 show 
average exports worth £.i!)3-1 (K.t. '>0,230) and imports worth 
£ll,67& (Ks. 1.1G,75U). Bhatkal has chief conatahle's, customs, and 
po«t ofSces, and a K&nareae and Urda school. 

There' are thirteen templ es or itastU at Bbatkal bnitt daring tbs 
fiftoonth and sixlocnlb ccnturios. Slost of thum are of au])erior 
worknutni^hip. Thoy utmally i»n.iiHt of a hall or agraehat^ and a 
Hhrino with a flag-piUar or dhvnja-gtftmbh. 

Adikr NAci-TAX's is a small stone temple mncli out of repair. Tlie 
gwrdinnu of the eight rpmrteni of h«nvvn or the dikpaiaa are 
represeiiUHl on iho r(»of «n<l Shri on the iint«I of the door. E-ttiiTi 
H2ra yak's is a small ruined temple said to bare been bnilt about 
1^50. It haB an inserihod stone (6'9'x 2' 4") of which 1" ir in 
covered with n partly e(T:iceil inttchption. C'flOi.i!>iiivAK's is a black 
basnit tomplij with two ittureyfi, llii! lower roofed with stone slabs, tho 
nppi^r with titoft. At the door-posts are doorkoepors stMnding on 
sunken, and in front under a canopy stnoported on four pilhiw is lli« 
NiDiifi' or bull. The temple )uik n goo<l llug-pillar and a shrine of 
tianesh. There are two snort Tiiiiiil iiiHonptions on tho door-poeta. 
It nnjoyri a yearly Goverotnent allowanre of £4 2». (lU. 41). 
AcooMing to tradition it was bailt by a king of Cholamandida in 
memory ot tho rocowry of hi« now born hod from snake-bite. All 
tho king's other children had died of Hnakc-bito and this child was 
mirAttnlously saved bv a BrAbman whose fl|>ells forced the snako Ur 
sack back its own poi&on. 

Jattai>a Naioxa CnAKDEAxATHBSHVAB'sis the largest and finosl 
Jain torople in Bbatkal. It stands in an open space not surrounded 
by a wall and consists of un ayrastuila or ball, n bfioymandap or 
dining ball, and a shriiio or hofii. The k>Dgth of the building is 
1t'2 fuel, and the brcndh of tho agraahala or hall forty, and uf the 
hauli or shrino fifty feet The frflWi has two storeys, the area of tho 
lower stoR-y being greater than tho area of tho npper storey. Kach 
storey hiiH thnio momt wliiuli are .Vtid Ut have ronlaiiie^l iuuit^ of 
A/a Main, Munisuvrat, Nama, Nemi, and P^hva, but only frag- 




> Soo klxn-D Port 1 . 8. Ihylur^ SniUiig DliwtoTT, 1 . 399. Vcnobi nay aadbor in ris 
*' ni Mud. with BhuUial tort nortli-oMt ; tbu inminlLito ncighbDurhood oftUa 
i.iga iHlrecfrDtnrookvtlMai^ them kre uiiuiy totliv north. u-at.uidaiiaUi. 
• OricnterchrutUa Sppctatoi (IM3), 111. W. 
' Ur. B«nt«M' Li»t til .intiqiumu Rmhuiib, i-b. 

[Bombay I 





inenta of tbcm aie loft. Tbe wkIIaoF tfaedinin^ ball or hhp 

ou the west of tho sbrino arc pierced W''' 

hall or aijraMh'Hit luuslwo ntun-v* t-iwh of . 

itiiages of VriiilMliliiuttfi, AjauaAamtihuv, Aiilnuuuii, uiki 

iidtfaeeiivar. There are doorkeepers or dmrj'tiU attho<J- : 

6ttg-pillar or dkvaja-thimbli is an ek'>^Dt-colDinii riisitif; from • 

torm about fonrtccn fcvt xqaaro. It« slinft k of a e^iiivln block of •■ 

twiintj-Diic fuet faigli oiki xiimioutitiiig ilis a ^uauraDpular c 

Upliiiiil the "liriiio or bauli is a smaller pillar i-allwl y ' ' ' 

hiuil/h with a i*haft ninetoen feet hiph. It ■^tniulf n-i r 

fiiur Aumiler pilWasI the cortierii, wttb liti' 

Ndik, who built the tfmi)Ie aiuiwIiDM! uur .^ 

fur it5 nuiinlenanci-, but tlM>v ar« Raid lo Iwre been 

Tipu8ull£ii (l7S3-]7l)d). O'ovenuuen; grant ayourly 0..1 «<..,., .. 

4».{Ra.2). There are four inscriptions in this tvin)>le :onooti tbceort 

of seventy linra and sown feet lonj^ by throe fiS't I \ inrlnw hn 

BDOond uwir tho 6r»( of Bovi'aly.niiie linea aud seven fM-l . 

inchus loiig by tlirvo fettt six inohea broad ; on tbe back ol 

stone is Uiethird iuscrimion of sixty-ihi-ec lines,daled IS.'-. 

^rt/(i tfamvattrata) ; ana in tho touth-wuit cnrnorof tho court : 

third stoQO with the fourth inHcnption, Tho xt^uo \a six loul loi.^ t-^ 

two fi-ot six inches broad mid luui Jiuu Byinbula. 

Joeni Shakkar NiltATAN'B is a ])laiu temple boilt, according ~ 
tuxcriptioii, in |5M. ft ooDHists of an open veranda or »ii 
tiiaii(in/>iQ fi-ont (32'x 13') andbehind it ahaUorHproaAfi/a (12' :■ 

The roofs aroformod of sUbe with u downward «Iopi\ Tho Uag-j 

ortfAro/fi-tffmn&A is about fuurteou fcn-t high Imthan lost its toj). 'ilie 
templi' enjoya private grenis and a yearly Ooverament allowsi < 
tl 5s. (FIk. 121). (hitsido tbe temple court, sunk deep in the rt 
ia all iiisoribi>«l i-lnb three fei't bro«d, and thero is one c'oppiT-[^ii 
|>eloiigiug to Vinip«ik^b Pev of Jwthi Slinnkar NArAyan's tviuplu. 

KutTAfAl KArAtak's is a partly rained black stono temf 
(34' X 18') with a good dt-al of noulptoi-e on its walls. On the UbI 
of the door is a figure of thegoddE«.<) Sbri, and inside of tho temf 
is a black baaalt image of XdMyan which is tho rbtef object 
worship. On the base of the templo and on the in»ido rif tho eon 
wall arv nntncroas Hcontw imid to bo from tho KAniiiyan, Bomo(|Qx 
aud some indcceut. Tlio four pillars within tbe temple are she 
and clumsy. By thesides of thu entrance lo tho temple are two iulti 
[Hilars. The tlag pillar or dkraja-eiatitbh, a fine fluted column, staads 
close outside of the tomple court and is sculptured with lifn"^" "f 
tho founder and his faiuilv. The temple enjoys a yearly Ui ■ 
mcnt gruut of £1 Itte. (>■/, (Ils,16|). There is an ius^riln-'d . . 
(U't>'x2'7") iu tho court of the temple with vrriting 011 both sic 
Onoof tbo inscriptious is dati-d 1646 (iS.14G8 Vithravastt 8am>:at»arn 
and the other 1 567 (S. 1 i&9 Kshaya Samvataara). 

Naksikh's tcmpio mc.wuroj' about thirty-!?ix fwt by nuiel 
and has a 8mal) Hag-piliaror dhviija-glamhli withotit n i-a»ital. 
inscription shows lliat tho temple was built in If/iS (S. 1460). 
is supported by lauds granted by tho founder and enjoys o yc 
Gorommeui allowance of lU*. (»». i). 




l'AB8BTAKjlTHBS&rAs'3 tfiuiple 18 Rftj-eigbt foct loug bj cightcon Chapter XT 
feet broad. Accordiiiff toau inacriptioD iuthc f>orcn, it was built pbuiei oflntM 
in 15't3. Tho fltig-pillar is a fioe oolntUD ou h lii^rb moulded batte 
and the ramiill ruoni on it!i top contaius a four-bcadixl image. Tlie 
temple has a yearly Guvoniinout grniit of V*. (R«. 2). Thpro arc four 
jnscriptioiis in ihia temple. One on a »lab 5' 9' long by 2' ■>" broad 
isdutiid IS-kJ (.S'. 14(18 V hltvavasu Samcattara) ; thi^aecoud iit ticir tlio 
first j tho third insido iho porch on a alab 5' 9" long by i' 4* biv^, 
is dated 1^13 {S. \-UiTt Placn Samvalsara) ; anil tho fourth and 6flh 
are barely traceable on two atouos behind ch« tvniplv, sunk in tho 
earth, one of tbestonee being aboat 1' 10" broad aiid tho other r9\ 

RAQiirNATu'e tcmplo is a small temple io t)w Dravidiim aiylo of 
arrhitecturv.' Tho hall or ayrtuhala is BOparat«d from the temple 
proper by au opou vornnda or aandhydmanilap. Tho shriuo or 
vman is bnilc aomewhat like a car or rulft and is coTercd witli mrr* 
inn. The temple is said to hare been built by Italkiiii 8ou of 
Aniuihikini, about 1590 (S. 1512 Virodhi Samvaltara).' Tho temple 
is iiiaiiii'ainod from private donutioaa and a yearly Government 
grant of 8«. (Rs.-i). 

SiiANTAri'A NAiK Tikuhal's is a black basalt temple bnilt aocording 
to at) initcription by one Sh&Dtappn in I55o (^.1477). It measures 
about thirty-tiTO ftHl by )fixt.wn and i-s in much tfao sarao plan as 

I'the lOieiapai Nar^yan tvmiile, with a sloping stono roof but nut so 
richly carved as the roof of the Kbetajiai temple. The door» are 
elaliomtcly sculptured, as also the inner base ronnd the court. The 

I flag-pillar wbicu is about oii;ht«un foot high has lost its top. The 
t«mplle enjoys a yearly Oorvmmeni uUovraneo of JEl Qg. (Rs. 13). 
There ia an inscribed ntone iu thiii temple with in tlio ooatre of tbA 
top a man bearing an umbrella, a demon on bis right, and a coir 
and calf on hiri hh. The stone ia 4' 9''x2' 9' and bears date 1565 
(.y.l 477 Itaktdluhi SaincutMrii). 

BBittTesHVAR's temple is much like JattapaKaikaitn ChaodnuiJiih- 
'«8h7ar'8 temple. There are four inscribed stonea in the court. 
One (0' r X 2' 8") with a good deal of writing is dated 1 543 (.SI UQi), 
Hie second, a small dami^vd stono boside it, is 3' 1 1* X V 10". Near 
ihese two are two other large slab». SniitXLR 8nAitiiiiui.iKo's is a 
Diodom temple bnilt on an old site. Tradition accounts for its 
origin, as for the origin of many other temples, by the story of a 
man who nccui»cd his hordboy of making away with tho milk of bis 
cow. The lx>y protested his innoounce and wutofaud tho cow who 
went into a thicket nnd pi^urud her milk over a hole. He told bis 
most4>r who dug np tho place and found a ling ia it over which he 
built n temple. There is a copper-plate belonging to this temple. 

VrsKATKAUAit's tenijde, said to be about 300 years old, is mnch 
liko Baghuniitb's temple, and is ornamented with sculptures. It has 

> T«mplea in th« DtavUIuii ttylo twiMlljr <otattt tJ piUai»d hftU* or tAolMu, nta 
pymiuda or^nsnu, parnhoa « maiuhooM, anil tbo actual tcnipte«ir riwfao, Otm^ 
IMra Fcr^nMon • UUtiwy ai ImtUn Atenltcclnro, 3III-3Q3, 

> Tbo uiiicri|ttk>u rvMiiiliiig tlib <Ul« b la iwoaljr liinn on a pUku to tli* rigbt ol 
tho Mitnuctt. 





I l>rirk liall or ngrn»hnla and is surmundt'd ty a verani 
i^I&t«mt> ^'■x^'^'A^'o- 'I'bo Iciniiluitiiiidowc^witlift Urgi>amof land. 

carceremouy is held ttl Ibis lomplo witit givAl pooip. VlsrciKS' 
MAkA van's ia » small t^nple mach oat of repair, built by nue Jiv: 
Nliik in Ibf'b (S. 1487). There aretwu other stuall temples. Mc 
pinAth KsraiiNM ■ CHATnRunKii Basti. Murgnpi 

temple lin.4 two i: lick, uue wilJi a ii^i^ at its U>p, hoi 

DOM- the first l>ro)cen and buried. The atooea of tite OluUun 
lotupte have almost all been carried away t^ the vUlairerH. lu 
jdmhulhtub Boar it ia a fine largo ioscribod stono (5' li/xS* 
with Juin symbols ; tberv m a seootid stoiM acmr thit ftret (0' 9~ X 2' 4')7 
BeaideA Owmi iIiktu aru four inacribed staot^ and Ivro coppcr-ptstos 
in or near lihatk&l. One of the iDsenbed stoues lies iu a wai 
ouuriH' abcKit 150 rarde from the travellere' bimg^ow. It iii -L' 1 
X 1' 10" and basaJaininscriptit^m. Atxiut a quart«>r of nmilo bt'l 
the restxhonso in an in^tcribcd ntone (6' x 2' r> ) with Hhniv vuiblu 
and an inscription of »isty-one linos. At Sunkad^li rillago, aboi 
a milo east of lihatkal, are two inscribod slabs ina temple of Rdmli 
Virbhiulradev. The two cuppor-platos uru in tho town of Dhatkal but 
where is not knowD. 


Tliere am fottr roosquea, all of tlietn plain, but two, llio Ji 
moaqne and the SiilUn iiiosqu«j of conaiderable aiee. The J^ 
iDosqne is tiled and is said to be very eld. It enjoys a j 
Government allowance of £40 (Its. 4110). Tho Su)t&n moaqoo 
Mid to be about 200 yean old. 

In an open spot omrlooking the nrer and screened br trees ia 
piece of gronnd thirty-aiit feet sqimre. It is aurroaaded by a 
and a ditch about foar feet wide and throo foot d<'cp. The earth 
tlio d)t<ji had been tbnjwu ont so as to fr>rm a inotind aliure t 
outer aide of the dit<;h, wbioli is a font higher limn the v- 
On this piece of ground .itJind three tomba at nearly e')uiil lij 
fonr feet high and two feel wide, built of stone, each suniioini 
by a single granite slab. The inscriptions on the granice alab 

H«r« Uotta tho body of WlUUm Sarton Ohrrrrsion : I>«ot 

XXX: Novombr: Anno Dnl RK Clil-Urt B*Iri Ktmdt 

MJ>CXXX<V)UI ; 1038 WUlUm Barton. 
B«r«ljalhilia body of O«(0)tvo VTro Hnrcli&at D«« XXX-: 

March Anno Dnl Krl Ohrtat Sklv: Uondl HOCXXXVU 

1037. OfiO 1 Wyo. 
Uoi« tleth tho bodjr of ANTi Varawonhy M«rebt: Doei 

I : AprlL An Dnl Nrt OkrIaU Sal. HtwU HDOXXXVU 

Ant : VereworUijr 1US7.> 

Abont half mile south 'WL-st of Bhiitkiil, on tho t^'ay to Ui 
Tillage about a mile east of the Bhntkal luudin;^, tho Dhatiial 

< litlio^rapfat id Orioatal Chnitinn SpooUt^r. III. {ISW. W. Thv trnsMn 
tliuM intcrTfrtiKakMWiHmUfllli tbu tiocly at William Bnrtan, Svrci-on. H^ 
KovsnibCT, ill tli* year of out tiont Cbriit Sarjunr of tho World iSss <a V orl 
b«aa worn out intfieonguiBl]. WilHun Barton. IlhlSi. Tho atKond nna : Ilrrr h^_^ 
tho body of (korgv Wyp, Merchant, whn AM aa Ou SHh Marcb in th« ymr of omr 
I.<ml Chrirttlic Savionr (rftlii- Wortil, ICST. Oootjt* Vfvo. I«37. ThotliinI [iimk ; Hrtv 
lii'th til? iNxly of Asl. Viivworthy, M«reUuit, vlmdlcd on tlie lit of AiiHl in < 
yoar u( our Lord Ohrint tb* ii«VKiDr of tbw WatM, 1637. Aut Vcrewortlir. lC37 




ia cro»iH»d b;^ 9 niincd graniU) brid^, Tbe bridf^o is divided into 
two ane(|uitl pnt-tti by it ixiiiill iitli-t iiWnL 100 fcvl brmul wbicli is 
covereil with waitir daring flnodii. Tlie part nf the britlgo on tlie 
Hk-ttkal Bide of ttie islet, which is the fimaller of the two, ia 
fiirlr-f»ur feet long by Gro broad. It has six Bpana encb apm 
Hit|ijKirU»l on two f^nito pillurs which stand »bout four fuel oat oF 
the water with ft block o( granite aoroes the tops of each pair of 
piHars. Almiil half of the original granite pavement remains, fi»e 
Hliibn onch S'xi'xQ", The pnrt of the bridge on the Mundali side 
of the oontial isk-t is eighty-six foet long and ecvun hroiwl. It hus 
Mght spanR and waa supported on aixtoon piUiirn aUitiding soven to 
Km feet om of the water. Three of the pillars, all the cross beams 
i;xc(vpt one, and the whole of the pavement have diBappeared. A 
Kiiiuu^i»u inscription in (oar lines on the face of the first pillar on Ute 
Bhntkal «ide is too worn to bo read. According to a local Htory tbo 
bridge belongs to (he time of the Jain prinoeaa CbanuabbairiideTi 
whurnled Bhatkal and Ger8ap[)a about I4b0. 

'J'ho cai-)i':«t mention which has been traced of Bhatkal ia in the 
fourteenth century. In 1321 Friur Jordanas aotioes after the 
kingdom of Martitha, a Baraoen king of Batignia.' lu 1498 Vasco da 
tintna stopped at an island off I&tikala, and with the approval 
of thu pooploi who«o friendship he won by the gift of shirts 
and other nrticlca, he Hct np n cros:« and called the inland EI 
I'aiJnin de Sancta Maria." In 1^03 Hnticata is ineniioued aa baring 
iK-come very noble through the horae trade and the quantity of 
niKrchandise that flowed from OrmuE. In the same year Vasoo da 
(Inioa, after barning Honavar, went to Buticala, whvru tlirru were 
many Moorish ships, bccanse this wu)> a gr<'at place forloatling 
ri«o, iron, and nugmr, which were sent w all parts of India, The 
Poll ugiieite found cannon planted on a wall upon a rock at tbe lar 
and tbe people threw stones at the ships. Da Gaina pushed on and 
liiitdiug drove the Moors from some wlmrvKi«, leaving bvlund them 
large quaiititieit of rice and nugar. The Portuguese returned to (heir 
boatR and went up the river to the town. On their way they were 
met by an envoy from the Baticala chief who hud been xonb to 
declare his mafit«r's willinguosH to submit to the Portugiieita Da Oama 
•aid that hu had no wish to barm them and would make a treaty 
on four oonditions: that the chief paid tribute, did not trade in 
tH^pper, brought no Turks, and bad no di-alings with Kalikat. 
i'lie chief said he could not pay a monvv tribute but would give a 
thousand loads of common and 500 loads of fine rice a year. Ho 
euuld give no more Iwcnusc he waa a tenant of tlie king of Vijayar 
nagar to vrhom the country belonged.^ When Da Gams was 
satntied that these statements wore true he received the rivo and 
coD&nned the treaty,' In li>Oo Nnrsinga Rili II. of Vijayanagar 
(1 4^7-1^08) »oot an ambiWMwlor tothe Purlugoeee viceroy at Kioanttr 
to come to an agreement which would favonr trade between his 

Chapter Xl 



1 TntoV Hi»1iUU Duuripta. 41 . 

> Kf-rr'n Viiy.kL,-!'!, II. 3SJf. Tbow uUinl*, whick lie about fort^r mflM Math dt 
IMMtk.1l, ti.: mil kiii>im M tbo $t. Hmry Uln. TAylor'a Soiling Diradonr, I. ¥». 
• tk« «buvii pt>- IIM'103. * VaK« lU Uuua't Tliriw VojragM, 31I>.3I3. 

[Bombay Guett 




subjfictaand th(> PortDgnetsix NnrsUif^ II. gnvo the •nceroy leave I 
Ijaild a fort in nny j>ort in his dominioiL-« except Batikala, becao 
ho had codi'^ it to autitlior.' About the Bamu tiiiio tho It " 
travoller \'arlbeina notices Bttthatiala sa a yery noblo < 
dietanl from theDeccan. It was a wallod city, very I" 
a mile from the scoi alonf^ a Bmal) rirur which iva.< t ho ouly appr 
and paawd cloao to the walls. Iltoro wa» no 6«a-nort. Ibekiii 
trhd wax a pagan waa subject ta king Narain^b. 'I h*? pcniplu 
idfllalors after the manner ol the people of Kalilcat. There wc 
abu nianr Moorish uiorchant^ whn lived acoonling to the Miihai^ 
madan religion. It wati n il' '' ^n.'iil trnfGo with quantitieai 

rioe luid nbiniilnm'eoritu^r, i , -\ <.if f^iij^r candiedacconbngi 

the Italian tuanner. There wure few hora«8, inuleE, or asaes, bnt tho 
were cow%, buffaloes, aheop, oxen^ and goats. There was no 
barley, or vegetables, but nnts and figs afturthu ntannerof Kiilik 
and tho other usnnl excellent Cruitn of Indiu.^ 

About this time, in hiit review of India at tho establishment 
Portuguese power, F«ria mentiontt Hon&rar and Batiknla or BciUkala 
In I5(>S I'urtugnefle ships are mentioned as going for l-Ioti» i 
Batemla, a foriros^ ninety tnilea (30 leagues) south of Goa' 
1610 Dalboquerque offered the Vijayanagnr king Krishna 
{1508- 1&30) the monopoly of the home trade between Ormun 
Batikala if ho would allow him to build a fort at BatiL 
)&J0 Porltiguesewinadrous were sent til Bhatkal to t^ke b» 
which contrary to agreement had come from Ormnz.* In Sc_ 
of the same year an gnroy wiu aent toBluitkal to make a treaty 
the chief on two oonditiont*, the paymeut of n yearly tribute 
2000 baga (84,000 Iba.) of rice and leave to build a housefor ' 
Portuguese factor.' About 1514 the Portuguese travelier 
Barbosa describes it as the largo town of Batikalu, thirty mil 
the south of HonSvar on nuutber amall river neiir the cmu'^i. 
a place of very grunt trade inbabite<I by very coniTiu-i-cial Moors i 
Gentiles. The town iilood on a level populous country andwaswithr 
walls. There wore many gardens i-ound it, \ety good estates wil 
fresh plentiful water. The town paid a yearly tribute to tho kit 
of Portugal. The governor, a Gentile named Danuiquoti, [lerhnj 
Dharmakirti, was very ri<-b in money and jewels. He CJille«l himw 
king but he ruled inotHHlionce tohi.innL-le thokiug Narsinga. Man 
ships gathered from Ormoa to load very good white rice, sugar 

* Ol PortamocM H.a, II. 130- 140. 

* BadjiDr'a Viirtlwna, 1 lo - 1 JD. Mr. Bidacr takca thcM iktai)* to t\it\y to Bait 
tliat i* Ktonnb, It ia trmi that Vaitharat, who la tfavolUns aouth, nwnlions Itk*t' 
befcvn ho MentioM CbJtakal, Anjidiv, miiI HonAvor. It U .ilui Inir Uint ke 
th« vlibif ■>< ChiUknl inbjpct to tlwkiihci^ RallMluljt. Sli[l tbe wust ot a , 
tli« mil* op lh« riTcr, llio UkaiieM tv Katikal, nm) Uie live ^aj-a (nini the r.NwaD, i 
•nit BhiOkiU, iumI iIo ntil auit Btitkul oovo nctt KirwAr. Tlu- apMreot iliillt-ulty | 
Vacthama'a •tat«tnci>t that CThttokul <nia aulijcct to the kiiu ol lUtlukitJa, wUll* j 
uwtliar poMag* he ntcra to a king n( H<iaiir»r, » i<rnliabj)r to b« «ipla(iiail 
]>MMe« in De BuTw w)ii> (IIoimiIm, II. 319) ilcanriba Uoiutw m th« h«Ml i 
vhoJo kingdoan of BittlkaU. 

\ KtnWoyt^,_\\. 93. _ ' ComnwaitariM of Dalbaqaentiw. U. 5!. 

*Co*uM!nt«riaa.n.lxv.:OaPor(up:(«i<*H.a. III. !i(i. 
• Karrt Voyagoa, VI. 132. ' <.'oiam«n! 

Commciilarwi of DaJboijaenitie, II. 2SG. 




powder of vfhich tliere was mucli, much iron, and boiuc spices and 
dnigM, vt w)iicb tnyrobslans were the chief. Formerly many Iiornis 
tad powUcsmo to BatikaU; tbey uovr wonttotioii. lu Kjiitonf Lho 
Portu^eae somo sliipn wont to Adcoi. Ilia Malab&rii brought 
coocaDUts> palm suffar, oil, and wine, luid some drugs ; they took nee, 
BUgar, Msd iron. There was much mle of copper which was used lu 
monuy and made into caldrons and othi?r pans, and mnch iwlo of 
qtiiokt<ilvt-r, vontiillion, coral, alum, and ivory.' 

In 15-38 Narainhit's toinplo woo built.' In IM2, ns the queen 
of Bhatkal witJtheld her tribute, Martin Aloniso de Souxa, the 
PortogneBt" viceroy, wasted her territory with 6re andsword.* During 
tho 8iegi> of the town tho I*ortuguc8e soldiers, whoso pay Do Soiiui 
had lately reduced, qimnrflletl about tho booly, and, while figrliting 
with eai^h other, weru attacked by the* iiativt^siind putio flight. Si>ue& 
oommanded them to return to the charge and revenge their repulse. 
' letthoso who are rich revenge the drteat,' grumbfod tho soldiers, 
'we carae Co innko good by plunder the pay of which we have been 
robbed.' 'I donolknuwyon,' replied PeSoiusa, 'you are not the men 
I loft in India two years aga' 'Ye8,*aaid the soldiers, 'the men are 
tho EMtmt); it in tho ii^opcrnor who is not lho samv.' So violent was lho 
mutiny lltat DuSouKahmllo retire to his nhips. Next ilayliuixtncwed 
(he siege ; the eity wn.s taken, and the Htreels ran with blood.* About 
1550 Sidi All KaiKHlhan noticea that there was trade between 
Bhntakuli and Arabia.' In ISS' t the gneea of Balecalasent a Niiikto 
Go» and made a treaty with the' I^ortugneso agreeing to pay n tribute 
of 2000 pantair of rice, to allow » factory at Hhatkul to give jNusporta 
and to sell goodn belonging Co Uia MajcAty, to equip no veiotel^, to 
pfty dan^^ caused by pirates, to band over ^1 veoaela belonging 
to the Pondos, and to prevent thom from building more.* It was 
widiin ton yeM-s before and afu.T tliiii tre*ty that most of tho 
Bhatkal temp l es were built, att the datea on ten stone initcription« 
found ~in or near the temples vary from 1543 to 156 7.^ About this 
tiiao til© Bynis^\^doyar chief of RTAi^ l in South Klinara became 
indegend^iR^TJayiBinpM:, and, lu thvdiviitiou of territory betwoon 
hia seven daughters which followed the death of the fast chie^ 

~' Summary of Kingdoms 
was a Gentile Kdnarese 

Cliapt«r XIV^ 
Places of lutei^ 

the eldest became qoeen of Bhathal ■* Tho Si 
{1650) iu Ramosio seya the king of Baticala wa 

" SUnlcy"* BwbiKtt, Tfl- 81. » 8*» •fcovo p^ SC8. 

■ SuUl.liai, U.-iVi'ZiS; Uidik** Liuiaa. L clix. GuiHMaa lioooun llui victory by 

5ivtii|t it iL place uoai^ tltc g^rcAl doodk «f tho Poriagiuat iu IocUd. BlicUo InnialatiM 
9Uto, II, S(C) ; BMlWto loflMPoi hr ii«Ht«>>oa ImK 

PiwalM Uw hfrnanal Bad*!*'* tM( : 
UiaiaatebtDnl. h(ri*lai(nBnpt la finv 
OMfaa 1b« HHiing itarm ol Span*! In. 

• MK^kli!'>t.ueka, 'Jour. Al ^^oc. Kcag. V-2. Ili4. 

■ CullvccM •In MooiimaatiM Innltla, II. iVJ. ^-UI *J4T. Fmido* i> donbtful. It nuy 
refer either to tli« Bijlpar •troagbold ol Plumda, or to th« IUj4p«r adiuiralt tliii 
SUtaiitB of Vidl, unoag wIumb Um Wmm riunil ajiptua luuljr in tlio iBVaatOMiUi ora* 
tory. Bonibay Oasrttecr, X. 441. 

' Tbo JctBilB <trr, two 1543. two IMS, ono llUiO, oiw 13S4, two ISM, ooo I&S7, and 
fine ISGT. Sdo bI>jvc pp. 207-^0: Aa th« iiiaeriplJoaa have aot bMO propetly 
d*dpbared it U not poinblo to uy whutlwi Ui«y raoonl the IniUdUig uf tb» tfmptM or 
gT»nt« to t«annlei olniftdy boUt. 

* Local tndltkdi mnI u liucriptioo in BachwiMt't MyKce. 111. IM-l^ I GS. 

■ 81&-35 

(Batubay OanttMr, 




grmtOT tlian liitn ol Honor ; tbe goreroor being a Moomh eutnidi 
Dniiiutl Coipha.' Tu a PortDgnese map of 15/0 (be only pkeea 
sbowD on the K&nara coast are AnjidJTa, Onor.aod Bbatl rala; and 
De Barms' map o( about U-80 show's onfy Ancbidin and Bateknla.* 
Do Barron descHbea the city of ilMnivariw the hoad of Ihu kingdom 
of Balikala and Bat«kala.' About tJie same time V'inci^iil La 
Bianc describoH Ithatkat aa a fioe place atill of great trade.* Aboac 
1590 tbe Dutch travutlor Jean Hugncs de Linscot mentions tbe 
queen of Itatikula as the quocn of Honor and tlie popper-country. 
She arrftDgcd with the factor who lived at UooArar, but tho pftpper 
batl always to be paid aix mouths in advance.* In 1699, Fuulke 
(irevil, on whose Memoir the measures of tbe Srst EuKlish 
East India Compimj weru biu»ed, describes tho qnoon of Batilcala 

the tbr oo Englisb tomba n lnatdy doecribed, two of which are dated 
1637 and oiio 1&89.* About 1630 the Dutch traveller Schiiltzsu 
di!i(cribca Batikala as formerly indg>eiidoiit but madu tributary by 
Uio Portugese." In 1 660 the Dutch trarellar Baldnns notiisoii 
Oner and Batecalo as tbo only K&nara tovma of importanoe." 
About 1670 tho chief of tbe Engiixh factory at Bhatkal procured a 
fine bull-dog from the captain of an Bnglisb rvssul which bad 
oome to Uhathal to load. One day tbe bctorn went out shootingj 
and on tbe way, near a temple, the bull>d<>g Beised a oow and 
killed bor. Tho mob,oxcit<vd by some Br&hmaas, attacked the faclon) 
atid iiiiirdered every one of them. Home more friendly than the rest 
enured a larc;o grave to be dag and iu it buried the oigfat4Mm bodies. 
Tbe chief of the Ktirwitr favtory sent a monnmeatal stono with tbe 
inscription 'This is tho biirinl-plaoo of John Best, with aevontMin 
other Bnglishmen, who woru siicrific»d to tbe fury of a mad priest- 
hood and an enraged mob.'" In IC)?:) tbe English traveller Fryer 
Bailed along by what he calls Batticalai on tlie Caoatick ooasta^' Ip 
1678 tho Portngneao were allowed to build a factory and a chorch 
at IDiiitkal.** In 1 707 the Port nguoso made a freeh treaty with tbs 
BixJniir chief confirming the leave to hold a factory at BhatkaJ. 
About 1720 Hamilton describes Bluitkal as the next soa-port south 
of Honor, with tho ruins of a large city four miles twm the sea. 
Nothing was left but ten or eleven small temples covered with 
copper and atone. The oountrr produced good quantities of pepper, 
«IM Baglishmen came to buy, though since the murder of the faotoni 
in 1G70, there was DO eslablishment." In I7-jS the French scbolaE 
Auiiiictil Uu Perron notices it as Batekol, a fort built on a rock wiUi 
a river. '^ In 1801 Buclmnan describes Batakalla aa standing on tlw 
bank of a auiall river, tbe Sankadiholi, which watered a beantifii 

> Ynle't nnrnUlU IVtcripta, 40. 

• YdU'* MiraUlu DoKTiuU. M. 

' BniM'a Annals I. iS!, KK. 

■ Traval* lAinatqrdkin. 10761,160. um^ww m vbiuvuui ■ 

■> U>n>iltou'a N«w Aooonnt, I. S83. » Km IiidU and Peraia, ST. " liiftmocML B. 

» liLlromao. 8. " NcvAcoMSt, L ISS-'JSS, " Und Avert*. Wm. Vnl cxotx. 

■ DeokdM. n. 310. ■ Llsboa Edtllon at IJTT. 
'Kartgation. 21. « B*iieo'» AnoaU, L 123. 

'See sboT* p. TTCl 

» BalihMi in CfeDTohill'* VonfiDi. lit Sa& 




bUI-girt Tftlley. It w&b a large open town nitb 500 houaes. It had 
two mosqaoa and mnny wealthy Muealm^a families who traded 
to diFrvniDt purU of the votmt ThiM wk* tboir homo, and vthvti tlioy 
went fflwiiy th«y left thoir families hero. There were Kovcntj-isix 
gudis or temples belonging to the followonof Vy&sa (BrAhmanioul). 
Buchanan saw the rains of a Jain temple built by one of the 
Byrwa Wodeyarsof KilrkaL Tho workmanship of the pillars and 
tbo earring waaitupcrior to anything ho hud t^Mu in India. This 
be thonglit was due to the oatare of the ;«tono which out bi-U«r than 
granite and wore better than pot-st^ine.' Ue notices a tradition 
that, in the time of the Jain priocctis Bhaira Devi, Bhatkal was a 
large town.' In 1362 Bbatlcat bad a population of 3000, the groater 
piirt of whom wero BnUimana.* 

BhedaJtga'TKUdda, north latitude 14° 47" east longitude 74'fi8', 
a tri)fonometrical gntrey station about tibOO feet above the soa, is the 
chief iieak of the KollAno rango whi<;h mas east from the Sahy&dris. 
Tli<: KitHitnO range begins hotwoen the Tillnge» of Dcrmihnlli and 
Manjgnni, and stretches east as far as Sirsi. From Sirsi the range 
tarns north-east to Bhartanhatii, Bhedasgdvgndda, two miles to tbe 
south of the Tiliagu of the 8iun« name, betug one of its ohiof p»akB. 
From Bhc(la.tgAv a minor spur Htretches e»tt to Malgi, and, from 
Malgi, tunis north to Mapiiiru, eight miles wmth of Mundgod. The 
aides of BhedasgAv hilt aro not steep and the top is flat. Close to 
the foot of Iho hill He the villagos of SkfiuvsUi, TogArhalli, BbodMg&v, 
and Billckopp with good rtoe land cultirated by Lingiiyals, Arori, 
Kore-Vakkals, and Gongdik^ra. In the Tillages near are many rtcb 
betelnnt and spice gardens owned by welUtO'do Havigs. On the hill 
sides until lately, (-iimnor wood<asb tillage wm carried on, Tho 
country is covored with thick forest abounding in valuable timber 
and in gnino. 

Bidarkanni or Bedkani. with in 1881 a population of 702, h 
a village ou the road from Bilgi to Siddllpur. About a quarter of 
a mile to tho cost of the villsgo, a little to the south of the road, is a 
group of thirteen whold and two broken carved Htones, some of them 
of large size, covered with carved figures illustrating soeue.4 of 
worshii*. feasting, and war. Near a small Jain temple, a little to the 
soutb-oast of tbe main group, ore two more carved stones, sad in tbo 

Chapter , 

Places of Int 




*UyN«« Md CWniM,ni. 130-133: 

'AccKViliBg tn alnvlltiuQ HtUl v-iirrml, iioMin Chtanalihalradovl rulod over Qvr- 
nppa, Hadvalli, Bhatk*), mi<1 KiiKnr that U Btfdimr fn Maiour. Sha tiad a nitniitt*' 
noBwd Kail>nil>ru and ■ comin Hurler' in -oliisf naand TlBUnaiiBa KUk of Bhatkal. Iq 
a >tuno at Bhatkal. a thnoderbi'lt Etrock a swoet ptuttun l«al. aoil (lidui^iluwn tho 
baf foroKd n ball in ll» trunk of the plan tain treo. Heittnoniings MblT named Sooaa 
foaadthe l)all and mado it into a biQlMok. ThtibilUiookliadtiM virlu* of attK^ing 
any cum who oanw to pdUoc mia or Inod at which it wm in obargo. Timmauaa hearing 
III tbe aggTCHiT« biUlMok 3et«jmi»td to tarn it into a ■won- Ue made friend* 
vith it* ownar, pMwnaded htm to givo tt him in a pnwnt, and turaiav it inli> m 
RWonl lucd it ta n^nt his battlca Tha tame nf TiEnmuini'iTiatoriM nackea Ihotanol 
thcquoen, wbatbawcd liim tbn i(Tiiatotl [avtiur uid nuido bimberooaiSMnder-in-chiof. 
Qvuta Chaniuitihalr»deii la wM to liat* Imllt. armed, and gurfMncd thtM fort* in her 
tnrrilory, one at Bhatkal to keep off iho PeftUBaea* or Fann(^ ; one on tkn ewtwa 
frontier to gattA acainvt the MaiMhia or PwdUria i aad the third la the HoBOFaddl 
paM. Tbe oM bridge of wkiob nentim hn bevn made i* aUii Mid to hiv« boa baift 
by ber. ■ Tbontoa^ OmmUmt, 1*. 

(Bombay Oauttoer 


biptm- XIV. 
a of latereet- 


mndwall of tbo tomplo are foar others with lingt at tho top. A 
fiflh einnds » liUle Wfty off od r smnll plnlForm and a sixth at the 
foot of a tree close to the t«inplo.' 

Bllgi, five milea we«t of Sidd^pnr, with in 1881 a population of 

7>>7, has a ruined fort and ptilaco. Tho town was odco enctosod by 

a wall the foondntiuDS of which c-Jin i<(ill bo sovu. Tbo villi^vn urO 

ino«tly Lingtlyat.'*, HarigH, and UalujiAik!'. Thi?. cliief objont of 

iut«r«tt ta ft Jain u>inple or baali of Fir^hvaDath. This is said to hare 

be«n bnilt about 159^ by Narsimh, the founder of tho towii,and to hare 

been eutargcd about IG50 by a Juin prince Ghantoviidin, the iton of 

Rajhappurijn, why mipplivd it with ima^s of NomiuAth,Pi«hviiJiiUh, 

and V'ltrdhaiuitQ. The templo ih in the minutely omameuted Htylo, 

which ia knowp aa the Dravidian or southern style, of which tba 

HoysaJa Salliil tcmplpa of Vishnu at Halebid or DrArasaniudni in 

West Afaisur aru ntoong the mo^t perfect cxtunpleft. Tho walla ol 

the shritie are formed of slabH whicn reach th« whole height of tha 

walls, with, for support, square pillars at the oomers and in the 

middle. The upper part of tho walls of tho hall or mandap aro 

formed in tho suuio way and are wi on n ciu'Tcd KCrc-vn wolL Tbs 

outer hull has four round pillitrs of black stone and at each side of 

this outer liall is a small shrine. The roof of the hall is Bat and is 

euppcrted by carved basalt pillars. Inside the door of the temple are 

two large and well preserved slabs. One of than {6' 10"x 2' 6"), 

with seronty-eight and a half lines of writing, bears datu 1.^8 

{8. 1310); the other {6' 10' x 2' T'l.with eighty-tour and a half 

lilies in-nn data 1628 (S. 1550). The two mscriptions record a 

grant to the tomplo of nine villages with an income of £177 

(R^. 1772-7-S} and land yielding seven tons (30O JtAanrfis) of rice. 

Bilgi liUH two <.ithcr temjifoti, of Virupitkah Slahidev an*l of HanumAn. 

Tho temple of Virupdkah is a plain building with an inscribed alab 

(5' 10^x3' 1*) to the right of the entrance. The slab has a ling at 

the top and to the leftawoman holding a small dnim and a bell, and 

to tho right a cow and cnlf, and ii sun and munn and a dagjjer 

iihovo. The iusonption in in forty-two lines and lM<ara date 1&71 

{H. 1-193). 'llio Hniiiiniiii temple has a smaller inscription whiclt 

is much defaced. Bilgi, originally called Shvetpur or the Whito 

City, is said to have been founded by a son of Narsimh, a Jfiin prince 

who rulod about 1593 at Ho»ur, four miles east of Bilgi. Uuriug 

tbo Eteventeenlh century Dilgi or Sidd^pur was a separate prtnci* 

pality under chiefs called Pdligflrs, who were closely connected with 

the Coorg family and wcrv tributanes of the Nagaror Ik-dnnr kings 

of West Uaisur,* In 17!)9, when Major, aftorwardn Sir Thomas, 

Mnnro began to administer the district, l^ilgi was held bv a petty 

chief or Piligir.* Tho chief refused to submit till Colonel frelle.»Jey 

sent a detachment into his territory,* Tho late chief left two widows 

the elder of whom receives a yearly pension of £27. In 1872 Bilgi 

had a population of 707 of whom u94 wore Hindus and thirtc«u 


' Dr. Unrnai' Lut o( Archxologicol Uonuiai, 7 . 

• Mr. J. HoutMtti. C8. ' ArbatliDi>t'« Munra. I, Bit. 

• Wdluhiy'> Sapi>l<iiiiciitH7 DcspoteliM fladij^ 1707- l$U},30S;30a,SK^ SM. 






Bingbi, three mileB to the sooth ol K&rwi(r, wiUi in 1881 n popo- Ohaptor 
iBtioQ of 1^96, is a port with a onsbom-hoaso and a harbour ttBoriVmf; pi„-.. „7Tr 
thrtmghout thu rc<f>r safo anchora^ to Teasels of any size.' Biughi 
bny is Bhvltvrod from the Dorlh wind hy thu Bjtigfai hills, a epur of 
thfl Sahy£dris, and from tho stonth-vreBt slorniN hy the jsliind of 
Anjidiv which lies about two miles to the imuth. Tho priuci{Hd 
inhabitants are Christian Komftrp&ik and Bhand&ri pnlni-tappers 
and adlivalors, SAsaxhtakar traders, and Hfihikki Yakkal and 
Uabbu husbundmei). 

ChaDda'T aJ* in the Hnniivar suh-diriMon, about five niiirs 
Boathl-e^'oE the town of Kumta, with in 1S81 a popuiatiou of 
7-Ui, is a dveerled city, said to havo bcun bittlt by u MuKilmiin 
king named Sarpibimalik, apparently Sherif-ul-Mutk thv KijApnr 
general who coii<]uored the north of KSnara towards the close of the 
sixteenth century.* lu H}08 Chand&rar was occupied by VenkatMh 
Miiik of Ikkeri or Kaladi who stopped the southward progresa of 
tho MuMaliuitaH.^ In 1678 «ud 1701 it had a Pgrtngnft.-'o fa<1<)ry.* 
lu I6Ji() ita lost Mosalm^ chief died without isaue. Since then (he 
place had been allowed to decline, and most of it« stones have been 
parriod Rway.^ Thorn is a largo Koman Ci^hulic C'hnrch dedicated 
to St. FranciM Xavior and held in gr^t local veoeratioD. 

Chendiya is a Urge vilUgo five miles south-east of Kitrwitr. 
Tho people are chiefly S&eoshtakar, Vani, and Shcnri landed 
pmpriettirs and traders; Christian, KomArp^ik, and BhandiLri 
cultivators, palm-tapporg, and labonrcrs; and Harkantar fmhermeD. 
It hmn a cu8tom-houae at tlie month of a navigable inlet called 
Chendiya Bola The inlet or creek is open only dnnng tho fair 
weather and admits no rrasols except of ^mnll burthen. Tho sm 
trndo returns for the «ight years euding I88I-S2 show avcrago 
expnrt« valued at £6-13 (Ka. 64^1)) and average imports valued at 
£318 (Ra. 3180}.* Exports varied from £29 m 18/5-76 to £2333 
in 1879-80 and imports from £20 in 1880-81 to £1917 in 1879-80. 
In ISOI Buchanan described Chi-ndiya as in the plain some dislanco 
from the sea. There was no market but there wore many scattered 
bouses sheltered by groves of cocgn-[mlms.^ 

Chitalcul, on the coaxt about four miles north of Ktlrwiir, is tho 
uiimo .jf a sirmll vilhigo clow to tin) nortli of Sadfahivga d. Iliotigh 
it is now ooufiued to the village, before Saditehivgaa was built in 
1 715, the name ChitJikul included a considerable bract of land, and 
it IS still locally known ae the old name of Saddshivgad.* 

Under tho fonns Sindnbur, Chintsbor, Cintaborj Cintapor, 
Cintovola, Cintac oraij C hittiknJaj and Chit<?kiil», tho place appears in 
the writings of many antliora from the Arab traveller Alasudi. 




* Arab baaUt tntdiiur in tho fiir wotber betirocii tlio UabliAr ooMt and t^ 
PnrMau OsU, oU at Binglii uiil Kodor •even mila •outb ct Bin^ Set mpplJM of 
u-(<i«l mm) waUr. Taylor'* Sailin); Dircclorj. I. 39$. 

' Sm abovB p. 132. Cluiullvar witli IlaDivar m Mid to b« nMntional is a Kftdambai 
gnutt to tb» foMndor ot tb« Bhalra Dovi or Bhalkal family. Ur. J, Montcatli, CS. 
> Mnnra lo BoanI, 3lal Hay ISM. mra. & * liwlraoca^ S. 

• Dr. BuTgwa'UitofArcluMlMckalMaMbiA/J. 
' MyMPtD Hid Canwa, HI. 177. ■ " 

• Mr. H. e. CaMly, CA 



«pt«r XIV. (abont 900) to the Engli&b geoj^fropber Ojrilby (about 16i 
of interest. ^»"°08 attempts have beon made to identify the pliuro. Tbi» 
latest nnd moKt gvnurully rcccircd i« its idcntiAcatioa ivitb 
Coit t)y .Sir H. Yjile.' But there u aottiing in the name wbiofa 
can be identi^ed with Goa aad such details as are ^ven arc as 
SDitable to Chit&kul as tbey are to Goa. The eariiert mention 
oi Chitdknl is as Sindjibnr by the Arab travellor Masudj^ (dl!I)i 
who notoK that crocodiles abound in th« hay of SindaKur in the 
kinffdoia ot Uilxhrah in India.' About ISIO Baahid-ud -din calls 
Sindabor the firet city on the Malabar conBt.* In 1342 ibn 
Bj^tula mentions an island of Sindabur, thrco days' sail from Kuks 
or (jogho, with thirty-nix inbuid villages close to auoUier lalaud 
whiob Hoeras to be Anjidip. Ibn Uatuta adds that the island of 
Sindabur woa eammnded by an estuary, the month of the Kfili- 
sadi, in which the water was salt at the flow and frcsb nt tho 
vbb.* Iba Batuts makoa Siudabnr tho nortbmost place in 
Ualab^,* and notices that the chief of Hon Avar or lliuoor, a 
Unhamnmdan itam«d Jamiil-ud-din, with a" fleet of 250 tcsbpIb, 
took Siodabur by storm. Some time later, Ibn HotuCa nunc bock 
to Sindabnr but went away an hu found it bc«ieK<'d by tho Hindu 
ohiwf from whom it had been taken." In the Foitulana Hedioea 
(IS50) the name appears as Cintabor and in the Catalan map 

About I &50, Sidi All Kapo dhan, tho anthor of Mohit tho Tarkiah 
book of Navigation, has a secticui licaded, '2'ltli Voyage: from JCnwai 
Sindabur to Aden.' This baa been taken to prove that Kuwai or 
Goa and Sindabur aro tho same. But Goa and Chitakul are, close 
enough to bo ^roiipttd toffclher in laying down seasons for tho 
voyage from Wesieni India to Aden.' In 1496, when V^tco da 
G ama'fl ships anchored at Anjidiv they were supplied with fish, 
fowls, and Tegotablc^s by fishermen who lived on a river aboat a 
mile distant, named Ointaoont.' In 1605 when Almoi da, the first 
Portn»ie«e viceroy, waa building a fort at Anjidiv somo Moors 
waitod on him from Cinlacora where the BijApnr king had latelj 
built a fort and garrisoned it with 600 men.'* About the same 
time the Italian travt^llor Yarthcm a mentions Centacola one day from 
Anjidiv. It hod n pagan lord who w.-;w not very rich. In the city 
were many Moorish mertjfaants and a great quantity of cow>beef, 
much rice, and the usual good Indian fmit. The people were 
tawny and wont naked barefoot and bareheaded. Tho lord 
waa subject to the king of Batbacala tho present Bhntkal in the 

>T<iWaC>tti«r, n.444.44& 

■Pnirm A'Ot, T. 207. TUxIinh U njiparfiitly Bnlhir* that ia probably Um 
SiUhlnu a tiraiwh of whom rulml «t Oo* (rum 908 to lOOS. Joar. Ho. fr. B. A*. Soo. 
Xni.l3.14i Kloet'* KinartM l>]riiMti«8. S8. * EUiot nod Dowaon, I. 68. 

* Lcc'a TntmUtioa, IM ; YxWa Cathay. XL 444. Bciwiiid (AbnUwb, IntfodtKtioa 
odx*iL) notioM that aoaordiiig t» Ibo Bstvta tboa wen t«« eitia* at Sindabnr, 
c«o b«]oa(ing to Hindat, Uw oUwr boUt by Hiualmtfaf. M—odi'a and Dm Batnta'a 
SindaW nay bIm porfaapa b« tha mtnod oi^ «f HwUUmt tliraa iuIm aaat of 
Kadvid. 8m> bdow p. Ml < Lcc'a Traoilation, 16G. 

•I.oo'i Truwlatinn, 1T4- ITll ; YnVaCatbay, II. 4:il-422. 

* Vub'a Oathay. n. 444. * Journal A»iatie8oclstr, BanmJ,V.2.464. 

* Tlmi VofitM <* Vbm» da Qatna, 3U. >• Kw/b Voyagw, VI. aX 



soafli of KAnara.^ In hia review of India at the time of the 
eatablislnneDt of Portn}fucso power, Farin mentions tlie rivor uf 
CeatacoU oppo«it« AnjidiT. In FuBruury 1510, under orders 
from Daltmquerqae, Tioiniaya, the pi rate cuiel of Honitvar, to<^ 
the fort of Cintacora*wliicb had a oommandant and a body of men 
ttnd dwtroycd port of ite irall. Ite bnildings were bnmt and som« 
piixos of Turkish arlillory wore cuptnrad. Thu fortress is described 
as on the bank of the river which divided the kingdoms of 
Hon^v ar and G on.' On tJie surrender of Goa In April 1510 
Dalbotjuiirqno sont one Disgo De Femandca de Bija with 200 
men to rvbuild Cintaoora and to <«main thorv. Dt»<^ found the 
fort too niiufd to bo held and wont buck to Qoa.* Btiforo Ualbo- 
querque waa obliged to leave Goa in Ji.Iy 1^10, the Bijtour kin^ 
agjt^d him to jf ivq ap Qoa and take Cin tacora with allitsTwidB, 
its areut rcvoiiue, and its vitry good harbour where ho conld build 
a fortresa.* When tho Portufi^ese were drivou from Goa 
Dalboquerque's commandant of Cintacora had to t ly to Hontva r.' 
In November or December of the same year, after Mb seioond 
cim<)iit»t of Giwi, Datboquurquo sent men to Ciiitju^om to m«>t and help 
Malh&iTilo a chief of UondTar who^luul been ousted by his brotlier.* 
About 1514 the Portuffuese traveTTer Daavte Barooaa describea 
Cinlacoln as situated to the oorib of the river Alig a, nhich 
HOparatcd thi? kingdom of Doccani, that is Bijitpur, from thu kin^om 
of yarMPga, that isTIjayunagar. Ciutacofa was a foi-treii8 at 11m> 
month of^he river on the top of a hilt. It belonged to Sabayo 
that is Adil Shih, and for the defence of the countrjr it was 
always giiiirdcd by horso and toot soldiers.' When I'erlagneHO 
power waft finnly establiahed tho river of Cintaconi hud to pay » 
tribute of 400 to 500 baled of rioe> la 1&80 Oe Barros dewribes 
Sintacora as a fortreas on the Aliga which juta out facing the 
ititaud of Anjidiv twelve leagues from Qoa.' Linseot's (1500) 
Ciutapor, close to tite south of Dabul, teoma to bo not Chitakn) 
but Jait&pur in Ratu&giri." Ogilby (IGOO), apparently fmm 
Portuguese authorities, notices the stream Aliga of Siutacora falling 
into the Kca opposite Anjidiv." In 1715, according to a local 
manuscript, Baava Ling, a Sonda chief (I (i97- 1 74.'>), buil t a fort at 
Chitdkul, on thenortli or riglit bank of the river mouth, and called ib 
SftiUsbivtfa d after bis fath er. From this time the name Chit&kal 

baa beeu aop plantod bj SadAa hivgad." ___^ . 

Dha'reshvar, moro correctly Doreshvar or tho String-God,'* 
about livo, miles south-vnat of Knmta, with in li^l a population 





> Badger'a VftrthMom I!0-1S1. *CoiiiHnmtuiMor IMbna««iH,JLM. >- 

* CmnrainitftriM at Dftltra<inerque, n. 139. • Comunoiituiea «J BalbaiaMqS^IL I86l 

*Canuncnt«rim<i( DaIb<X|u«i^i>e, txxxvil.aQS. Inthli p<uu|ii Ciiitocon i* mon- 
tUncd M tho Muttieni kad of Goa. The tort U ' AU Hm Undi of Goa ud Sftdo m 
Ht u Ctntaeon oa Uw one tido and ai tu- m Cond*! (tbat la KviLU In SlvuitvAdi) «n 
tho othor aUa,' 

•OMBia«it«ia«orP«lboqiian)ae, in.3a.2T. 'SLtnJoy't BmI]o«i,T8. $«o)>,tlS. 

'8i>lwi.llo..lL«M-2i8. •DoMKiandi.BMrM, 1-3 (U»bon 17771, 293. 2M. 3ia. 

" YnUi'a Cattuij;. II. 444. " Atlu, V. 343. » Sto ImIow, flxlidiive^. 

"Tbe HUNS Striiii[.Dal i» tocallv cxplMned by tlie rtory tk>t ike Dorahvar tau it 
til* lord m dor tJttiii dotl which eoT«nd Iho tutg which Rdvan brouglit Crga Shtv 
and lost o«w Dokarn. S»«lHtl»vp.30OlWt«S: 

Lptw sir. 

ee of Interest 

iKAxi OilIt. 


iB«mbft7 Ouet 



o{329,bMon abill slopoa templeof lilah&dev (lD5'x69') said to 
bo about 800 yeara old. There are four inscribed tablets iu tb 
temple from one nf which it nppoftrs that tlic tumpla was bi>^n hy 
Budroji Pandit, sua of Niteoji, anil finiKtic<l b}- Huu»pp«. The <lAt 
bas not bevn made out.' Tlio tttiii[>le is built of black stone aiid iu 
walla aro orDauient«d with sculptures. Kound the temple are fiv 
holy poobi or tirlfts, Rudrakiind >n front of the tcmplo, Cl~ 
tihankh, ajad Vasudha behind tlie (cniplo, and ^?l^tiTth to the nor 
The temple rooeivos from Government a yearly nllowanoo of £114" 
(Re. 1410), which in managed by a coumiittee appointed by 
Govuriimont. A fair is held ovcry year at the car-festival, about tli 
middle of January, when bcatt'u and pctrohod rico, earthen pota 
copper and braes voxsol^, coooanuls, and plaotaius worth altogether 
about tT'O (Rs.500) are sold. 

DevilPano Gha 't, or the Devimane Pass, in the Sabyitdn range 
lies twdo^-one milM sontb-weBt of Sirni and seventeea miles eaat < 
Kamta. The pasa is less M«up than the Arbail pass. It has the villa, 
"^^ftnei.^"^'*"'"' K^"'["t'i'""1 UpinpiittAn ut itit fuot;and Baac 
^''"nphftl^iSBTtil'tJH'*'^"'^ Sfurijgtiui, Biuralli, and Mntigaratit» be. 
^^^^ T tHr^ify^te ff- "^ ^ ^'^*^ riiihli^ which is nest in importjiuc 
to Uie KarwSr-Dhfirwiir road, goes orer this pass. The roadway ii 
twenty feet broad and metalled. Befora tH&d, when a wheel carnagf_ 
rood n'as made by tho lladma Oorernmeut^ the pass waf crossed by a 
bullock truck and footpath along which, iu packs and hoad-loadi^ the 
produce of Sirs! and Siddapur louiid its way to Kumta. Sinoe the 
transfer of Xorlh Kdnara to the Bombay Government the road 
luks bifou kopt in repair at a ycftrly cost to provincial funds of £2761 
(ll«. 27,610). The pass is used by wheolod carriages, luiimals, and 
foot passengers, and is the chief route by which tl^ cotton of Uhllr- 
w^r and other parts of the Bombay KanuUak passes to Kumt 
and Bombay. The value of the cotton carried throngh the pass inl 
1879-80 was £491,325 (Ka. 49,18,250); and the corresponding 
retams were jC{iO0,423 (Rs. .'J0,94,3;i0) in 1S80-S1, and £4ir>.ol-l 
(Rs. 41,55,140] in 18S1-S2. Besides cotton, betelnuts cardamoius 
popper and sandalwood from Sinai and Sidililpur go to Eumta ; ami 

fii ecu-goods salt hardware and dnt«s from Uuuibay, and rico and oil 
rom Kumta, go to upland Kdnara and to the Bombay KamiUak. 

Darsbingudda, north latitude 15° 31' east lon^tude 74° 19', iiH 
the oxtretni> uorth of the district, the highest point m North KiUiaru, 
rises 3O0O fe«t above the 9ca, two miles to the north of Paldi and 
foor to the north of Tinai. It is easily climbed. From the flat top 
is a vrido view of tbu finest monntain soenery in Kinara, the bills fur 

■BadiaMii (M)-«m« utl Cuion, l(3-t6t), pvM tb« aubstBiwa of tvo oomiv 
plaUa and ODD grant to UbAra^rar tcmpla Odc of tlie oopper-platw wm lUted ISi' ~ 
(.i. 1412 SMMrthi SantpaUar) oiul rcconlcO * gTant*lii Iho t^iga of Dvva Si 
Wwtcjtni IViloebia. The other pUht wu ilatcd lAfiO (.9. I4SI KlbtyuUn Ikivitat* 
and nwordol a grut !>>- Solva Kriduu DevoRuu Wojmru Tr>l>MOiis. Tbo 
■BOM by Krithu Devaram WoiJ«uw TrllocM* an<l twre d*U 1M0(.$. 14S2 

'Thua Ova pooU an) niil to have drofiix.'d iritli Uic Dbdrtahvor bill (kmb lbs 
SkptMhring Milt ot Ui« liurctily mcniBt KiMt whkb Ganid wu cairyina to Galuun. 
8oa below p. Zff not* 2. 




miles txmai being corerod with magniiiceot forest nboundfog in Clupt«r 

K'""o- Places orittter 

Diggi Glia'tr or the Diggi Paa*. in th« SfthyiSdri mnge on tho (^^, p^^ ■ 
Goa-Si][uk fi-iJiitior. Vien close to tbn villagn of Diy jp. sevonteen miles 
wi>»t of SuiKi- Thie ia a minor pass wilh tlie vuUfrea of Uiggi, 
Kuiiro, and Mbivai in Supa a( its head ; and of Pntiom, Tiuloii, and 
iPiv""'''- !'■ ila foot, A road across tho paw joins S angem in 
I'l r-ritory witli Sups. The roadway ia twelve to sixteen 

f(-ii iiri;iu uiiil twen^-four milea long from Diggi to Saajhodc, 
whore it j o^ jt he ^B^HJ SVi P"*^ Ipftdinp to 8»p«. The firet tiino 
milt's from Sniijhodti are practicaWe for whct^wl carriages; the 
rumaiiiing fittocii miles aru passaltlu only for pack bnllookit and foot 
nassongcrs nitli head-loauH. Like other pasees leading into 
Fortugneae territory the Diggi pass ia chiefly nsed for tho salt trafBc 
from Goa to Supa. Before 135U, when tho road was opcmxl by Iho 
Uadras Government, tbore wn* a small footp»th fit only for foot 
pasaengera. The average yearly repairs coat provincial funds about 
£!60 (Rh. 1600). 

Dodiin§njLOIl&'t, or the Dodimani Pass, ia in tho SahyAdri Doi>im*ki1 
range on Hm Kuitita-Siddi'ipiir frontier, twc-my miles oast of Kumta 
nnd about fourteen mile-i went of SiddiSpur. 'I*bc vilb^es of Dodiinani 
and S^^fona lie at the head of the pass, and the vnlageia of Basoli 
and ofStotfll. which has a travellers' bimgalov, Uo at its foot^ 
Tho road bom^ddiipur and Bilgi ahich ia twouty-lhroo mile* long 
runs over the ifjfidimani paaa and nioeta the NUkiind p aw road 
from Sirsi to Kumta clo«e below iE! The road naa ina<le and the 
nasa ope^iiod in IS73-74 at a cost of £968 (Rs. 96S3) from local funda 
The average yearly repairs cost nbont iE150 (Rs. 1500). The road 
aoroKS tho paas ha» very little IrafRc m it is only twolvo foot wide 
and cannot be used by wheeled carriagee. 

Do karpa Qha 't, or tho Dokarpa Pm», in the SahySdris on the DoxAnrt, Pm 
Sm^Uoa ironuer, lies dose to the village of Dokarpa, twenty-five 
miles sonth-west of Supa. It is a minor pa ss chiefly naod for salt 
traffic. A bullock tractc with aUicp gradients runs over tbe pasa and 
a road twelve Feet broad and swen and a half miles long joins it 
with Nugi on the Anabi pass road to Snpa. Tho pass nppoars to 
liavo been opened by tho Madras Oovernraent anri tin? seven and a 
half tnilea of proviucial road which joins it with Nugi are kept iu 
repair at an avcrago yearly cost of abont £16 (Ra. 160). 

Gan08tag3ld|^S_^ha't, or the Ganosh^ddo P^s, is in tbe 
R»hy/uln range ninerodoR west of Yclldpiir. The villages of K^iig a^ 
HirinJ, Angou, and Ililc-kargod lie at the head of tho pnwt ; and those 
of tiirkol aud Ulvi lie at its foot. A road thirty miles long from 
YellApur to Kodm thrfiugh Rtirballi runs across tho pass, and waa 
made from local fund.'i iu 1872 ut a otjutt of Z2¥) (Ks. 2100). The 
twelve miles from YelUpnr to B&i-balli is practicable for cart« ; but 
from BSrballi to Kadra the road is fit only for foot passongent and 
pack bulhx'ks. Thero is not much tmirio and there are no tolls. 

Ganga'vall, five milea north of Aukola, with in 1881 n G^aoivrnJ 
popniatiou of DS2, ts a sinsll port with a aea customs oSioc. During 



eight years 

ending 1881-82 the average yearly <R^'wa <a. 

[Bom buy Guettecf, 


«■ of luterMt 



exporta is returned at iE2063 (Rb. 20,630) ftod of imports »f. ^iK 
(lta.41dO). Export* vnmd from £1386 in 1877-7H to 
1880-81, and importa from £181 in 1881-82 lo £870 in ...•.■..- 
The people are cbie% hnsbandmen of the K&dor cft»t«r and 
fiaherft and palatKiuia-boarorE of the KhAnri aii'l Ainbig caetea. la 
(be town tho ouly oljjuct ■>[ intcn.'st is o t^nnjili.! of the (;x>ddps> 
Oungtt, tbo vrifu of Sliir. Th« tvuiplo it< regiirdtMl as vorjr holy, and, 
at daybnuik o» the Oanga Athlawi D&v, the eighth of ihv block 
half of Afhvin {September-October), ail the Smiirta of tlie iioigU- 
bonrhood come to bathe in the rivor in front of (bu t«inple.* On 
the samo day tbo intaeo of Mnhibalosbvar iti brought from Gokam 
in a palanquin and biittied in the river. N«tr the temple uf Uangs 
ia a tin^ called KAmeahvar, said to hare been set up by Vi»bvakarnift 
when he |>orrom)vd tbo austoHtics which grained him a knowledge 
of diviiio arcbitecttire. In l<>7.'> Fryer notices it an Qongt^ and 
calls it the flr»t town in the conntry which still retaina the name of 

Gersappa, or the Caahevmnt town* is a small village on the 
Shir&rati, alxKit eixt«ei) mil€« e«iet of Uondvar. The Tiltags is 
pleasantly placed on the left bunk of the river, shadvd by a graro 
of oooon-pidms. It oontaius abont fifty houMW, iuhnbited bjr 
Sherigara, HAleptiiks, Brdhmana, and Uusolmdna, There i^ a rea(> 
honae bat no travellers' bougalow. About a mile and & half east 
of Oereappa aro tho very oxtenttivo niios of N'a^rbastikeri whiob 
was tho capilal of tbo Jnin chiefs of Gersa)i|ii» (]i09- 1610), and 
iM locally beiiered, in its fvoaporoui dayit. to have cout&iued a 
handred tbooaand botiaes and oighty-foar tomplc«. About 1S7U tbo 
roins were cleared of grass and brushwood ; but the plaoe has ^ain 
beoorae over^x>wn. 

The chief object of interest is across-shaped, literally foor-montliocl 
or eltaiurMukhi, Jaiu tvmple, with four doors and a four-^ced 
image.* The tvitiplu in 03' 8" from door to door and the t^hrine is 
22" 5* square within and 21' 11' square withoaU Tho tomple ia 
built of groy granite. The veranda roof, the spire, and the floor Hiabt) 
arc said to have been carted away abont 1865 by a uimbitd&r 
of Uonflvar who was building a templo. Each hall has four thick 
round pillars with sqiuiro ba«OH aud overhanging brackott*. Tbo 
doorkuvpom, cut on tdabson each side of the door both of the halls 
and of the shrine, wear high crowns, and each holds a club and a 

Thero are five otJior rninous templet all of laterite in which are a 
few im^es and iuacriptiouB. The temple of \^arddhamjtn or 
MaliAvir SvAmi coiituius a fine black stone image of Mabflrir tie 
twentv-fourth or last Jain lirthankar. There arc four iuiscribod stones 
in Varddhanuin's t«mple. One slab (6'3''x2'5') has at its top the 
figures of a Jina, two worshippers luid a cow and a calf, and below 

) Tlia hMs] ImUoC b tkat tlio tivor Mid the goddcM lapnaant tht rivo- G«ag« witiob 
ouiM [ram tlio S»hy4dti» todettOM tbaMiuMlh«««DJuibD wbodnuik tho tirvrdrj 
U It KU bdii( twongbt by kiag BhaftiBtli. * Burt India mmI PcmU, IN. 

* PrMn gtru a cmahvvnat uul mipgu ■ loaf. HiggitibothAin'* AiUtJe Jovmal 
Sdoetion (lint 9eti«i>), irTT. * Dr. Bais*M' Lift of Artlueologiftil BonMiai, 5-<i. 




the fi^rus a long iDHcripdon. Another slab (4'S^xi^ 2') has a 
Jina luid nttvndautA above, two men worshipping ou each side, a 
cnmleggei tnblo belov, and 8tt]l lower two women wor»liipp)ng oo 
each aide of a second oroKslKgged lablo. The third iilab (5'2*x^2') 
has an inscription of six and a half lines, and, above the inscription, 
WTO Sgun-fl, tomplee, and imagm in three compart muntH. In the 
topmost compart ini<nt is a Jina tiidiug in a temple ; the nvxt 
eompartineut hn« a ecaled man and below him a table, and three 
women two scjualting and one atanding ; in the third compartment 
arc six women, a temple, and a female image. The foarth stone 
about a foot broad is behind the (vmplo sunk in the cnrth. It ha« 
an inscription partly ciTacvd. Aorotis a footpntb fn>m MiUuivir's 
temple i^ tb» tiimplo of Nemiu&tJi, the twentf>«eoond tiriliankarf 
with a tine lar^e image on a ronnd seat. The seat baa a back of 
throe sUba neatly joined and elaborately carved. Round the edge 
of tbo seat is an inscription of two vursvs in EAnarcso liTttore. 

^ere is a third Uimplo of P&rtbvanJIth, tbo twenty-third 
tirtkanktr. Hero many images have been ollected from other 
abrinea and one of them has been cast of an alloy of five metab. 
In tbo oast comer of the aroa round PArshvan^th's templo are threo 
carved atoneit much weather-woru. To tbo wc«t of l^rshvauiith's 
temple is a lai^ sitoue building with long atone beanui. In a comer 
of it abont twelve figores of naked Jinas lie huddled together. 
There in a Bfth bnilding callc>d the Kade temple. It haa lost ita roof 
and oontuina a black ntouo figure (4' 4") of FArsbTaniith with the 
hood of tbo oobra beautifully carved. OutKJde the wnll of this 
temple u an inscribed slab 2' 5* broad and 4' 3' above ground. 
The sixth building is called Virabhadra Deval. A large tree has 
grown on what was the back wall of its shrine. There is a fine 
image of Vimbluidra wuuring high wooduii nandala and armt-d with 
a sword, a shield, and a bow and arrow. Thero is also a Vaishnur 
templocalled the 1'rimalla Devasthin, and, in ite 8outb-we«t corner, 
iH a slab (o' 6" x 2' S') with a robed man holding a vessel, and 
near him nro a cow and a calf. Ueluw is an inscription distinct bnt 
OTei^^wu with moss. 

According to tradition the Vijayaoagar kingD (1330-1560) 
raised a Jain family of Gersappa to power in Kjnam, and Buchanan 
records a gnutt to a tcmplu of Guuvanti near Manki in 1409 by 
Itchappa Wodi-aru Pritani, tlie Gersmppft chief, by order of PratAp 
Dcv Riiy IVilochiit of the family of Uanltar.' Itchnpiia's son was 
married to oue of seven daughters of the last Byrasu Wodoyar 
chiefs of K^rkal in South E&nara, a sister of the famous BhaintdevL' 
The issue of this union was a daughter who united the territories of 
all her auut» as they all died without children. Shu becamo almost 
independent of the V'iiiiyunagiir kings. The head of tlio family 
»omLitim<.>s lived at Bhatkal and aometimea at Gtersappa.* Tbe 
cbiC'fship sL-oms to have been vcrj- often held by women, as almost all 

Placet of Int 


> MvKn titA CAmn. III. ISO. 
imcnlirrl stonta nutiocd aUivii. 
' 8w iiliova pp. zn, 273 ud aoU S. 

Tbn gnat i* prolMltly rvmriM ua one of Uia 
■fi«cluu>ui'« Ujrtom twd Ctnara, tlL ISH. 

(;BoBite7 Ou<U««r. 


I OuuurrA. 


r<>f<T to ihti iiai-cn oE liorHiipi» or BHtn^ In the mrly yvmn 
lbes>'. ' ' h cvuturv Bliuirnderi of OoraHpra, Uio ln- 
iraBiiii .:iddefi'ittt^d l>; Vcnkatamia N&ik, the fl 

Ac'cvtliD^ lo a local acconut she uii-d in 1008.' Id 1 
lUiliati tmrollor IVlIn VidU', whu nccouipDuiod » Purtagnow 
ki VcDkatappaftt ll«dnur,wvut by Uenap]m. Hcdvftcribcn it 
a famous city, the aoat of a qaeen, tbe tuetrvpotis of a |irovin' 
Tho city and palaoe had bllen to min and wora orcr^rowu wi 
troos; nothing \ra» left but soma pcasauta' huts. Tho \a*l qm 
had oinrnud n foroigucr uf low birth, tvho wim tiograciotia 
lo t«ko tho k>Ei}{dotn to himanlf. The ((ueon &ou^)il help fnim 
Portagoese but th«y did not help her. Tho himbitud caUi 
VenkaUtppa who 8oix«d the kingdooi. Ninv tnilos beyond Ga\ 
Uio country watt most picasunt, waviug Iwid ouvun-d will) 
forcAt^, crossed by berfatiful atrvama vboso ahady bulks wvro 
with baiobooi) and gay with Bowara and creepom. The Shi 
was tho must benutiful rivL-r Dulla Yallv bad ever Men. So fni 
was tho ooiititry for it« pcppur that thit I'ortugaiwo callod tlii> q 
of Gorsappu Kninhu da I^imLiitn or tliv Poppvr-qut-vD.* ]n 1' 
Muuro dbscrilxM Genappa as once floiiriflluDff but Duw with onl 
few beggarly iiiltabitants.* In 1815 Captam Newbold calls 
picaeaut villago with fifty bofiseftj and Doticesamoog rumaiits of 
ancioot town, tnoundo, cnoloitiros, wclb, aud liru or fix Ji 
tODipIcs.* Is 1862 Dr. Leith calls it a amall Tillage inliabitcd 
huBbaDdmon and a few Invders, Its few hata lay at tha end < 
tliiokly woodfid nmgu nnd b<;t wi-cn tho hati and tin' river the ground 
hnrclly a furloug wldo was terraced for Hoe. Old Uonuippn aboat a 
milt- acroAS a amall xtrcam was a tangled forost wttJi hoops of stouo 
rubble and here aud there sqnaro and dressed stones belonging to 

The Gersappa Fal la. called after the ruined city of Gersapi 
are locally known as tlio Jog FalU from the neighlwuriDg villnga 
Jog. Thoy »rft in north laiitudu 14'^ 14' nnd uaat lungitado 74' 
on the Kanara-MaiMitr frontier, about eigh toon loiloa oast of Gcna] 
and lliirty-live niilea east of Uoiidviir. 'l^e nnturfuti is on 
Shirilvati river, which, with a brcikdih above the falls of about 
feet, hurls itaelf OTOr a cliff 830 foot high.' The best titno W 
BOO tho falls is early in December wUi.^ii tho nv^^r in low enough 
iniiko it possible to croaa to tho loft or Muiniir batik. Bet' 
June and November, whon the river is flooded, litUo oao 
a«en an the bunka are shrouded in clouds of miat. 7i 
GcntupiKi village, which has a rest^hoiiiio but no travt^erB* bungR]< 
thi-uugU noble stretobes of foroet, the roiul cUriIm about l-t;n tn 
to tho crost of tho Gorsappa or Malotoani pass, and from tbu 

<SM*t»voti|h 100,114, 119, t2l-lSS,IM. * BueUiuui'* M yum. 133,11 

*Vuedi. IIK IBS, 196. *Miinii>, 3M liar ISINX 

>.lt,ur. As. Hoc. EWo«. XIV. 433. *Kiinort, lOtb Kd>n>uy 1861. 

rUr. II. U. CoiKljr, C.».. lltfaAngwt tSS.-ti AmMic Jtmrna) tMeetimo, 076-1 
Joar. Aa. Soo. Bnu; XIV. 416-431 1 Itkc'i M}-»i«. II. SS7>W: Bovbiy Cftlkob 
Bxnainer, ffith kUjr II57S i Die Hims of Itidin, SSail Aiwil 188S. 




eight niiloB fnrthor U> tho falla. Stmngnre gonrniily 
maku till; joiinu')- in pftliuiqiiiua aud flpeud about st^vvii hours 
on Uio vniy. About six tiiilea beyoitd the crest of Lbu pu.-'M, 
and about two miles from the falls, at JinTiDgnudi, where three 
rqads moot, tho 6rst whisper of tho foils is brard. Beyond 
M»ving»iidt the whisper grndually awdla to a mar, and tho track 
loiivt-s tliu high iVMul aad pasMCii through an evergreen fur^nt who»e 
tall aUiUiii are festooned with tJio shuots of the wild pepper vine. Clone 
imderwood hides all truce of the rWcr, till, at the bnngalow 
near the falls, tho platosi) vomiiiiuads ft glorious viiiw. To the 
north thickly wooiiud hills rife against the bk}', and thv river winds 
southward gleoiniug like ailver ainong the islandii of its rocky 
bed. As it neara the crest of tho din,. vast masses of rock split 
it into separate Btrieami>i, which, along Four main channels, hurl 
thcmselres over the cHII into a chaam 830 feet deep. Tho rock 
uf thi> river-hud uiid the cliff ever which the river faliit uro gnvis» 
as»ociiUed with hypogene schists. The f^ncias is composed of r|aarta 
sod felspar, with both mica and hi >ni blende, »nd alternates with 
micaceous, tolcoso, aotynolytie, diloritic, and hornblende schists 
imbedding iron pyrites. Theite rocks are seamed by veins of (|a«rl« 
and fulnpar and of a fine-grainod granite oomposou of small grains 
of white felspar qaartz and mica. Tlic nia«g of rock has been eat«n 
back several hunilrcd foot by the wearing of the water, tho softer 
takxxw and micacoous adiiste nuffering moat The bed of tho river, 
which is carved into the rock, is broken by basins and by rugged 
water-worn masses. The Gersappa Pails oclipso every other falTiu 
India and have few rivals in tho world, l^oagb oxcollou in height by 
the Cerosoli (2'IOU) and Bv»n»on (1200) cascadea in the Alps and by 
the Arve catarncl (1 100) in Savw, the Gersappa Falls (832) Mm-psiss 
thcin in volume of water.* On the other hand, though raacli 
inferior to Niagara in volume, OerMppa far excels it (104) in heiglit.^ 
Tho ShirAvJiti leaps over tho cliff along four »op(irato channels, 
onoh of which keeps a considerable body of water till Into in 
IVbruaiy or early in March. Tho cd(jo of the cliff over which tho 
river is unrlod is shaped like a hook with a »traiglit handle, the hook 
being on the Kiinara or right side and the straight handle on tho 
left or Maixur side. Two of the lour fa lls, the K£ja and tho 
Boarcr, are in the hook or cnrvo nearly opposite each other ; tho 
oUier two, the Itocket and La Dame Ulanehe, Call over the straight 
liuo or handle of the hook. All fall from the same level with a 
idieor drop of abont 830 feet into a pool which soundings hare 
shown to bo 130 feet deep.' In ordinary years until litto in 
November the fhint view of the (aUa u much aid by tJie clouds of 

Chapter '. 


UuiurPA '. 

I OkptMB Ncirliold, who viiitod GcrMpjw in Aiuvat, TOOgUy oaloalatod that whaa 
bu u-M Ui««« about 1 ,200 toiia u( WBtar ««n) bcim iMrled over tlic cliff every Mcoad. 

'At NU>:Hnt alxiiil lI.lTUtoninf v^tcr ara karlcd avwy •oo«(id fram klwdAblvf 
IM lent. Iliitlvr* Gvouraiihy.jil ; RDcycloptodift fkittaiika, Artkte on l^kiuda. 

> Twu ollic>>ra (•[ ttiu InifUn N>vy , (Lqmtol by Ciovenuncnt to mcManr* lb« IilU, 
urivod tbi-rc on the 6th ot Uwcti 1854. Ttiobr account, wriltco In Iko old faiuig»)ow 
bonk, a M tnllam - 

■ Wo Uircw n light flying bridKO KTOM Uio cbmn (ro«D tha tree ovwhsnging Um 
BoMw, to tb* lock wotwiinlaf that ciUedtbalUja'*nM)li. Tuthi* weolangacradla 





Rpnj, wbioli, rtsiiig from the boiling oftuldroti, bang oror tlip Hi 
luid <nirl acnm the cn»C of the cliff. 

The ItijA Fall,' thu fall nearest tlio E£aara or riprlit beuk, 13 ali 
called tlic Gnud FkII, Iho Mniu Fall, nnd thu 'Eora^-eliou Fall. Iti 
dfpply cut Imck wn the right aJdw of the hook or vllipsc. Otot i 
citft, in out) huge muddy mass, h great volame of wator BwoepB 
a smooth and graceful carre, 830 feet down, in an nnbrukeu sb 
until it IB lost io clouds of spray. II10 lUja Pall has held its 
posittOQ for about forty year*. In 1845 uds of tho crugit al 
edgo of the cliff gave wav, and, a> it fvtl, carried with it ill 
ontatandiDg ledge of rock laying bare the faco of tlto scarp wttki 
noiae that etarllod the couutry for mileek ~ 

of light bunbno, oihUo oJ holdinv two noopJs coarortaUy. TlMCradUwH fanMnlon 
one li^ulaUMi tvo doultk block*, thmuiti wUoli «a tot* tl!i« foar Liwaen M*npo«uig 
Uw bridKe. Wa liad mrvtoaiiy plac«l Um bffd^ tni«i tli« BAja*i rock to Um trav : 
bat watonnd that the I«m1 Una would not, from nay d^jle part of Um Wdn, [Jiunb 
dwot the Boartr.aToftbnrMknoaohluraMeitbun proving bejwudndMWt thai tbo 
pool hnd nenr bow ptnaibad fma the lUea «I the dMn. 

' la th« foranoon of the ISth of Uuvh, all unngeaionti bttng Mmji 
{jTOviiion mads (fwsil remote oontiDgenciH, wo nnde the [inwmii ia ihc 1 
•iil« u «>ita. k*mu|| in the centre to pour a libnlMn t« tb* gaudUn ■ 
chum. The urwiMmout* Udag (oand porfsetty ntkfmrtary, we |j«i>oeo 
tlie pooL The otadle with one ponon wan MMd away to a dbtuoe u< kh) «•'<«_ 
feet trooi tfae tree Tko lo>d Una wna lowored from tbe tfaon tluvtigh n Nock or 
pidley OD the ntadia, paulac down thronicb Ita omiIm. The pluniuot cecMrtad 
o( MTtm pcnndi of lead liurceil in tha centra ol nn »niimlar Ufa-Iiotv iln 
huriionlally, tha whole weight b«ln([ aboat 18 Iba. Whan the lew) raaohed the im 
the liTe-bnov floated It, and thua the kad uan ia the cnuU* felt tbe tou of we 
Rairiog dari^ oar aMvioe had a llttto axnsrienc* ia deep wetar, wa knew that ■ 
otflOIw. framaptnmb-IIneof ui)waNUof lOOfalkooMwonUbaecaNtbati 
and eo wo found II. But by hauUnuaphalf afsdionaud lettiMfoeaOi 

Uta-bnoy made a diMMruble fpluh in the water. Amark waatbEni^laoednntCe'l 

dowr to the block, and the m^U of ita dip token wlih a theodolilu co ih* briclt ei iba 
prmpiov tiear tbo lieo, ai the bypotcauMl iliitanuo of -IT ftet. Tlu* ^\t tha 
pmHmJiculardewc M inn of tboendlo bolaw tho iMtrumvnt (oca Isvnlvith ib« tree) 
H 14 feet ; whioB, added to tha lino paid out, 816 loot, g^vu the «<iu.-t ileptbaSff feet. 

' In tbo allernooa we daaconded the taring and witb a raft at a few basbaea a^ 
thnw boafi bnakne, paddlod and eoonded all ronad and acroae tb* pool. Imt 
ntaviooily, from above, tuned «B a great pert of iba Boaicr fato tbo Hoctet. 
foand that S2 futhooit or 132 frct wa* the graateat depth. Thla aoumling wm I 
veij Bear the vcit aide, alnut 30 var<la trotn tbe bead ol tbe pool or leae i 
Oiand Fall. We cUaibed tbe rocK cm niiicli the Roarer talle, and alien about t 
feet np it. tb« itteam. whidi before had been rather mild, oame dunrn wiib rucb 
on our devoted bowli that we bad U> 'bold <m by our oyelidi' to priveat 
wailiMl off. 

' By meaiurliii a bieo wo aaccrtafaied tboborlaohtal diilance betweni tbe ( 

tbo Cauam and M)->ore hungiUDin to Iw TlOyardeiaod thedictasoe livtwcea) 
IUJ»*e t«dc and the trtc that plume the Itoaier, to be T< yarda. Tbv t»p <4 ' 
BAJa'i rook ii five feet below the lerel o( tbe ab«vo meatlotiod Irae. A I'li 
kweted from thii tree iato the bed of tJie Qoarer naanrad 315 foot. 

' On tbe l&th of Hatch, we broke np our bridga, from wUeh wa had taken 
■atiafa«tiiry view* of tha ohaani, and deacendoil Iiy a rope iato ttte oup of the 1. 
where we breaktuitod. and afteni-Milt, with aonse Uttle diStmlty at ttav point, j 
dowa by the ai'lo of tbo Boarer, n»d reached a poattkra at tb* ba^ of thatJt 

wbanoo Uio docket and Roatar ware eeen to the right. Ftoai thi* place i 

a oorrett idoa be formed of the great depth of the ca«-cen la front of wmeb Iba i 
PaUdrnp*. The>kye1oudcdovec«odlbnaderma]od whanaewerebelow. Tliei 
wat extreanely grand. At ^ r.M. wo reached the top of tbe oliil in eafuty. ' 
Mvwre aad (.'ooro, [[. 389-39IX 

> Hie Riia Fall takca iu oanM from a ohiel of Blbt who propoard to balld a 

afarinaontbetopol tbocUff. Linoa fur tbo (uuadationof thetbriaciiuy b* tracadt 
tbo large iabl»-Kiai>od rodi wbiuh hug* om the oham. 

■■Iniab I 





About 1000 fv«t to tlie left of the Kdja Pall, and still ip the be»d 
of the hook, 19 the aei^ond fsl), whose noiaj fury haa given it the 
name of the Roasbk. The wafer passes over the cliff southward and 
turuH Kaddouljr ivoHt, and tumbhng down a stMp cltaiinGl U CMOgbb 
in » basin. From the ha»'u\ it ni«hrui down a channi, aud, in mid air, 
joliiH thv waters of the R/tja Fall, and the two atraams together rage 
along a ruggi-d gorge dashing on a huge masg of rock, which, except 
in the Htrongeat winds, thi>y hide with cloiida ot spray. From tho 
terrific doptlis r!so such a roar aud turmoil, and sucli «hrota of 
blinding foam and miait as Byron saw at the h,\h of Vclino : 

The li«lt ot vat«r> I vltutw Lbej lioiir) utut hiiM 
Aad 1»il in endkiK torture ; whil« tho Rw«at 
Of tbnir Kititt kKonj wrung nut from tiii*, 
Tli«ir t^MKullivii. ctuU ruiuicl tbi- rodu of j«t 
That ginl the gulf arouud in pdlilew liomr aeC' 

About 700 feet to the left of the Roarer, in the handle of ^«hoofc, 
ia the KocKBT. k Oascado of eztrum<< boanty. It falls sheer about 
n hundred feet, on an ontat^mding prong of rock, and, from the 
pn>iig. darts out, fomiiug in the nest 700 feet a rocket-liko cnrve, 
throwing off brilliaQt jela of foam and spray like falling »tun and 
shooting meteors. 

About &00 feet to the left of the Rocket, La Dak Blakchk 
glides qnietly over the edge of the chff in a sheet of foam. Thougli 
It fells through the stimc bright nM the othenf, thv White Lady spre&da 
less violently over th« fa«7o of the cUfE, stretching down to thosurfiice 
of the pool like folds of silver gauze sliaken by giant hands. 

The rarying effects of light and shade at different times of tho 
day are one of the great bcautivs of the falls. la the afternoon, 
rising with the lowering sun, a lovely niinllow spans the waters, and 
BomutimcM at night the raoon throws acnMM the spniy abt^It of faintly- 
tiute<llight. On adark night rocketf;, blazing torcnes, or bundlea of 
burning straw cast over the cliff light the ntging waters with a fitful 
and weird glare. From above the best view of the chasm is gained 
by lying down and peering over a pinnacle of rook which stands 
out from the edge of the eliff. ' I lay on this shelf,' Captain Now]>old 
wrote in August I8I.7, 'and drew ray!«-lf to its odgo, and as I 
stretched my head over the brink, a sight burst on nio wliich I shall 
never forget. I have since looked down tbefnmingand Hulpfauroua 
craters of Etna and Veeavjus, but hare never expenencvd tlio 
feolings which overwhelrocd mo in the 6r8t downward gaze into tho 
abyss at Gersappa. One might gajte for ovrr into that seething 
ehasm whitre thij mighty raaaa of the ShirAvati'a watore cvaselessly 
buriiris it«elf in a miat-ahronded grave.' 

'ITie best general view of tho falls is from the left or Maisur bank. 
From tho right bank of tho river a bamlxw bridge crosses the 
lUja channel to the rocks beyond, llie path then keeps well 
above tho edge of the cUff, among large rocks, over small clinnnels, 
and across seven or eight of the broader streams by mde 
bamboo and palm-«t«m bridges. On the left or Uaisnr hank 

Chapter : 
P1a«es of Ist 


La UaaM] 

■ CluU« nsrdd, IV. «9. 

CBoiiib&y Oatettwr, 



apter XTV. 
of InteTMt 



n well kept path loads throagb ehndy woods to a Doint called 
Walkin's Plntform, which coinmftnils a view HrmsA llitfvhnAra to 
the drep flclt whi-ro tlic wat«rs of ihe Ritja »ni) rlie Hoamr jiiin 
and pliingu iuto tli« pool Ih^Iow. Mvrbidii of swaliiiwg aod pi;fputtB 
circl« and flash thi-ough the air. And slowly as the sun moanta 
then- HbiQes from the dark depths of ihe ohasm a lowl; minhow 
which, as thu sau slope* wiMitward, rixox higher und highiT till iu 
hrilliancy fades in the waning light of evening. From Watkin'a 
Platform ft path through tlie wood loads down a serira of steep 
nU'ps Ui ihe open hill side which slopes to the bed of the riror. In 
Ui(! lower slopes the path ia hlockod by bonldiTS, and all is iiKiiat, 
chill, and 8lipp*Ty from the eviT-fiilling spray. From thd eilge of 
tlio p<K>l i.i H fitie general view of llie falls, of tlio magnificent ragged 
chaiiiti, and of the deep winding gorge throogb which in the courec 
of ages the waters of the river navo untiringly eaten their way. 

Tliwx! uro two bungnlows nwir tlio fiilU. One, whiih in tnnsunrj-- 
bdillaiid tiled, waadeaigncd in IStiS by Cnptitin Cniiikfihauk. of 
the Iloyal Engineers. It stands 1670 Ceet above the sea on the 
edge 01 the cliff overlookiug the chasm and so close to the falls that 
the roar of the waters sometimes shakes its windows and doura. 
This bnngnlow in fully furnished and ha* rwnn for throe viwtors. 
Tiie other bungalow is n small building with mud wnlU and a tiled 
root It stands I8g0 feet aborc the sea, 180 feet higher than 
Captain Cmickshank's bungalow, and further from the falls. It in 
chiefly intended for iho aw of district officur^ iiud has no furnitura 
Near the bungalows ia good stabling for xix hort>es. 

Q eyffl nija Ghat or the Gersappa Pass on tho Honiivnr-Maiaur 
fronttor.iilso' '■ '" ' i "' i^ in the Gorardhangiri range 
of the Sahyiii: f IfouAvar, The villages of 
Kodkani, kii' i^i.uuil .Miucniaiii lie at the head of the 
pass; and Gt-r _ , ,-n, Kudriga, and Alagod nt it* foot. Th« 
pass is fire miles long and Icaa steep than either the Arbail or Ihe 
DorimaiiD passes. The road from Gersappa, twentV'Seven mites to 
Talguppe in Maisur, runs across this pass and is fit for wheeled 
carriages, it iti n provincial road and wa« opened in 16&4 by tho 
Madras QoTerament at a cost of £7848 (Rs. 7g,S40).' Rice, gram, 
pulse, tamarind, and rt'gi oome from Maiaur to Gontappa and 
Honivar, while siltj ot>ir-ropo,couoanul«, oil, areca- nuts, and pepper 
go to Maisnr. 

Goka j lffl or the Cow's Ear,* with in 1881 a population of 4307, 

> B«tor« ISM tbcK WM • fo>»t|Ath ; antl tn 18M tike pan wm iaproTcd and maih 
bnMtd munwh for carta. 

■Tb«UaIltiMialorigla«lt]ienaniaC«w'iEM is, tkM Brshota pntauecd (onr mm 
witli tlie olij«>ct otMtraitinf 1« thMn Uie workof cr«M<oa. Th«<Mgi»r«fnn^to«Mt^ 
anil Brnhma had lo iik»1uc« Rwlnt <ir MliivfriUD hi*fortbMata<jothc work. Bodta 
uiil tbut iu hi* world IImtu *boul<l be notliliiK |M<ri*hibt«. So to ruciltUU wmI 
dcviic an imperuihiitila worlil ha dived, aa6 (or ura nimuntk unilar tliu watvr vith 
which bcf oro the makiiig of As world moa wkx HUmL BroJinu, wourituiof Shit nd 
bb incditiitiMi oa wt impcrulutMe world, hbiwdf mowMcd Uio Mrth luiil (ilhid it u-ith 
lUo. NtnnofBnihiiM'i worid CMnatoi^iv, who, unra^ at tbe iufringtment luf htn 
monopoly of orattion. tdm ttinxtgh the wutor and rtrnck anuwl the bind. Elo 
w»» nuldng ttady to forM hit wmy tlwrou|^ Uh' tud wtth hb tSUBt, uhcD the tarth. 





is a fan>0Q3 place of pilgrimage, about ten miles nortli of Kamta. dutpter ! 
Gokam baa a travellers' bungaiow, a jiolice Etattoti, a VL-rrinfular pi»c« (rflntei 
Hchool, (kod a miinicipality during IW threo moDtlts of Jnnuury 
Fobrunry und Mitroh, ivlivn it i» crowded in oouiiectiou witb Uis 
great iluhaskicnitn fair at the temple of Mahflb^lesbvar. Tbs 
mn'nioipabty was §tiii-ted in 1^0 and m 1881-82 had an iocoine of 
£lo7 (Us, lo'U) sod an espenditure of £96 (Rs.dfiO). 

According to thoGokarn NUhMmya th e boapdarica of Golcar n nn> 
the Sbalmaricad^ or ttn> •On nifii«> li on the north, th e AglmAab iiu 
or Tadri on Ine south, SiddhiJtivar on the east, and the sea on the 
wCfC^^^e'municipal and tbe baij (own of Golcara are boundod on 
fcbe north, east, and south by a semicirvuliir rmnge of low bare 
Iiilloctc.i ; it lies in an oblong plain tiiioii tt> tlie aea in form not 
nnliko (he ear of a cow, in a long a£reicii ot cocoa paltna broken b/ 
plot* of rice-land. The main road runs between stone walls to the 
3e(V-:ihuro Dear tbe great temple of Ifahabalesfavar. On either sido 
of the main rewl i* a row of shops, moat of them tiled and two-storied. 
Thereat of the honites which are one-Btoried and have thatched roofs 
atttnd in gardens. The town has little or no triwlt; except during the 
yearly fair in Fobriinrv, when cattle, copper and bras* vossclf, clothes, 
jewelry, and pruri^i\>us viUiie<I at £&000 to £10,000 (Rs. 50,000- 
ll«. 1,00,000) are sold. The temple of Mababaleshvar is built of 
granite tn the Dravidian etjl a with a shriue and an outer hall, 
rhe ghrinc is thirty feet equaro and aixty foot high and has a 
domed r<K>f ornamented with Rcrjientx, the figures of the goda who 
preside over the eight ([uarterii of heaven, and the ten incamationa 
of Vishnu. Over the roof is a copper spire. The outer hall or moiKlap 
is sixty fcx-t by thirty and faas a square roof. The shrino is said to 
be the work of Vishvakarma,' and tbu copper spire and outer liall 
to hitvo been added by a Tula? UMhman of Eonddpnr in South. 
Kiluara. Thoro is an outer court or chandnuhdla of laterito wibb 

taking the (onn of k cov, lMra|;*<t tb« aanry ffoA, InatOBd el killlns bur, to riaa to 
tlio lurfKw thronah liur uw. 8lilv paMwl tlirougli tliB avw't enr bdii cuno oat cm Um 
Gcilurn beadt. in it jarAea <i|riKHUt« lli>i t«iii|il« »f TinraffMHi, • null ovcm 
<aU«d Railni'jwit or Kntln'i [>Mmge nurka tlie pLwe wImto 81i1t rt^ped od tb* 
■orfaoe ot tli« «Brtli. uid > ilLciui) nnr it Vaa a tmall gnuiito fiount <d Shiv. Wbm 
1m *teppcil ami d( th« cavuni Shic prnBond t« «oakiuno «vMrjtlJii| lif tha Arc ot bb 
wntli. Unilims. Vishnu, ani tti« otntr godit (lian^od by bbt t-nftr, c*m« wli«i« 
ha vUkiA and promiMxl that bo iboald hmro tbo sol* right lo ilMtroy, auil la tima 
viifAA iiw liii {lon-cr, but that fair th« pnuent Brahniii bHocIiI oootinvs to otv*t«, uiil 
Viahna tu [irmciva. Tlw nromiac ol a imiveml final luio paci!i«d SbJT wbo tuineil 
bia uigtv to a portion oi tae tuidy onut, ■ little to tbe north.wtet of Budn-yoni, 
a *pot, whkb bu )dn«a boai known m Rudrs-bhoinl or Rudrt'i Und. Aa thi* spot 
ooul'l aoteontaiD itlt Shiv'a •ng«r he took f r««n the soda uul ttom oil other liviag 
b«bi« their atreajttb nr Mioiiue sail auule as anlmiO ol it ; and (rooi hi* own itrcu^h 
•ad Uio etn:n«tb ol Vltbnn and Brakma h* adorn«>l th« iKVly enatcd uitninl <nth 
Ibreuhoma. The enJoehled world udiriuglwinuouniiiUIiiixl to Vbhtiu, wbortJarrcd 
tbom to Shiv, who pitinJ tbcm aad rectend tbnir Htreufttb, Ri* own atreogtlL 
h* booicd in a ling and wore it rmind hit aerk : Vishnu'* atrmittii h« honaod ta Uio 
^iltariim ■ton* : uid Bcahau's atnngth he pla«»d ta tbe boly lake of Pnahknr bmt 

' Viahnkarma woa prevented frwn fioiihing the t«aip1e ia oao ntfht by Btvnn, who, 
aaiiojrod by Um rioo«v of Gaspati'ededoe t«deprivo him ot tbe li»g of vhioh aa 
Mcoant ia grma on p. '290 note I, became a oxx icd crew \ous Ixrfora daybroak, 
wbao tbe £viiio atchitoct liad fioi*bod the body of the ahiiiw and WM gotog to begia 


IBombay Ouetbor, 


n of Inbtmt 


s tiled roof bnilt br tfao aanie Knnd&pur Br&famaa with the aid ot 
LiDgAyat ^>tg of Qos. ^ho is $ai(l to liuvo pnid for brinf^nff the sto: 
from Talganmelta Tillage aboat twolre miles nortb of Uokara 
Uberallj endowed ibo ttioapla. 

The liny in titc shrine nsea sbmit two inchos above the gron 
BxcciDt tb«t iU top U somewhat fliitt4)Di.>d it is round and Hiigbtl 
tnponng. It is saia to bo tho dtma or wlf- ftHg whivh, in his wrath 
with BrAhma's world, Shiv made of bn own essence and Vrng wore 
on his Q«cl>.* The roota of the ling are aaid to reecblhe lower world. 
In tho outer hall are imagoa of Parvali and GAnpnti with a granito 
bull iu the loiddlo of the ball. Upvmrds of a hundivd lamps ar* 
always bnrning from futida s«t apart for the nurpoao by doroteM. 
EvprytUy th<Tx<ar<^ ottered to the iinjil^OponDds (60 jrAe») of cooked 
rice, which ia afterwnrda eat«Q by the t«tn pit; -servants, /E, "~ 
marmeloa or hel lenves, and the pauehdmnta, milk, ulnrifie<l but 
botwy, curds, and sagnr. Pilgrims perform the paaehdmrita abhisht 
or th« tiv« Doctar worship, paying the uitiistrant 1*. (d tu.) 
Uie god 64. (4 cm.) ; or they perform the eku^iuK rudra tbe elrvKo 
rutira, ia which they pay the priost and ths god 2#. (Re 1} ; or tli« 
taghu rudm, tbe little rudra, m wlu<^ they pay the priast aad the 
god 10». (Ks. 6) ; or the naha nidra, the great rudra, iu wbiab 



> Tlio roHowing tlary i* told of tbj wlf-Kwy 
gn»t t<M al EUni and myrtreiga al Ceylon. 

Kukaai. the notber of lUvaa 
told ttor Km that aL« wm ahiloai | 
wotiUp IO,oni):«)0 fia(ii. Bavao, lailing to ooUod k Iwga ■ uifltbar In Cejlem, 
OMBUlUil auiM^ica wbo told him that Ilia uwritof w«ta)iiptil>e 10,00(1,000 Aim 
Muld bo ailaiued by offoriim as ^^e nMknndoa or M leaf rrcrr day lo the lima mitS* 
by Shlv of bli o«m •ntNtaaoa. ItAran iMigan to porfarm aniiwitiM. an« RIiIt, 

thaiHsMUnif or atf-Mm) wMohtli* god wora raoad hti iwalc. ifluvgiaatoil t)i« boon 
<m <ao<lilioa llwt tlia uag aboiiU aot b« »«t oa thu groouil unttl Bftvan rMohcd bit 
capital. Tha nawa <4 tht* cUt alarmad tb« gadt bamnaa aocb wu tba pvwr af tbe 
Uatf that il it wat woinltl|ipwl for timwjaan la aueotw i on H gars tbo wonbiponr 
power ei|tiBl to MaJitilev. Tliay want wilfa Vithsu to Shir «rbu told th(<m tliat tbe 
onl^ wayof dwpaMMai&f Rivanof tbaliivwai looantnTatolumitiMtoB tbe ground 
bciTora Ktraa rtaclwd C«yton. Tbo goda arTwued that (Uiijiali. th* ton of slilr. 
diagslaed ai a Brthman Uil, abOBhl iMtar at 0<Jkwnt, and, vith tb* btJpof Vikliau, 
ontuit RAran. Tbogodabid tb»nuMl*«B at a abort diataoce f ni«D thatovn oftiokain, 
watdiLng the iMoa at the atrat^iMi. tiM;ali eoisg to tba ac*.ahor« aaw Ril*«n 
coming wltbtbaifiv labia hand. Baraa waia idioiMWiiua wIm waaalwajaamlBt 
loaayWamomiaa aad cvoning pnyon. \Vhen be raaehod Ooksni it waa tfaiM 
la tbo aflaniooB, Mt to toad Rtraii to «iipp»M it vu luuHt Vbtaa hcM bla dbooa 

balora the •an. Rinw hutried to bathe and ay hu ncniiiK 
ba uw a ynuag BMbnun, the dugtiiatd Uanpati, in cbar|[« of a 

On fak «k]r 
ofoowa, Rinn 

allied hlin toboldtbeKajrvbilohuiaidhiaprajeri. <>MitiatlfolKaednniril|iu2iiMa,biit 
oa beiaji prwitJ agreed oa ooadiUcm that tf. after waiting and oalUng oatliia naae 
Ibraa tunai^ Rivan did aotapiMH'. ha nu^ht be Allowed toaet the liaff oa the iiiihihI. 
Farfottliig 8hi*^ tnatmotlDiu. Rivan ave the Unj to Qaiipatf aad walked to tha an. 
Vet lonji alter be bad gone Ganpati odW out hi* uanie thr«« timiw w hurriedly ttat 
before tUkvancMldlun tbe Imiji wa* m tbe gToond. lUvaa tried lo pith up tbe Cnir. 
bat Ha roota bad paiacd deep into tbe oarta. and at, bi nil* of hia matcat oflinta, ha 
bitedtomoielt, Kavanoalled it Mabibalcahvaror the Venr PowotAlKodaadfellin a ' 
taint. The coda laMbed and Ganpati want foetr paocn bahhul tbe Ung to liida hi^lW 
On roeovwlBa owiaJouwwee lUvan, liealdu hiiuaelf witb nge, fluug tbn corariMcf 
tba Naff into tbe air. Part of it fell at Mankahvar, lifteaa niloa aontb of Hoaawri 
■aucbw portatftonvantl, St* lalbaMathcitlotkATarjA fhtnt nt DhWiahiai. five mile* 
•oetb el Knnitai and a foarth at Sbeavad, abont two nrilM aootb-eMt ot KJrwdr. 
AU loar KT«w iato hagt oallad Mqrdoaknr, Qiuvantcahvar, DbMiblar, 




tbey pay tbo prioet and tho (^ £6 (Rh. 60) ; tuxl tho tUi rudra, 'the 
ffrentest ntdra.m which theypny Uirpriratorthegod £1^ (K&I&O).' 
Onco in sixiy yearti Che ground round the Ung is dug and tlic space 
filled with powdered jems and pearls the co&t Iwin^ inet from Uw 
templu fuud& This is culled closing thu oight qnnrtors or atlUaband. 

The temple is manngcd by tmsteeH and nn aix'ouiKunt who are 
■abject to lh« control of a committer appointed bv Govemtncnt under 
ActXX.of IStfiJ. The yearly income of the temple varies from £300 
to £100 (Rs. 3000- Its. 40O0).' In hononr of MuhiibaleshTar a fair i« 
lield every year during the Mahathivr&tra, holiday.*, from tho t«nth 
of tho dark haXl of M<igh to the xeoond of the bright half of Fuiijun 
(Fobruary-March), the tliirteenth and fiftoenth being the great djiya. 
The f»!r is atteudod by 15,000 to 20>000 pilgrims from all parts of 
the Dec(sn and n-ligiotis bvggars from CeutriLl India. Thvy throng 
in large numb«r« from tbe Uiirtecnth and begin to leave from tho 
*ixt«onth. Of late rears the number of pilgrima issaid to have fallen. 
On till! I 4th of Magk, the day after the M^ashivratra. the pilgrims 
fast', and, bcithing in the Koti pool and in tho sml at tb« mouth of 
th(^ T^mmparni rivulet,^ give money to UnUimans, and after wor- 
ahijipitig Ganpati go to worship Mabibaleshrar. On the new-moon 
day, the third day after Ma^hanhivratra, an imago of Shiv abonb a 
foot long is mounted by Havig pnvsts on a largo and elaborately 
carved car which the people drag to iiome distance and again drag 
back to tlie temple.* Every year before the fair care ia taken that 
the placo is kept ctcan, and a hospital assistant is sent every year 
from KArvrir. Tho ehiuf constable and the m^ilatdir, or a sob- 
divisional magt»trat«of Kumta, c^amp at Ookani during the fairdaj's, 
and an additional guard of police is sent from K&rwdr. 

Beaidfs (he great temple of MahiilMileshvar twenty smaller shrinee, 
thirty limjii, and thirty pools and holy but liing- places or (irihg arc 
held in special i-everenoe by SmiLrta and LiugAyaCii IJke Benares, 
Gnyn, Puahkarin Uajpat^na, NiUik-Trimbak, SomofUh in E&lhitLwAr, 
auo other great holy places, Gokam is said to haw boen visited b7> 
or to have been the scene of iht; austenties of, various goda and 

C historic pcrsonagt-s, especially Brahma, Shiv, Visfann, Agastya, 
I, and Rdvau. Almost all the smaller shrines, pools, and bathing- 
plaoce arc called after these and other deities anti peraonagw. Pil- 
grims visiting these various holy places are said to obtain freedom 
from the greatest of sins, to sucuit) hutting merit for tbemaelTee, even 
to send tlieir aiic<!»torA to heaven. Of the smaller shrines and lings, 
opposite the porch to the north, in the open space between thu 
separate hatl or ehandraehdla and tJie temple, U an oblong Iwi) called 


Places of Int 




' Th« Ifrntra ii • book of Mght parts «r hjumt m [nabs of Rodra or ^tr sUeh 
*n> TMiiied while water U pMmd over tki> Ui^. Aoootdiug to Uis impe-rUiae» at th* 

Srevpr nuJc, or the doadlinwa «l Aa ida to be wubol AWay, Um bc«k of bymm to 
u'lis ii T«Kiat*d *1«T«a llmu itdAuki n4ra, 121 tinwa lofAti ur tb« lillU nulra, 
1331 lii9caankiorllMbigw(ra,crH,MllinMi<«M(irtbegnattrtnKbv. Mr. P. B. 

■The atuilmuv, a GoT«min«Bt OMh gntat ol £70 2*. tR*.TOI), and a wccad 
GovcmiiMait gnat «l jtlOO <Ka. 1000) Iron Ua shut dl tho nmbU at laad hold by tlw 
tenplit.Mrvant«. tbe rert b bsm pUsrim rilla. 
* Sm b«k>w p. 399. <S«« Parti. p^l33-113. 

IBombsy GaMttMT, 


tptiT ZIV. 



ShAstralmr, about eighteen loclies long- and about two and a 
hnH feet round. It is of polishod gnmito nntl Ktani3s nn u 
pillar or vrinddvana nndor u small tilt-il roc>f. ImmediAtolj b<'limd 
the Sh&stroahvttr Utig, l>tit b«lnw the level of the Qoor anil under a 
Btnall tiktl ro<j(, is nuotber stone of the same kind and shape called 
Adi Qolcarn. Further east ia a granito figure of Virabhadra, tho 
destrof-er of Daksha's Bacnfivo.' 

About forty paces behind ll>e temple of Mabibalcahrar stivndH Hm 
tat gtJe of Gan|»t i, with a granite image nhotte head beare the 
mai-K of a violent blow. This is tbe Ganpati who cheated lUvaOj 
and he etill bears the mark of the blow which R&Tan gsvo him 
when he found that Ounpnti bad cheated him out of hiK ling. Bhiv 
is enid to havu ri^warded Ganpati for rescuing the touj by onlcrtng 
thm lie shoald be worshipped before Mahibaleshrar. a" pilgrim's 
devotion lospsall merit tf he fails to honour Ganpati before honouring 
Shiv. To Ui« w>uth-<!»Rl of the MdliAbaloshvAr t^-mnio is a largo 
oblong dirty pool called t he Koti-tirth with a broken flight uf «ti^ps. 
The water of this pool is co&aidered to secure for those who bathe ia 
it as mach happiness in hoavon sa bathing in any other hundred 
miUion holy places can bring.^ 

In the middle of this Koti pool is a Imq called the Saplakotishvar 
or j/>rd of the ^jeven Crores of Pools and i>efore it ia the figure of n 

frauite bulf. ~Kear tG^e western corner of the Koti pool is a small 
omed and stone-built ahrinc of KAlbhairaToshvar, the ftirions Shir, 
tbe potron of barlxTH, t/) wlumi swoet mwit-*, friwln and slurcpanj yenrly 
offcrtHl. Ucsities with Kiibhairav'a temple, the aides tif the pond an) 
lined with many Bhrinos and masonry domes called gudit or temples. 
The chief of thrite are Garud Gadi with the figure of Gamd, and 
KHshnapur with a figure of Aiiiruddlia Iho god of lov e and the son oC 
Krislina.' Near these are Agastyeshvar, Kadmeshvar, and Va»hishtll- 
tehvar, lings said to be set up by Agastja, Vashisiha, and other ^agos. 
Totbeeoet of the Koti pond is the small temple of Sbankar-N^rdyan 
who is half Shiv lutlf Vi-thuu.* The atory vs that tbo Ash-giant 

■ Sm MoorV ninitu PuithMn. 177. 

* Tlie Kari nopl in soii] to b>vt> bc«ti I romJtt to C^kara fpai tfca Hlmil» yas. Ovw 
whfii fi ^^rnd , VUhnn'« man -Tultuni, iru wuiatMymllBBnif ttWRIIAnlr on MdiuI 
Mem thi.- Bnftk* Ba^I/acc or l/ urmut h. Ro caUfltl 8^ Tum In lii* U«k aiiil Hair 
wcat. Jute u be r»^bc{I ilicSnatMliiinjt peak of H«m. tW aliOil* of BraliBia, tiM 
■tte qI niiui)' holy pooU uid tbe dwvlliiij: iif numj now. Bud Cks writcglml <nil ijl hia 
laloD* uid glided into > hole in the niimuUlii into vthluh iiuiid itoiiMiMt follow hiai, 
Tbtnnljrwny of Bating nt Bad Paod wiw lonuti I1m< hill into tlic wo. when Uic taitko 
would bofaivcd to l«avc hi* hldinjc. t Urud f mk tlir hill in hulmk uid imdc icatheaoL. 
Tkb tnaUneiit of hia hill cramgcd Itfaihinii nod h« Inki on the rock tbo uTi^bt of three 
WMrUa- Ound p rwc d on grauitng iind«r the load. At GoluirB tbe M^a An 
from lii« Mivc liMTd Gomd'a |[iwn», >u(l. nun-cd with pity, bold the hill on t 
liBniluidai4tl*dlt tothosanth-Rut